Trends in the Periodic Table
Trends in the Periodic Table <ul><li>Properties of elements change in a predictable way as you move through the periodic t...
Summary
Trends in the Periodic Table <ul><li>Properties of elements change in a predictable way as you move through the periodic t...
Atomic Radius <ul><li>Atomic size  increases  as you move  from top to bottom in a family . This is because the  energy le...
Atomic Radius
Ionic Radii <ul><li>When an atom  loses an electron  or becomes  a positive ion , it  becomes smaller . The repulsive forc...
Ionic Radii
Atomic and Ionic Radii
Ionization Energy <ul><li>The energy required to remove an electron from an atom to form an ion. </li></ul><ul><li>The ion...
Ionization Energy <ul><li>Another is that the electron is shielded by the inner sub-shell, thus  lesser energy reaches the...
Ionization Energy
Ionization Energy
Electron Affinity <ul><li>The amount of energy  released or absorbed  when an atom  accepts an electron  giving it a  nega...
Electron Affinity
Electronegativity <ul><li>The ability of an element to attract an electron. </li></ul><ul><li>The scale of relative electr...
Electronegativity
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Trends in the periodic table

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Trends in the periodic table

  1. 1. Trends in the Periodic Table
  2. 2. Trends in the Periodic Table <ul><li>Properties of elements change in a predictable way as you move through the periodic table. These systematic variations are called periodic trends . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Summary
  4. 4. Trends in the Periodic Table <ul><li>Properties of elements change in a predictable way as you move through the periodic table. These systematic variations are called periodic trends . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Atomic Radius <ul><li>Atomic size increases as you move from top to bottom in a family . This is because the energy level increases when you go down the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic size decreases as you move from left to right . This is because the number of electrons and protons increases but there are no changes in the energy level, thus increasing the attracting forces making the radius smaller. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Atomic Radius
  7. 7. Ionic Radii <ul><li>When an atom loses an electron or becomes a positive ion , it becomes smaller . The repulsive force of electrons decreases drawing the electrons closer to the nucleus . The result is a smaller radius. </li></ul><ul><li>When an atom gains an electron or becomes a negative ion , it becomes larger . This is due to the increase of the repulsive force of electrons increasing the radius of the ion . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ionic Radii
  9. 9. Atomic and Ionic Radii
  10. 10. Ionization Energy <ul><li>The energy required to remove an electron from an atom to form an ion. </li></ul><ul><li>The ionization increases when an electron is removed, because once this happens, the protons will have higher energy drawing them closer to the nucleus. The attracting force increases thus requiring more energy to release the second electron. </li></ul><ul><li>The ionization energy decreases from top to bottom because when the energy level increases , the electrons moves farther away from the nucleus decreasing the attracting force from the nucleus. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ionization Energy <ul><li>Another is that the electron is shielded by the inner sub-shell, thus lesser energy reaches the last electron . </li></ul><ul><li>The ionization energy increases from left to right because there are more electrons in the outer most energy level , this increases the attraction of the electrons and protons thus pulling them closer to the nucleus . </li></ul><ul><li>The closer they are to the nucleus, the harder for them to be removed. Thus, requires more ionization energy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ionization Energy
  13. 13. Ionization Energy
  14. 14. Electron Affinity <ul><li>The amount of energy released or absorbed when an atom accepts an electron giving it a negative charge . For most elements, energy is released when an atom adds an electron. This is also the measure of an element to attract an electron to form a negative ion . </li></ul><ul><li>Electron affinity increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom in a group or family. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Electron Affinity
  16. 16. Electronegativity <ul><li>The ability of an element to attract an electron. </li></ul><ul><li>The scale of relative electronegativities, which F is the most electronegative, the value was developed by Linus Pauling. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronegativity increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom . This would tell that metals have the tendencies to lose electrons and the non-metals gain electrons . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Electronegativity
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