Top 10 Things to Know About theIsraeli—Palestinian Conflict
1. Claims to the Land Israelis Palestinians Jewish people with Muslim Arabs with religious and historical religious and historical ties to the land ties to the landBoth groups controlled the territory at various points in time, aswell as other groups. The last group to have control over theterritory before the conflict “began” was the Ottoman Empire.
2. Promises Made• 1916 Hussein—McMahon Correspondence: British promised to set up an independent Arab state across all Arab land that was part of the Ottoman Empire if they would begin a rebellion against the Ottomans—which helped the Allies win the war (WWI)• 1917 Balfour Declaration: Britain pledged to help establish a national home for Jews in Palestine. British hoped to gain support from Jews in America to urge US to join WWI
3. 1920 British Mandates With the end of WWI, Britain took control of the territory and broke it into two states: Palestine and Transjordan.
4. 1947 UN Partition Britain handed over responsibility for solving the Zionist-Arab problem to the UN in 1947. The UN set up a special committee which recommended splitting the territory into separate Jewish and Palestinian states. Palestinian representatives, known as the Arab Higher Committee, rejected the proposal; their counterparts in the Jewish Agency accepted it. The plan was never implemented.
5. Events in 1948•British leave Palestine Mandate.•Israel declares itself an independent state.• Arab states refused to recognize Israel.•Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraqforces invade Israel•Armistice (cease-fire) was signed with Egypttaking control of the Gaza Strip and Jordantaking the West Bank.
6. 1967 Six Day War• Israel launched surprise attack to destroyEgyptian and Syrian air forces• Took control of the Sinai Peninsula• Drove Jordanian army out of the WestBank• Took control of strategic position ofGolan Heights in Syria
7. Notable Peace Settlements1979 Camp David Accords Egypt made peace with Israel. They agreed to recognize Israel’s sovereignty. In return, Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula and agreed to allow limited autonomy for Palestinians1993 Oslo Peace Accords Palestine agrees to recognize Israel’s sovereignty and vice versa Israel agrees to withdraw from Palestinian territories and allow them more self-rule.
8. Palestinian Leadership1964: Palestinian Liberation Organization formed1994: Palestinian Authority formed as governing bodyover the Gaza Strip and town of Jericho on the WestBank with the signing of the Oslo Accord.2006, split within PA with Hamas winning electionsagainst Fatah (Hamas controls Gaza Strip, Fatahcontrols West Bank)
9. CurrentlyPalestine received non-member observer state statuswithin the United Nations.They hold the same status as the Vatican. Switzerlandonce held this status.Palestine wants to go back to 1947 boundaries.Palestine believes this change in status will help themin peace negotiations with Israel.
10. Items They Need to Resolvethe status of Jerusalemthe fate of the settlements (in Gaza Strip and WestBank)the precise location of bordersthe right of return of Palestinian refugeeswater rights and security arrangementsIsraeli security