What is a colony?a country or area that is ruled byanother country
What is colonialism?a policy in which a country rules other nations and develops trade for its own benefit
Europe’s 3 G’s of Colonialism God: Missionaries established colonies to promote Christianity Gold: Colonies provided resources that helped the economy of European states Glory: Colonies were a sign of power
Beginnings of Colonialism1400’s: explorers sailed westward for Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere instead Started colonizing the territories 1776: US declared independence 1800-1824: Latin American states declared independence
Top Colonizers United Kingdom France Portugal Spain Germany Italy Denmark Netherlands
French Colonial PracticesTried to assimilate into French culture Educated an elite group to provide administrative leadership
British Colonial Practices Created different government structures and policies for various territories This helped to protect diverse cultures, local customs and educational systems
End of Colonialism Most African and Asian colonies became independent after WWII Boundaries of the new states coincided with the former colonial boundaries (but not always)
Few Remaining Colonies US: Puerto Rico, Guam, US Virgin Islands France: French Polynesia, Mayotte and New Caledonia Netherland: Netherland’s Antilles United Kingdom: Pitcairn Island
Political Legacy of ColonialismColonial political systems were un- democratic—no mechanism for the people to officially express their opinions
Political Legacy of ColonialismLaw and order was a primary objective of colonial governments— more money spent on police force and army then spent on education, housing and healthcare combined.
Political Legacy of ColonialismColonial governments lacked the income and revenue needed to develop a government system able to go beyond maintaining law and order—unable to provide basic infrastructure (roads/communication networks) or social services (education, healthcare, housing)
Economic Legacy of ColonialismEmphasis on exploitation of raw materials for export—profits from export sent back to Europe and not spent to promote social and economic developments in the colonies.
Economic Legacy of ColonialismHigh demand for labor—mass migration of Africans to labor in poor working conditions for long hours and inadequate pay
Social Legacy of ColonialismMovement of people—resulted in dislocation of peoples that impacted society and culture (beliefs and practices were challenged in these migrations)
Social Legacy of ColonialismDislocation of families—men recruited to work in mines/plantations, leaving women and adolescents to take on new rolesExtended family structure changed to nuclear families
Social Legacy of ColonialismUrbanization—occurred rapidly and resulted in changes to economic activities and occupation, and the way people lived
Social Legacy of ColonialismReligious Changes—prior to colonialism less than 5% were Christians, now almost 50% of Africans identify themselves as ChristiansFrench and British discouraged mission work in Muslim areas—Islam able to consolidate in certain African colonies
Social Legacy of ColonialismEducation—Koranic schools became widespread and students learned Arabic (to read the Koran) in Islamic areas.Christian missionaries taught Africans to read the Bible in their own language to help convert them.