The Evolution of the Sahana System, Community and Standards @ Taiwan 2010

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The Evolution of the Sahana System, Community and Standards @ Taiwan 2010

  1. 1. Evolution of the Sahana System, Community and Standards Sahana Conference 30th July 2010, Taipei Chamindra de Silva SAHANA, Director and CTO VIRTUSA, Head of Strategic Initiatives
  2. 2. “In the long history of humankind (and animal kind, too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed” - Charles Darwin
  3. 3. Agenda  Before Evolution... Environment?  Sahana System & Community Interaction  Mutation of Sahana so far..
  4. 4. Environment: What is a Disaster? “A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses which exceeds the ability of the affected society to cope using only its own resources” Source:UNDP
  5. 5. Some Disaster by Type and Impact
  6. 6. A more specific definition UK Home Office Definition: ”Any Event or Circumstance (happening with or without warning) that causes or threatens death or injury, disruption to the community on such a scale that the effects cannot be dealt with by the emergency services, local authorities and other organizations as part of their normal day today activities”
  7. 7. The Response Community Disasters Coordination 10s of Orgs 100s of Orgs 1000s – 1 Mill Government Relief UN, NGOs Local Relief Local Authorities, Police, Red Cross, OCHA, CARE, Spontaneous volunteers, Army, Fire fighters, WHO, Sarvodaya, etc corporate village + Authorized coord + focused on people communities, friends and + Well trained + trusted to accept aid family + Accountable +/- less well trained + first responders +/- Big picture relief + accountable + lot of capacity (e.g. national security) - Donor driven + instant aid - Procedures create - narrow focus / fragmented - not trained bottlenecks - sometimes competing - focus unknown - Overloaded - not accountable Effective Collaboration and Coordination! Relief Victims
  8. 8. Objectives of Disaster Management  Achieve survival of maximum number of people and suffering of the minimum  Restore essential services ASAP  Restore order to chaos  Inform the public  Coordinate Relief  Provide a foundation for subsequent Recovery
  9. 9. Typical Problems Responders have work on..  Search And Rescue  Tracing Missing People  Evacuation  Trauma Counseling  Setting up Shelters  Assuring Security of  Effective Distribution Affected Areas of Aid  Protecting Children  Management of Donars and Donations  Rehabilitation Live saving decisions need to be made very fast! The best decisions are the most informed ones
  10. 10. Situation Awareness Defn: “Perception of the environment critical to decision-makers in complex and dynamic situations”  Studies show, lack of SA has been identified as one of the primary factors in accidents attributed to human error (Hartel, Smith, & Prince, 1991; Merket, Bergondy, & Cuevas-Mesa, 1997; Nullmeyer, Stella, Montijo, & Harden, 2005)  Important especially in high information flow, high consequential impact domains (lives at stake)  Air Traffic Control, Military Command and Control, Emergency Response, Disaster Management
  11. 11. SA in Emergency Management Well Trained Well defined Responders Information Flows Information Situation Act Awareness Information Decide Well defined Response Process
  12. 12. Disaster => Unexpected info Sources  Government & Emergency Services relief capacity has been exceeded or crippled  To match relief capacity boundary of response effort extends to external groups (NGOs, Civil Society, Foreign Aid, UN)  Core Decision Makers need to consult a wider group for better situation awareness  Information has to be gathered from non- traditional “uninitiated” sources for better Situation Awareness
  13. 13. SA in Disaster Management Multiple Disparate Information Sources Diverse Responders Information Relief workers, Info Overload Volunteers r ma Large delta tion to reality Information Situation Act Awareness?? Information tio n rma Info Decide n a tio orm Inf Multiple Parallel independent Processes
  14. 14. If you were to do it manually 2  Channels N(N-1)/2 = O(N ) 5  Information Lost in relay and propagation 10  Redundant Data Collection 8  Inconsistent Terminology  Manual Collation / 28 Calculation 16  Delayed Situation Awareness 120
  15. 15. How Can I.T. Help?  Scalable management of information  No stacks of forms and files to manage  Efficient distribution of information  Accessibility of information on demand  Automatic collation and calculation  No delay for assessments and calculations  Live Situation Awareness  Reports are updated live as data goes in IT Improves Manageability ( I α H x V / M )
  16. 16. Thus the Sahana Project  What is it?  A free & open source portable web tool  Sub-applications designed to address the common Disaster Management probs  A RAD platform  Main Goals  Bring Efficiencies to Disaster Coordination and Prompt Response  Facilitate the effective information exchange between responders and beneficiaries  Primary focus is to help victims
  17. 17. The Historic Trigger: Tsunami 2004 26 December 2004  At least 226,000 dead  Up to 5 million people lost homes, or access to food and water  1 million people left without a means to make a living  At least $7.5 billion in the cost of damages
  18. 18. How Sahana Started Tsunami 2004 Builds Urgent Sri Lanka Urgent Requirements Requirements IT Sahana Community Software IT Community = LSF + LKLUG + IT Industry + Academia
  19. 19. The First Community  “We just wanted to help our countrymen”  We used our skills to provide a tool  Operational model - “Chaos”  400 IT volunteers  1st week 24hr development  Major releases almost daily  Applications  Missing Person Registry, Organization Registry, Request management System, Camp Registry
  20. 20. They Build it for the CNO
  21. 21. Independent Hazard Info. Center
  22. 22. Lessons Learned  Surprisingly no one had built such a system before!  The open source community coupled with the humanitarian spirit is a tremendous catalyst for change BUT  NEVER build a disaster management system from scratch during a disaster again!!
  23. 23. Inspired the Second Phase of Sahana Proposal Objectives  Build a scalable disaster management sys  Develop Sahana application framework  Develop Initial set of core applications  Make it Open Source and take it global LSF Core team was funded by SIDA for one year
  24. 24. Collaborative Virtual Helpdesk zone of trust (legislation)
  25. 25. Peer 2 Peer Pony Express
  26. 26. Sahana Phase II A Global Need (2005) Builds Requirements Requirements LSF ++SIDA Funds SIDA Funds Team Sahana Phase II FOSS Software LSF Team = “Techies” and FOSS Enthusiasts
  27. 27. “Plugin” / Platform Pattern Core Module Core Module New Module New Module Framework and Platform Services  The Plugin / Modular Architecture pattern  Enables evolutionary parallel development  “Survival of the fittest module”  Consistent Base Platform for RAD  Themed UI, Support diverse multiple-clients  Security, Data management, Error handling  GIS, WS, Reporting Toolkits  Eg. Firefox, Symbian, Android, PHP, Eclipse
  28. 28. Why we choose LAMP?  (L)AMP – (Linux) Apache MySQL PHP  Free and Open Source end to end  Lightweight (Process and Space)  PHP is easy scripting language to pick up  Rapid “natural” web app development  PHP encourages stateless sessions => horizontally scalable  LAMP Packages: WAMP, XAMPP
  29. 29. Who is doing What, Where & When?  Registry of operating relief organizations  Coverage of Services  Self-Allocation and Reporting  Contact Information The Organization Registry helps maintain data (contact, services, region, etc) of organizations groups and volunteers working in the disaster
  30. 30. Tracking Missing People / Casualties  Shared Bulletin Board of lost / found  Computer based search heuristics  Tracking Family units  Analyzing networks of connections The Missing People Registry helps track and find missing, people
  31. 31. Matching Aid to Ground Realities  Estimating Needs  Matching Aid to Ground Needs  Inventories/Catalog  Quantities  Expiration dates  Re-order levels  Tracking Allocation The Request Management System tracks all requests and helps match pledges for support, aid and supplies to fullfilment
  32. 32. Collaborative Situation Mapping Collaborative Map of  Hazards / Incidents  Shelters (IDPs)  (field) Hospitals  Organizations  Responders  Stores  etc The Shelter Registry helps track data on all shelters setup following the Disaster
  33. 33. Initial Development Model  Lightweight Software Engineering Project team with Open Source community participation and advocacy REASON  Had to deliver on a timeliness and deliverables of a funded SIDA project  We had to have an initial “complete” app to attract community participation  e.g. Open Office, Mozilla
  34. 34. The community + FOSS cycle 2006 Builds & Refines LSF + Global Community Sahana Software Attracts & Grows
  35. 35. What is Free and Open Source?  Free as in Speech  Freedom to access, run, modify and redistribute  Open Source  Is a set of principles and practices that promotes access to the design and production of goods and knowledge  Open APIs, Open Code (Blueprints), Open Standards  Regulated by FOSS Licenses  GPL (FSF), LPGL (FSF), Apache (ASF), BSD, CPL  Based on Copyright law, but spun on it's head (copyleft)  Rights are passed perpectually to users  GPL have been proven in court e.g. FSF vs BT  Software is special  Open Source software becomes a global public good
  36. 36. Alignment to Humanitarian Values  Freely Available to deploy  No discrimination on access (Red Cross CC #2)  Ability to “leave technology behind” (RC CC #6)  Rapid customization to actual needs with code  L10N and integration (RC CC #5)  Building local capacities & self-reliance (RC CC #6)  Open system => Transparent and trustworthy  Better acceptance than “foreign” proprietary systems  Countries/NGOs can collaborate to develop  Get the best minds from the world to participate in building the software  This should be a global public good  Build on each others work by including it in project Called Humanitarian-FOSS or H-FOSS
  37. 37. Other Modules Get Added  Disaster Victim (IDP) Module  Volunteer Management Module  Inventory Management  Evacuation Management  Data Import / Export  Reporting Module
  38. 38. Mobile Research POCs + Synchronization USB Disk / Laptop OLPC PDA
  39. 39. Phase II later stages and early 2007  Team composition  LSF Core team providing development and regular releases  Global community providing design input and helping to spread awareness  Leadership  Sahana Committee  50% developers and 50% domain experts  “Meritocracy on contribution”
  40. 40. It continues.. forged in the fire Incident or Dire Need Builds & Refines Urgent Sahana Urgent Requirements Requirements Community Sahana Software Attracts & Grows
  41. 41. Incidents Sahana has responded to  Gov-NADRA, for Asian Quake in Pakistan – 2005  Officially deployed and integrated to NADRA (Pakistan Government) to track all victims  Gov, 3 Disaster in Philippines – 2006  Officially deployment to track all victims with by Philippines Government + pre-deployment  Yogjarkata Earthquake, Indonesia – 2006  Deployed by ACS, Indonesian Reliefsource  NYC prepardness in US – 2007  New york city evacuation management  Gov, Earthquake, Peru – 2007  Gov, Shizuan Earthuake in China – 2008  Deployed by Police to reunite families Sahana Downloaded overs 25,000 times
  42. 42. Lessons Learned on Deployment  System should be endorsed and/or authorized by Government (and UN)  IT Literacy and User familiarity  System should be easy to install  If possible pre-deploy and train!  A Sahana local response team is ideal  Local cultural and operational knowledge  Build resilient systems (=> simple, flexible)  Standards are very important for acceptance
  43. 43. It continues.. forged in the fire Incident or Dire Need Builds & Refines Urgent Sahana Urgent Requirements Requirements Community Software + Best Practices Attracts & Grows
  44. 44. Deployment Model: China Example  Multiple local groups reach out to Sahana  Call out made in Sahana community  One initiative progresses further  L10N / Promotion, QA, Deployment  IBM-China for Chendu Gov and then Police  24x7 Technical Support  LSF, Trinity College, Community Individuals  Funds and Sponsorship  IBM-Foundation  40+ Families reunited within first few days
  45. 45. Endorsements and Awards  New Free Software Foundation (FSF) award for “Social Benefit” won and inspired by Sahana  Sourceforge Project of the Month, June 2006  Software 2006, CA USA Good Samaritan Award  One of the top 10 Open Source Project to keep an eye on – Network World article  Recognized by forums such as: − US WSIS, ISCRAM, UNDP IOSN, StrongAngel, AsiaOSS Symposium, Emergency Communications Asia
  46. 46. The Community Spreads (2007) An Open Global Community (300+)
  47. 47. The 4 Communities of Sahana Free & Open Emergency Source Management Community Community SAHANA Humanitarian Academic Community Research (NGOs) Community
  48. 48. Different Perspectives of the elephant “Cool LAMP “Innovative Development but not mature Platform!” EM System” SAHANA “By the “A great Community Research for the POC Community” Platform”
  49. 49. PMC and Board is Formed  2007 LSF institutes the PMC and Board  To take Sahana to the next level  Sahana Committee => PMC  Board is appointed by LSF  Open Source and EM Profiles + Some PMC members  This group was given the mandate to take Sahana to the next level
  50. 50. Sahana Now  Multiple Projects  Sahana Phase 2 → Sahana Agasti (PHP)  Sahana Eden (Python)  Sahana Mobile (J2ME, Android)  Sahana Standards (W3C, OASIS)  Mission stays the same  One Diverse Community Community
  51. 51. System to System Integration  Typically there are multiple systems  How do we get them to work with each other?  Standard  The common language systems use to talk  Examples  CAP, EDXL, TWML, TSO, PFIF  Importance  For better integration and automation  To better future proof your IT infrastructure  To permit an upgrade plan for data
  52. 52. Deciding on the right Standards  Factors W3C EIIF XG  Who controls it? for help  Is it an Open Standard? How Open?  How well is it adopted in popular systems?  Is it targetted to our demographic?  Has it being used in the field?  Level of Openess of an “Open Standard”  Royalty Free  Open Process for developing and maintaining standard  Available Open Source implementation
  53. 53. Reactive to Proactive improvements Preparedness Projects Builds & Refines F I National L Sahana National Requirements Requirements T E Community Software + R Best Practices Attracts & Grows
  54. 54. In Conclusion  Sahana was and continues to be forged in the fire (it keeps it very real)  Sahana Neutral A-Political Solution where ownership is given to the end user  The FOSS benefits align to humanitarian values very well  A diverse community is fundamental to the continued success of the project  Sahana is now more than just Software
  55. 55. Take Part in the R-Evolution Join us in taking Sahana to the next level Join the Sahana Community! http://www.sahana.lk
  56. 56. APPENDIX
  57. 57. Assessing Software Maturity  Models: OSMM, OpenBRR, QSOS  Rating that measures and quantifies:  Functionality  Usability, Quality  Scalability  Reliability  Fault Tolerance (BCP)  Security  Performance  Adoption  Vendor Lock In  Support
  58. 58. If Sharing has Constraints  Data Sensitivity Levels Da ta Se ns i ti v i ty  Authentication, Authorization, Access
  59. 59. The Tug: Data Access vs Protection Access Protection  Shared Data  Trusted Orgs only  Legal backing  Integrated  Secured WAN  Empowering  Access Control Responders / Orgs Lists  Data Classification levels  Social Networking  Encrypted data
  60. 60. Sahana has different priorities Enterprise Application Sahana Multi-Node, Many Replicable Mobile Single- Dependant Fixed Nodes Node with low spec Deployment and high concurrency hardware require + USB Compiled for efficiency Low learning curve, easily and legacy mature modifiable scripting Technology programming language language Simple “Intuitive” Self contained complex Architecture with OS Architecture with high dependencies and low Architecture cyclometic complexity cyclomatic complexity Low network throughput Highly interactive, XHTML UI accessible on User Interface responsive RIA application PDAs

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