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BCS - Compute & Network Technology

BCS - Compute & Network Technology

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Lecture 1 Lecture 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Computer & Network Technology Chamila Fernando BSc(Eng) Hons,MBA,MIEEE
  • Lecture 1: Introduction       Overview History of Computers Application Areas Types of Computers Computer Configurations Computers as Information Processors Lecture 1: Introduction 2
  • Lecture 1: Introduction  Basic Machine Hardware Architecture     CPU Memory/Storage Main Memory Input/Output Devices  Basic Machine Software      Flowcharts Languages Operating Systems System Utilities Applications  What’s in Computer & Network Technology..? Lecture 1: Introduction 3 View slide
  • Overview of Part 1  Number system: how is information    represented in a computer. Boolean Algebra: the basis for logic design and manipulation of information. Logic gates: what are the gates used, and how circuits can be made from gates. Function simplification: to reduce the size of design, increase speed, etc. Lecture 1: Introduction 4 View slide
  • Overview of Part 1  Combinational circuits: simple circuit design without memory.     Sequential circuits: circuit design with memory. Disk: storage techniques. Bus: internal communication. I/O: devices, technology, etc. Lecture 1: Introduction 5
  • History of Computers  Abacus invented in Babylonia in 3000BC  Adding machine by Blaise Pascal (1642)  Difference engine and the analytical engine by Charles Babbage (1842)  IBM first electromechanical computer (using relays) designed by Howard Aiken (1937) was based on punched cards.  used to calculate tables of mathematical functions Lecture 1: Introduction 6
  • History of Computers  1st Generation Computers (1940s to early 1950s) – based on vacuum tubes technology.  1943 – ENIAC: first fully electronic computer, designed by John Mauchly  1944 – Mark I: Howard Aiken  1946 – EDVAC: first stored program computers, designed by John von Neumann  2nd Generation Computers (late 50s to early 60s) – based on transistors technology.  more reliable, less expensive, low heat dissipation  IBM 7000 series, DEC PDP-1 Lecture 1: Introduction 7
  • History of Computers  3rd Generation Computers (late 60s to early 80s) – integrated circuits (IC).  IBM 360 series, DEC PDP-8  IC – many transistors packed into single container  low prices, high packing density  4th Generation Computers (present day) LSI/VLSI  small size, low-cost, large memory, ultra-fast PCs to supercomputers  5th Generation Computers (future)  massively parallel, large knowledge bases, intelligent  Japan, Europe and US advanced research programs Lecture 1: Introduction 8
  • History of Computers  Web sites  History of Computers (http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~sf100/c1f7.htm)  ACM Timeline of Computing History (http://www.computer.org/computer/timeline)  The Virtual Museum of Computing (http://www.comlab.ox.ac.uk/archive/other/museums/computin g.html)  IEEE Annals of the History of Computing (http://www.computer.org/annals/)  and others (surf the web) Lecture 1: Introduction 9
  • Application Areas  Scientific: weather forecasting, simulation, spaceprogram.  one of the earliest application areas.  heavy computation but small amount of data.  Commercial: accounting, banking, inventory, sales.  changes nature of business – information is money.  high data throughput, simple calculations.  Manufacturing: numerical control, CAD/CAM, integration.  graphics, interfacing, device-drivers, networks. Lecture 1: Introduction 10
  • Application Areas  Real-time & Control System: air-traffic control, aircraft,nuclear power station.  real time, very fast, safety-critical.  Educational & Recreational  CAI software, multi-media, games, Internet, World Wide Web.  Telecommunication  Network, SCV, Singapore One. Lecture 1: Introduction 11
  • Types of Computers  Supercomputers:  very fast (Gflops) but expensive machine($10m), vector or parallel processors, used in scientific applications and simulations.  Mainframes:  fast (>10mips) but expensive ($1m), high-throughput, used in large commercial organisations, support many concurrent users interactively.  Mini-computers:  fast but affordable ($200k), used in medium-sized organisations (e.g. SoC), support multiple users. Lecture 1: Introduction 12
  • Types of Computers  Workstations:  affordable ($20k) and fast single-user systems (20 riscs mips), good graphics capabilities, engineering, network-based computing.  Micro/Personal/Home Computers:  cheap and affordable ($3k), transportable, home use, good for games and as educational tool, word processing, suitable for small enterprise. Lecture 1: Introduction 13
  • Computer Configurations  Stand-alone computer system  Modem connection Lecture 1: Introduction 14
  • Computer Configurations  Terminals-host connections Lecture 1: Introduction 15
  • Computer Configurations  Network of computers Lecture 1: Introduction 16
  • Computers as Information Processors Driver Example: An automobile augments our power of locomotion. A computer is a device capable of solving problems according to designed program. It simply augments our power of storage and speed of calculation. Lecture 1: Introduction Programmer 17
  • Computers as Information Processors  Unlike previous inventions, computers are special because they are general-purpose. general-purpose  Could be used to perform a variety of tasks.  Computer = Hardware + Software. Software  Hardware: physical components for computation/processing; should be simple, fast, reliable.  Software: set of instructions to perform tasks to specifications; should be flexible, user-friendly, sophisticated. Lecture 1: Introduction 18
  • Computer as Information Processors Computer are Information Processors Raw data Computer system Processed information Data Units: 1 bit (binary digit): one of two values (0 or 1) 1 byte: 8-bits 1 word: 1, 2, or 4 bytes, or more (depends on ALU) Lecture 1: Introduction 19
  • Basic Machine Hardware Architecture  Main Components:  CPU (Central Processing Unit: controls devices and processes data).  Memory: stores programs and intermediate data. Memory  Input Devices: accept data from outside world. Devices  Output Devices: presents data to the outside world. Devices  An analogy with Human Information Processors:  CPU – brain’s reasoning powers  Memory – brain’s memory  Input Devices – eyes, ears, sensory sub-system  Output Devices – mouth, hands, facial and body expressions Lecture 1: Introduction 20
  • Basic Machine Hardware Architecture Headphone (Output) Monitor (Output) Hardware box (contains processor, memory, buses etc.) Mouse and Keyboard (Input) Lecture 1: Introduction 21
  • Basic Machine Hardware Architecture Network card and CRT card Motherboard (Printed Circuit Board) Floppy disk drive and Hard disk drive Cage for mounting drives Slots for RAM chips Processor © above picture: Patterson and Hennessy Lecture 1: Introduction 22
  • Hardware – CPU  CPU = control unit + ALU + registers  Control Unit : monitors and directs sequences of instructions  Execution Cycle (repeated):  fetch (next instruction)  decode  execute Lecture 1: Introduction 23
  • Hardware – CPU  ALU: performs simple arithmetic and logical operations.  Examples: Add, subtract, and, or, invert, increment etc. A select B R = A op B ALU n-bits operations R Lecture 1: Introduction 24
  • Hardware – CPU  Registers: temporary results + status information  ACC (accumulator) – current data  PC (program counter) – points to next instruction  IR (instruction register) – current instruction  MA (memory address) – address to read/write  MB (memory buffer) – data to read/write Lecture 1: Introduction 25
  • Hardware – Memory/Storage  Purpose: to store program and data.  Desirable Traits: fast access, large capacity, economical, non-volatile.  However, most memory devices do not have all these traits. Lecture 1: Introduction 26
  • Hardware – Memory/Storage  Solution: hierarchical combination Fast, expensive (small numbers), volatile registers main memory disk storage magnetic tapes Lecture 1: Introduction Slow, cheap (large numbers), non-volatile 27
  • Hardware – Main Memory  Fast BUT volatile (need power to maintain data)  Logical structure – table of memory cells/units. addresses M A R M B R address 8 bits or more 0 1 2 3 memory cells data 2m-3 2m-2 2m-1 Lecture 1: Introduction 28
  • Hardware – Main Memory  Memory cells may be grouped into pages (say 512 consecutive words per page).  Units  1 KBytes = 1024 (or 210) bytes  1 MBytes = 1024 Kbytes (or 220 bytes)  1 GBytes = 1024 Mbytes (or 230 bytes) Lecture 1: Introduction 29
  • Hardware – Input/Output Devices  Input devices: read/accept data (into computer) devices  obsolete: card reader, paper tape reader  present: keyboard, mouse, light-pen, optical char reader  future: voice and vision recognition.  Output devices: write/display data (to users) devices  obsolete: card & paper punch, teletype  present: VDU (visual display unit), printers, plotters, graphics display, sound  future: voice synthesis. Lecture 1: Introduction 30
  • Basic Machine Software  Software is the key to making computers general purpose.  Software are often built hierarchically, with layers of software providing successive higher-level of abstractions.  This structure is reflected by the following onion layer view of software. Lecture 1: Introduction 31
  • Basic Machine Software Hardware Operating system System utilities Applications/User programs Lecture 1: Introduction 32
  • Software – Flowcharts  The sequence of instructions of a software/program can be graphically specified using flowcharts. flowcharts  The flowchart technique maybe a little outdated but could still be used in a clear manner for simple problems.  As an example, the procedure to find the roots of a quadratic equation, ax2 + bx + c = 0, can be written using the following equation: roots = (−b ± b 2 − 4ac ) / 2a Lecture 1: Introduction 33
  • Software – Flowcharts  This procedure can be coded in the following flowchart: Read a,b,c roots = (−b ± b 2 − 4ac ) / 2a a=0? yes Write not quadratic no d:=b2 - 4ac = Write real root Lecture 1: Introduction d>0 d=0 d<0 > Write real roots < Write complex roots 34
  • Software – Languages  All programs will have to be coded in some programming language – usually text-based.  The native language of machine is called machine language. language  This consists of a set of primitive instructions, coded in numbers.  An example is "0310 0412 0512". But can you understand what it does? Lecture 1: Introduction 35
  • Software – Languages  Possible to use more human-readable mnemonic instructions.  These are know as assembly language instructions. Mnem onic Descript ion ADD 10 AC:= AC+ C(10) SUB 12 AC:= AC-C(12) STO 12 C(12)= AC  Normally, assembly language has a 1-to-1 correspondence with machine language. Lecture 1: Introduction 36
  • Software – Languages  Assembly language is still very primitive.  Higher-level Languages, like Pascal, C, Fortran, which are a Languages little closer to English language have been developed. Lecture 1: Introduction 37
  • Software – Languages  An example Pascal program to find roots of quadratic equation: read(a,b,c); if a=0 then writeln ("not a quadratic equation") else begin d := sqr(b)-4*a*c; if d>0 then writeln ("complex roots") else if d=0 then writeln("single root =",-b/(2*a)) else writeln ("root1=",-b+sqrt(d)/(2*a), "root2=", -b-sqrt(d)/(2*a)); end; Lecture 1: Introduction 38
  • Software – Operating Systems  Operating System (OS) is situated directly above hardware. It controls and manages the available hardware resources.  Often, OS has special access privileges to certain categories of instructions and certain hardware  User programs have to go through OS for these privileges. Lecture 1: Introduction 39
  • Software – Operating Systems  Associated Functions/Tasks:  boots up machine  loads user program  allocates main memory/storage space  schedules concurrent user programs  drivers to service various devices (terminals, printers, etc.) Lecture 1: Introduction 40
  • Software – System Utilities  Above the OS, there is a set of frequently executed programs,called System Utilities. These utilities are often Utilities packaged with OS.  Used by programmers/analyst to help develop applications.  Some examples  Editor: compose/edit user programs or data files  Assembler: translates assembly to machine code  Compiler: translates high-level language to assembler/machine code  Spooler: temporary stores print files for queuing Lecture 1: Introduction 41
  • Software – System Utilities  Some examples (continued)  Mailer: forwards/receives mails between users  DBMS (Data-Base Management System): centralised management of data at a more abstract level than files  Window Management System: multiple windows can appear on single screen. These together with various graphical entities (e.g. menus,panels, buttons) can be managed by WMS. Lecture 1: Introduction 42
  • Software – Applications  Word-Processors: compose/edit reports/articles Word-Processors  Accounting Package: keeps track of accounting Package transactions, produces daily/weekly/monthly (profit/loss) reports  Inventory System: keeps track of stock levels System  Personnel/Payroll System: staff records, monthly salary System CS1104-1 Lecture 1: Introduction 43
  • What’s in Computer & Network Technology..? Application (Netscape) Software Compiler Assembler Operating System (Windows XP) Processor Memory I/O system Datapath & Control Hardware CS1104-1 Instruction Set Architecture Computer Architecture Digital Design transistors Lecture 1: Introduction Digital Logic Design 44
  • Thank you Lecture 1: Introduction 45