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www History www History Presentation Transcript

  • The Internet A brief History
  • The Memex (1945) • Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator known for his work on analog computing, his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex, which was seen decades later as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. • The memex (a portmanteau of "memory extender") was the name given by Vannevar Bush to the theoretical proto-hypertext computer system he proposed in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article "As We May Think". The memex has influenced the development of subsequential hypertext and intellect augmenting computer systems. The technology used would have been a combination of electromechanical controls and microfilm cameras and readers, all integrated into a large desk. Most of the microfilm library would have been contained within the desk, but the user could add or remove microfilm reels at will.
  • Hypertext (1963) • Ted Nelson, or Theodor Holm Nelson (born 1937) is an American sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. • Although "memex" was never implemented, in 1960 it inspired Ted Nelson to develop the modern version of hypertext. • The term hypertext was coined in 1963 by Ted Nelson in his book "Literary Machines," where he defined it as "non-sequential writing”, and only later it became considered a medium limited to computers. Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960 with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface.
  • Net Pioneers in the 60’s The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, He then went on the develop his ideas at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Leonard Kleinrock of MIT developed the theory of packet switching, which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for ARPANET. Ray Tomlinson adapted E-mail for ARPANET in 1972. He picked the @ symbol from the available symbols on his teletype to link the username and address.
  • The early WWW (1989) • The World-Wide Web as we know it began in March 1989 at CERN. (CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire) now called "European Laboratory for Particle Physics.” • In order for all departments to keep track of research, Tim proposed a system that would use hypertext to provide “a single user-interface to many large classes of stored information such as reports, notes, data-bases, computer documentation and on-line systems help”. Tim Berners Lee is an • Learning from Ted Nelson's ideas , Tim Berners-Lee English developer who and others proposed a new protocol for information invented the World Wide Web distribution. This protocol, which became the World in March 1989. Wide Web in 1991, was based on hypertext - a He is also the director of the system of embedding links in text to link to other World Wide Web Consortium text or W3C (which oversees its continued development)
  • The Internet today The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web There is no central authority that controls the Internet. Beyond the various governing boards that work to establish policies and standards, the Internet is bound by few rules and answers to no single organisation. Visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet.
  • Share and Share alike • The internet is available to anyone with access to a personal computer and a telephone line. This democracy of information has enabled people from all over the world to communicate freely like never before, allowing the sharing of news, ideas, knowledge, creativity and trade. • These ideals can applied to much of the net - with Freeware (free software) and Shareware (free, but a donation is expected), free online games, free online email (such as Yahoo mail, Googlemail and Microsoft Hotmail). • This invariably has led to the increase of illegal sharing too, of music, software, media and intellectual property.
  • Creative Commons Many people actually want their creative work to be shared freely. • Creative Commons (CC) allows authors, scientists, artists, and educators easily mark their creative work with the freedoms they want it to carry. • Creative Commons defines the spectrum of possibilities between full copyright — all rights reserved — and the public domain — no rights reserved. • A Creative Commons licenses help you keep your copyright while inviting certain uses of your work — a “some rights reserved” copyright.
  • Artists Online • Many artists began using the internet in the mid to late 90’s as a medium in itself, often creating ‘useless’ websites, whose only purpose was to play with the ideas and function of the internet. This was often reffered to as Net Art or net.art http://jodi.org/ JODI is a collective of two internet artists: Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmansis. Jodi.org is a website that throws you onto a randomly selected page where web usability standards do not apply. Much in the same vein as early virus, it can be disorientating, sometimes causing the actual web browser to behave erratically http://www.superbad.com was created by Ben Benjamin in 1997. Using a collage of jpegs and animated gifs, it plays on ideas of how internet links work, drawing heavily on Japanese and popular culture http://www.irational.org is the personal website of artist Heath Bunting. Rather than confuse it’s user, it acts as a repository of past projects and tutorials on topics such as ‘how to set up a pirate radio station’
  • The net today • While it has been available in some form or another for nearly 20 years, it has only been within the last 10 or so that the internet has become ubiquitous to everyday life. • The technology is available for anyone to create and upload content to the internet, even without any previous knowledge. It’s no longer a case of needing to know HOW it works. • Social Networking sites (such as Facebook & Myspace), forums, web logs (blogs) and of course internet shopping provides much of what could be considered the world wide web today. • It is about quickly getting the information you need - finding a map, doing your banking, or telling the world what you are doing and letting them see or hear your latest creative endeavour.