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  • 1. Understanding the principal methods and techniques used in marketing and public relationships – Task 3 Marketing: Why is it important in marketing to understanding your clients and their requirements? It is important in marketing to understand your clients and their requirements, otherwise, the entire purpose of the product or service that the company is marketing will immediately become irrelevant, as it will have to suit the needs posed by the primary target audience or it will fail before its launch. As an example, Converse shoes have a primary demographic of teenagers, therefore, when the company ‘market’ their product, they will have to include content that will appeal to this group of individuals specifically; possibly by utilising social media means, where the consumer can interact with the e-media platform (which is specifically targeted towards this audience) and initially ‘Like’ or ‘Tweet’ the product through Facebook and Twitter, which in itself, is a form of free advertising for the company. It is vital for the company to understand the needs of the intended audience, therefore, featuring an online aspect is appropriate as this age group utilises digital means as a way of communicating, which means that they are more likely to respond to content that is featured upon this specific platform. Why is understanding the market you are working in important? What techniques and tools could be used to help someone understand their market? It is highly important for a company to comprehend the specific market in which they are operating in, as it enables them to discover the competition posed on the market, where they can outline a marketing strategy in order to make a plan regarding how they will battle their competitors and become the most popular company in their field. It also helps the company to create their demographic, which is a vital step in the process of initiating a product. As an example, MAC Cosmetics have a target audience of females aged 18-39 falling into the socio-economic class group C1 in conjunction with E, who class as students that are unemployed. The company base their pricing range around their primary audience so that they can meet the requirements posed by the demographic factors that the target market inhabits. In order for a company to understand their market, they could use a technique such as instigating a focus group or conducting a survey, which would be classified under ‘Market
  • 2. Research’, however, it would help them to define their audience from the results that they will gain. What is a SWOT analysis? Why are they are they a useful tool? A ‘SWOT’ analysis is a collection of results where the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are investigated in a structured manner from the ideas that you have created. It enables a company to overview the strengths of their position, as well as the weaknesses of it. The opportunities and potential that an institution could have in their product or service in conjunction with the ‘threats’ that could initially hinder their success should also be considered. However, this type of analysis is a useful tool, as a company, such as ‘Lucozade’, may view their position in the market for energy drinks that are primarily targeted at teenagers and plan a way of making their ‘position’ higher, either by advertising more or by creating a new product that could be marketed towards an adolescent audience. By witnessing the weaknesses and threats that are posed by the project, the company will make sure to diminish these factors, so that they can market their product to the primary consumer without any form of peril regarding whether the audience member will respond to the stated item or not. What is audience profiling? What sort of information might be included in an audience profile? Making an audience profile is where the company or institution will gain a set of details posed by their most notable, frequent clientele. It is notable that this includes the demographics of an audience, such as where they reside, how much they earn, their age, as well as their gender. These factors help to create a profile, in which the company can use so that they can base their product or service around a primary target audience, where it will suit the requirements of the customer, so that their needs will be met. The company will have to then overview how their consumers are responding to their product, such as how much that they typically purchase, as well as how much money they spend on the said product. Also, the final step for the company is to monitor how the clients view your products, whether they see them as a necessity or a rare luxury. It is clear that every company has a personal ‘audience profile’, such as the fashion brand ‘Chanel’, that has a primary audience of females aged 16-80, who can afford the expensive products, generally in the A class category. ‘Segmentation’ is an advanced section of an audience profile, where different ‘segments’ of a profile are outlined, where one sector may be linked to geodemographics, whilst another one is associated with gender. This factor helps the company to add more detail to their audience profile, so that they can prosper in creating a product that is suitable for the primary target audience.
  • 3. Select a magazine and find their audience profile: ‘Heat Magazine’ has a demographic of females aged 16-34 in the socioeconomic category ABC1, as the publication features celebrity gossip and images that are unprofessional and presented in a paparazzi style. The table below shows the statistics behind the typical ‘Heat’ reader: It is notable that this table shows that generally, the main type of reader for ‘Heat’ magazine are of a significantly young age, which is interesting, as it is a highly informal publication that features colloquial terms as well as stories that could be classed as ‘non-news’, however, it has a rather large readership of 1,320,000 (Jan-Dec '12), which highlights its sheer popularity. Also, it is clear that 84% of the audience are female, which is relevant, as this magazine features celebrity and entertainment articles regarding reality television stars and music artists, which may not specifically appeal to a male audience. The poster below displays a case study of a heat reader, which shows the ‘likes’ of the consumer, which are useful, as it says that her idol is Cheryl Cole and this particular publication has produced content in the past that have been related to this celebrity, which is why this magazine will relate to her. The magazine is targeted towards a middle class audience and retails for £1.65, which is interesting, as it is has a rather informal layout and is relatively inexpensive, which would make it appropriate for a more wider audience, as opposed to just this group of individuals.
  • 4. Explain in detail the 4 different elements of the marketing mix. A ‘marketing mix’ features four different elements which are the price, product, promotion, and place. The price of the product relates the value of the item itself and how much the company will retail it, whilst the promotion relates to how the consumer is told about the products/services. Also, the place is associated with the time that the product is made available to the consumer whilst the ‘product’ is the item that is going to be sold and distributed to the public. All of these four steps need to be taken into account in order for a product/service to be highly successful and target their primary audience. Select a publication, product or audience and explain the range of marketing materials that they use. Boohoo.com is an example of a fashion brand, that is an only online e-tailer offering a of range of clothing and accessorises targeting fashion forward females ‘offering trend-led clothing at affordable prices providing a selection of celebrity and catwalk inspired pieces, with lots of new looks arriving daily!’ because they are an online fashion house marketing is a very important tool to target the public. With a number of adverts created for TV they are a great way to promote there company issuing flash sales which will interest the audience getting more value for their money, and getting them to their stores. These adverts are done to a professional and high quality showing some great looks for the season in a creative and innovative way. As they look at targeting the younger generation social media is a great way to target this with their own Facebook, Instagram and twitter accounts using the #dressmas to get people sending in there Boohoo outfit, relating to the digital means which will relate to the younger viewer which is more likely to shop online. Provide your own definition of advertising. When researching into the ideologies and the ideas behind what advertising is, the definition is a broad one, as advertising can found on many platforms from print, e-media to broadcast. As a way to promote and get there product or service across into the public domain. Examples include mc Donald’s because when they produce a new product they advertise this heavily such as in summer 2013 when they brought out a range of cold milkshake ice drinks found on TV screens billboards and bus sides. Another example could be perfumes such as Dior, which relay heavily on celebrity endorsement to attract the audience who are fans of the particular celebrity meaning more sales such as Natalie Portman used in Dior’s adverts. Women’s advertising is especially advertised to achieve this idea of perfection which certain make
  • 5. up products such as Rimmel using the model Kate Moss through there adverts who many people will look up to. However, the images used are heavily edit and air brushed to achieve this ideal of perfection, blurring people’s idea of beauty. What is the purpose of sponsorship? Support your answer with detailed examples. This is where a product or a service sponsors an event or company. Some examples include Red Bull energy drinks are renowned for their heavily use of sponsorship, just like many sports related goods, as this will benefit them significally as their product are been shown getting a lot more air time and viewing not only from the public at these events but on TV too where their names, logos and adverts can be found around mountain sports and different exercise events, and other events such as football and rugby where sponsorship is used heavily around the billboards and banners round the sides of the pitch. Another example could be more TV relates such as soap operas and dramas like coronation street that have a main sponsor compare the meerkat and found to advertise before and after the programme has finished and using their words ‘sponsors coronation street’ found to the bottom left of there screen. What is the purpose of endorsements? Explain a range of different types of endorsements and use examples. This portrays a positive message about the product. An example of this is celebrity endorsement, which some companies have involved in their campaigns in the hope that fans of that celebrity will be influenced to buy the product because of their faces. An example of this could be the herbal essences hair care range which is endorsed by Nicole Scherzinger, using this main stream artist that’s respected by fans could increase profit. Her appearance could also affect the fact that they have chosen her for this campaign because this is a hair products the fact that she has nice hair herself could influence people to buy the product. In other cases it might not be celebrity’s but professionals or industry experts in that current field, such as dental care, in many of their advertising campaigns and TV adverts they will interview a dentist, praising there product pearl drops, because of they are promoting and saying good things about it they are more likely to go out and buy it. Then in other cases some advertisements use ordinary, public like people that reflect the life of the audience, and putting this idea into practise as they will be able to relate to the same situations. An example of this similar to the one previous could be Colgate and getting a vox pop/ordinary people off the street to interview and try out there new whitening toothpaste within this advert where they interview those people to get there response . This is a good way to endorse as people have a more realistic view of the product.
  • 6. Why could holding an event be a good marketing strategy? What are some of the opportunities and threats of holding an event? These press events are a great way to build up more of a custom and making people more aware of your product or service, spreading the word to other people in the industry, and influential people also known as networking, because making partnerships with other people in this area can prove beneficial in the long run for work and contacting. These events can be used as a great marketing tool and is important to stand out from what has already been created, whether this is with great offers and deals, or a PR event doing charity activities and getting published in the media. However in terms of possible problems and threats that might affect the outcome include some of these events getting out of hand if they aren’t managed and dealt with in the right way, and so judging the amount of people you are expecting to turn up and so if any form of marshal needs to be brought in these arrangements can be made. An example of this is coca cola which hold an event around Christmas time, where the well-known Christmas truck visits a number of different towns and cities, giving the public to chance to see this see this one off experience and give away free cans of coca cola. What is merchandising? Use detailed examples to help explain. Merchandising is a great way to expand a business, in terms of products that can be seen by the public, as a reminder of them. This type of marketing can take many different forms, and depending on the subject depends in the type of products they might want to merchandise in, such as a computer service might have pens, mouse mats and stationary as they are things that relate to that topic. In other circumstances such as a film or TV company such as Disney that produce many animation, Pixar movies. These family friendly movies has a number of recognisable characters that have been turned into merchandise and to be sold to the masses everything from cuddly toys, lunchboxes, mugs and pyjamas, all of these different products are known to sell well with their well known logo or character. Public Relations: What is the purpose of a press release? What sort of things should a good press release contain? Found mainly in the world of news, bringing something to the attention of the public down to a new product or service and its newsworthiness also known as news, media release or a press statement, and can be formatted into a written or recorded piece for the purpose of the audience. With this information recorded it is then sent out and mailed to editors for their
  • 7. magazine or newspaper ,or television or radio station to then be put out into the public domain. Providing journalists and reporters the basis for a news story but putting their own spin on it. And can be to do with anything from promotions, awards, new products or service. Some of the factors that make a good press release including headlines to grab the attention of the journalists, to summarise the story.A basis introduction that hooks the reader with the main who what why when where.Then to continue this with the ’body’ giving further explanation, then a boilerplate including a section which forms an about section full of information about the company. Then finally contact details for the PR and other media relations contact person. What is the purpose of an electronic media pack? What sort of things should a good electronic media pack contain? These sorts of media packs prove useful for networking and building contacts that might need to be used in certain situations. An example could in the world of production and for weekly magazine. The fact they have these media packs gives them the ability to contact freelance photographers or journalist to write a specialist feature piece of writing. Or at the printing stage sub contracting might need to be undertaken depending on demand. This types of packs pre-packaged marketing material shared to others of media and promotional use. And so the components to this includes; ‘Backgrounder with historical information on the company or individual, Fact sheet listing specific features, statistics, or benefits, Biographies of key executives, individuals, artists, etc. Past press coverage, Photos or other images (high resolution) of key executives, logos, products, etc. A press release detailing the current news the media kit is sent in reference to, Media contact information (usually of a public relations department or spokesperson), A CD, DVD, software title, video, etc. as appropriate for the sender of the release, Collateral advertising material, such as: postcard, flier, newspaper ad, etc.’http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Press_kit What is the purpose of a PR briefing? Why should you create one? Explain some of the areas a brief should cover. This type of briefing allows a set of requirements and specific points to outline what is needed before production begins. These types of briefing’s can include goals of the campaign, and to give a profile of the main audience with knowledge of how to target them and shape there views, with effects and budgeting. Some of these points could include messages, potential challenges, timescales, budges and a brief evaluation. This type of briefing allows different companies to pitch for your business and to be the ones to take on that job and the role of creating this. What is the purpose of a press conference? Why might you hold one? Use specific examples to help you with your response. It can be used as a way to manage bad press, making a statement and answering questions from the press but with it been your event that is been held you have to opportunity to only answer the question you would prefer to. Helping to avoid awkward question. They can also be another way of promoting your product similar to a PR event, there this be for football, or a film release, or they can also be used in the music industry
  • 8. when bands or artists are reforming or splitting such as the band take that, which have held similar events for this, including press deals that can be articles that are created as a response. Why could hand-outs be useful when managing a PR event? Hand-outs are a useful PR device that help a company to initially ‘manage the message’ posed by their product or service. They can be distributed amongst press conferences as well as press releases; and sometimes they can be issued in the form of a media pack, which can either be print-based or an e-media download. It helps the company to advertise the ethos of their product or service and the consumer will be able to view this content through the hand-outs that they have been awarded with. As an example, UK band ‘One Direction’ made a press conference in New York to promote their new film, ‘This is Us’ in 2013, which was useful, as it enabled various publications to get the ‘inside scoop’ of the details posed by the band members on their panel. It was a big event that attracted a lot of people and it was in the interest of those who operate in the media, as they could produce a story that was related to it and it would gain a large amount of readership from the fans of the band, as they have a large, global following. If there were hand-outs issued at this event, it would include interviews with the band members in conjunction with the release date of the film on the print document. It would be useful, as it would help to promote the movie and spread the awareness of the band as well, even though they are already powerful figures in the media. What are some of the advantages of holding an interview instead of a press conference? An advantage of holding an interview instead of a press conference is that it is personal and reclusive, as there is only the interviewer and the subject of the interview in the room, whilst with a press conference, questions are open to a reporters and a wide range of people, which may hinder someone else’s chance of asking their question to the subject. For an example, comedian Jack Whitehall was interviewed on Alan Carr’s ‘Chatty Man’, where Carr questioned him on his new book, which Whitehall was promoting at the time with his father, who was also featured as part of the interview. Carr asked various questions, with some of them relating to the launch of the book and what the content of it entails. The response from
  • 9. the subject is vital and it can also be very detailed in an interview as opposed to a press conference, which is useful, as it gives the consumer an advanced idea of what the subject is trying to promote. Why do people set up film and picture opportunities? Use examples to help our response. Film and picture opportunities are great forms of promotional material that can be utilised on all three media platforms regarding print, e-media and broadcast. It is an opportunity for celebrities as well as other individuals in the media to obtain an increased amount of PR for them. Also, they will be able to promote other things in which they are promoting at the same time, which is a form of ‘self-advertising’. As an example in ‘The Fast and Furious’ series, the films feature the latest sports cars, which are a form of product placement, as the consumer will view these vehicles and want to purchase them, as they may want to imitate the lifestyle of the fictional characters within the film. This is set up in order to promote the brands that are featured in the movie, so that the primary target audience (adolescent males or those who are interested in cars) will feel obliged to mimic the content posed by the film where cars such as Ferrari’s and Lamborghini’s are driven. They may be used to sponsor or fund the movie as well. Also, this type of product placement would be featured at the film premiere or press conference. Why are contacts and networking important in marketing and PR? What kinds of contacts could be useful? Provide details of a PR contact from at least one organisation. ‘Contacts and networking’ are those who monitor the element of PR for a company or organisation. It is notable that they will handle any form of request regarding conferences, press releases, as well as interviews. However, they must make sure that they are fulfilling their job role in an efficient manner to enable the best possible end result for the product or service in which they are trying to promote. If an individual is working within a company, they will have to have a set of contacts in the industry that will help them to run their PR campaign in a successful manner. In order for the message of the campaign to be managed, the head of the PR project will have to also have contacts from celebrities and their management team, editors, bloggers, as well as journalists, who will help to spread the message of the company and therefore, gaining them credibility in the media in conjunction with a sense of public awareness. As an example, Warner Brothers, the multi-national film conglomerate utilise PR as a way of promoting their company. They primarily promote films, with the most notable one being the ‘Harry Potter’ series, where they distributed the film and have now made a large profit from the box office sales in conjunction with the DVD’s of the popular series. Also, a Harry Potter theme park, studio tour, as well as various other forms of merchandise have been issued that have also been distributed by this company, in which they have obtained a sufficient amount of profit.