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  • 1. Understanding the Functions of Marketing and PR Marketing: Explain what Market Research is, how it can be carried out and why it could be important. ‘Market Research’ involves the collection of primary research through means of focus groups, surveys and by conducting one on one interviews. It is carried out in order to discover the needs of the consumer, so that the company can obtain information from the audience so that they can find out the interests of the audience, which will enable them to base their content on the requirements outlined by the target market of the specific product or service. An example of research in the field of marketing includes issuing online surveys, where the content of the webpage would relate to the material posed by the survey itself. So if a company wanted to find out an extended amount of information regarding their primary demographic, they would issue a survey upon a popular fashion website such as Boohoo.com in order to gain a sufficient amount of responses from the intended market of the site (females aged 17-25). It is notable that pricing and distribution are two other forms of research that are instigated in the field of marketing. Explain Market Analysis. Why is it done and who could carry it out for you? ‘Market Analysis’ is carried out in order to engage in a specific market in order to obtain a sufficient amount of popularity from the primary consumer and eradicate the competition posed by other existing companies. As an example, if a company wanted to create a fashion magazine, they would have to employ an individual to carry out an investigation against the other competitors, where they will find out the strengths and weaknesses of the company such as Vogue, so that they can utilise the information that they have found in order to make their product appeal more to the target audience and to initially outdo their rivals. A Market Analyser would carry out this job and they would be employed by the institution so that they could help the company to prosper in their specific field of work. Explain marketing strategy using examples. A ‘Marketing Strategy’ can be rather complex, as a company have to combine different marketing techniques together in order to create and then to initially promote a product to the primary target audience. This will be done in order to assure the company that they will gain a hefty amount of profit from their goods once it has been distributed for purchase. It is notable that a sufficient marketing strategy leads to the establishment of a marketing plan. The information from the market research is used in this step in order to find the right content that should be used in the creation of the product so that it becomes successful. An example of an element that is used under a marketing strategy would be to increase sales, where the company may want to bring in a new breed of customer, something that differs to the original target market, as well as initiating a significant increase in sales, which could be
  • 2. achieved by with improving the service or the product that is provided by the company, or creating more advertisements that increase the awareness of the product or service. Why is advertising so important to an organisation? Use examples to help you explain. Advertising is key to an organisation as it enables the consumer to gain a certain amount of awareness of both the company, as well as the product/service. It is vital that the company creates an advertisement that is so effective that the consumer will choose to purchase the product/service that is provided by the company, as opposed to a similar item from another existing company. An example of advertising includes Lucozade Energy, which is a beverage that is targeted towards an ‘active’ adolescent audience. The company produces advertisements on all three media platforms, which are all as equally important, as each platform appeals to a different type of audience, which makes the product more universal in a sense. Advertising is vital, as it initially forecasts the success of the company, as a good piece of marketing material is likely to attract the attention of the consumer and therefore, guaranteeing a considerable amount of income for the company. What is brand promotion and what methods could you use to promote a brand? ‘Brand Promotion’ is where a particular brand is ‘promoted’ through means of e-media, broadcast as well as print. In order to promote a certain product or service, a company could create advertisements as well as merchandise in which they could distribute to their specific demographic so that they would be encouraged to purchase the item, as they have been made aware of its presence and it is also likely to appeal to them specifically if they are the primary demographic for the product. The merchandise element could also be effective in marketing the specific product, as if one of the items is a hat with the name of the company on such as ‘Virgin Atlantic Airways’, the consumer will feel obliged to wear it, therefore, they are initially promoting the company in a subliminal manner. PR What are some of the key principals involved in managing the message? A key principal posed by ‘managing the message’ includes communicating early and often, as this device is key in the creation of a product as if there is no form of communication between individuals, there will be no progression in the development of the product and the ‘message’ that is presented by the product will therefore be diminished. Also, by thanking the individuals who helped to make your product a success is another factor, as if those involved feel respected and are treated well, they will initially ‘promote’ you, and as word of mouth of is a significantly powerful device, this will help you to prosper in your particular field of work and also puts you in a good light as someone who is professional and polite to work with. Developing ways to reach the masses and attract a number of different audiences, while tracking your progress and acknowledging and thanking those who have helped to contribute.
  • 3. What is positive publicity? Find an example of it to help explain. ‘Positive publicity’ is where the consumer will respond in a ‘positive’ manner to a type of medium that they have encountered either on a print, emedia or broadcast basis. For example, if a company such as ‘Irn-Bru’ issued a product, it is likely to receive a lot of publicity due to its presence in the mainstream market and the fact that it produces content that is deemed as ‘off-colour’, it is sure to receive publicity, but even though this may be classed as negative, any form of publicity is good publicity and if there name is out in the open, individuals will become more aware of the product, therefore, spreading the message that is posed by the company, initially giving them more business and profit in the long run. It can be used for a number of different purposes that my include; arts exhibitions, events sponsorship, conducting a poll or survey, or organising a tour or gathering and so in the long run it can help to create a good name for your company, so that you are likely to gain more followers and custom. A great way to do so is through reviews and star rating of the product or service because with these reviews they can cut out key elements of the review to then be but on advertising material such as posters and DVD covers which tend to do this and interviews with celebrity stars enrolled in the films. Or promotion from a celebrity is another great way of attracting positive publicity, that are raving about this product, as celebrity endorsement is also another way to get your product out to a bigger audience. Such as H&M using David Beckham within their newest campaign. In public relations terms, what is spin? Find an example to help you with your response. It was originally known as a form of propaganda in the past, but in terms of public relations ‘spin’ relies on sly and deceptive ways to persuade the audience. Most commonly associated with newspapers to twist the truth especially in the case of politicians, as the end result is persuading readers and listeners, suggesting problems and issues whether this is putting a positive or a negative spin on things. As an example, ‘The Daily Mail’, a left-wing publication, is supposed to be impartial, however, as it leans on the left-hand side, there may be content issued that is Conservative-based, but it may be through the written means published by the journalists, who will write a story with their own views embedded within it, which may influence the reader.
  • 4. Why might a person or a company engage in damage limitation? Using an example will improve your grade. Is an action that usually takes place in a media event that has been displayed in the public domain, as a way of trying to avoid a large amount of negative publicity. Over an event regarding an individual in the media spot light who has performed a minor error, which can be magnified my the supposed bias content hat could be issued y a tabloid publications such as the mirror which posted an article stating that there controversial comedian Frankie Boyle was ‘racist’, back in 2011 and later sued the paper for the allegation and received £54,650 in damages. What benefit could there be to an organisation to create an event? Use an example of a marketing or PR event to support your responses. Organising these sorts of events will help to circulate, spread the word and promote the product to other people in the industry as well as the public. It is a great way of advertising a product or a service as if there is an incentive behind the event people will attend in high numbers and the message promoted by the company will be even more blatant than it was beforehand. An example of this is the Leeds Fashion Show, which is an annual event that hosts stalls where a consumer can purchase products from the designer brands that are advertising at the show. The consumer may see a dress on the catwalk and then want to purchase it from the stall after; therefore, the ‘catwalk’ platform is a subliminal form of advertising. What is lobbying and who is most likely to be influenced by it? In a professional manner is a way of swaying or influencing those around whether this being in terms of thoughts or feelings towards a certain subject. ‘Lobbying’ is mainly associated with politics and means that an organisation or individual can influence the views of a Member of Parliament. It is notable that anybody can lobby against parliament including business as well as members of the public. The environmental group, Greenpeace, have lobbied against Parliament several times, so that they can campaign against something which they find unjust and suggest a way to improve or alter the legislation posed by the government in order to protect the Earth. In 1991, Greenpeace rallied against the use of siphoning minerals from the Antarctic, in which they became successful in, as the nation negotiated with the organisation and declared that no minerals would be exploited from the area for fifty years.