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  • 1. How to overcome Reading Difficulties
    • Vocabulary
    • Grammatical Structure
    • Reading Strategies
  • 2. How to overcome Reading Difficulties
    • Vocabulary
    • - word analyze structure
    • - context clues
    • - dictionary
  • 3. Affixes
    • Affixes
    prefixes suffixes roots
  • 4. Prefixes
    • Prefixes are groups of letters that added to the
    • beginning of a word to change its meaning and make a
    • new word.
    • Examples:
    • mis understand
    • negative prefix (not) (Prefix causes meaning
    • change)
  • 5. Prefixes
    • Note:
    • In – become im- before a root beginning with m or p, e.g., immature , impatient, impartial etc.
    • In- becomes ir- before a word beginning with r, e.g., irreplaceable, irreversible, etc.
    • In- becomes il- before a word beginning with l e.g. illegible, illiterate etc.
    • Un- and dis- can also form opposites of verbs e.g. tie/ untie, appear/disappear etc.
    • The prefix in- (and its variations) does not always have a negative meaning.
  • 6. Negative Prefixes
    • un-, non-, dis-, in-, ir-, il-, im-, mis-
    • un able
    • un accustomed
    • un acquainted
    • un approachable
    • un aware
    • un balance
    • un certain
    • un cooperative
    • un controversial
    • non- citizen
    • non compliance
    • non profit
    • non resident
    • non verbal
    • non violence
    • non scientific
  • 7. Negative Prefixes
    • un-, non-, dis-, in-, ir-, il-, im-, mis-
    • dis connect
    • dis comfort
    • dis honest
    • dis credit
    • in complete
    • in comprehensible
    • in convenient
    • in correct
    • ir responsible
    • ir regular
    • ir rational
    • ir reducible
    • il legal
    • il literate
    • il logical
  • 8. Negative Prefixes
    • un-, non-, dis-, in-, ir-, il-, im-, mis-
    • im possible
    • impolite
    • im moral
    • im mature
    • mis place
    • mis understood
    • mis judge
    • mis read
  • 9. Negative Prefixes
    • un-, non-, dis-, mis-, in-, im-, ir-, il-
    • dis abled
    • dis advantage
    • dis agree
    • dis appear
    • dis approve
    • dis belief
    • dis connect
    • dis courage
    • mis behave
    • mis calculate
    • mis conception
    • mis conduct
    • mis hear
    • mis quote
    • mis read
    • mis represent
  • 10. Negative Prefixes
    • un-, non-, dis-, mis-, in-, im-, ir-, il-
    • ir rational
    • ir reducible
    • ir regular
    • ir relevant
    • ir replaceable
    • ir responsible
    • ir retrievable
    • ir reversible
    • il legal
    • il legible
    • il literate
    • il liberal
    • ill -informed
    • il licit
  • 11. Negative Prefixes
    • un-, non-, dis-, mis-, in-, im-, ir-, il-
    • in ability
    • in active
    • in adequate
    • in advisable
    • in appropriate
    • in audible
    • in authentic
    • in capable
    • im moral
    • im mortality
    • im movable
    • im partial
    • im patient
    • im permeable
    • im possible
    • im polite
  • 12. Exercise 1
    • 1. I’m sorry I misinterpreted/ misunderstood her message already.
    • 2. As soon as we got to our room, we unpacked our luggage and went out shopping.
    • 3. She came by to say hello to me, and then disappeared immediately. I have no idea where she is now.
    • 4. The university landlord finally managed to unlock the door of the apartment for a whole month during final exam period.
    • 5. I disliked the movie, but everyone else enjoyed it.
  • 13. Exercise 1
    • 6. He wrapped my present so well that it took me quite a long time to unwrap it.
    • 7. I was so tired that I fell asleep with out getting undressed .
    • 8. My spell checker corrects my mistakes whenever I misspell a word.
    • 9. One of the students misread/ misunderstood the article so his presentation was all wrong.
    • 10. It was a terrible situation to be among them. They always argue, shout and yell to each other whenever they disagree .
  • 14. Common Prefixes that give the meaning of a number
    • one
    • mono theist
    • mono syllable
    • uni lateral
    • two, twice
    • du et
    • bi nocular
    • bi partisan
    • bi centennial
    • di chotomy
  • 15. Common Prefixes that give the meaning of a number
    • three
    • tri cycle
    • tri lingual
    • tri plet
    • tri angle
    • tri colour
    • four
    • quadr angle
    • quat rain
    • quart er
  • 16. Common Prefixes that give the meaning of a number
    • five
    • quint et
    • quint uplet
    • penta gon
    • six
    • sext et
    • hexa gon
  • 17. Common Prefixes that give the meaning of a number
    • seven
    • Sept et
    • eight
    • oct agon
    • nine
    • non agenarian
    • ten
    • dec ade
    • dec alitre
    • dec imal
    • dec athion
    • hundred
    • cen t imeter
    • cent ury
    • cent ennial
    • cent igram
    • cent ennial
  • 18. Common Prefixes that give the meaning of a number
    • One thousand
    • kilometre
    • kiloton
    • Large, one million
    • mega project
    • maga ton
    • mega pod
    • many
    • poly theist
    • Multi lingual
    • multi purpose
    • multi use
    • multi colour
    • multi racial
  • 19. Common Prefixes that give the meaning of a number: Exercise 4
    • 1. Duet is a piece of music for two players or singer.
    • 2. T riplet is a group of three equal notes to be played or sung in the time usually taken to play or sing two of the same kind.
    • 3. Q uatrain is a poem or verse of a poem that has four lines.
    • 4. An open square area that has buildings all around it, especially in a school or college is called a quadrangle .
    • 5. One of the five children born at the same time to the same mother is quintuplet .
    • 6. A flat shape with five straight sides and five angles is a pentagon .
  • 20. Common Prefixes that give the meaning of a number: Exercise 4
    • 7. Sextet is a group of six musicians or singers who play or sing together.
    • 8. A flat shape with six straight sides and six angles is a hexagon .
    • 9. A group of seven musicians or singers is septet .
    • 10. A flat shape with eight straight sides and eight angles is an octagon .
  • 21. Prefixes
    • first, chief, rank
    • prim ary
    • primi tive
    • prim al
    • prime val
    • from, away, off
    • ab normal
    • ab use
    • ab sent
    • ab andon
  • 22. Prefixes
    • before
    • ante cedent
    • ante room
    • ante natal
    • ante meridian
    • against, opposite
    • anti pathy
    • anti aircraft
    • anti body
    • anti social
  • 23. Prefixes
    • well
    • bene fit
    • bene ficent
    • bene volent
    • bene factor
    • around
    • circum stance
    • circum vent
    • circum navigate
    • circum scribe
  • 24. Prefixes
    • with / together
    • co pilot
    • com bine
    • con duct
    • col laborate
    • cor respond
    • down, away
    • de grade
    • de fect
    • de toxicate
    • de frost
  • 25. Prefixes
    • against
    • counter act
    • contra distinction
    • counter attack
    • contra dict
    • apart, separate
    • dis infect
    • dis miss
    • dis order
    • dis honest
  • 26. Prefixes
    • out
    • e mit
    • ex it
    • ext ract
    • ex pel
    • former
    • ex -wife
    • ex -president
    • ex -champion
    • ex -service
  • 27. Prefixes
    • beyond
    • extra ordinary
    • extra mural
    • extra territorial
    • extra legal
    • before
    • fore tell
    • fore cast
    • fore ground
    • fore see
  • 28. Prefixes
    • over / beyond
    • hyper critical
    • hyper tension
    • hyper sensitive
    • hyper sonic
    • under
    • hypothesis
    • hypotension
    • hypoactive
    • hypodermic
  • 29. Prefixes
    • between
    • inter national
    • inter state
    • inter change
    • inter personal
    • within, inside
    • Intra mural
    • intra natal
    • intro spect
    • intro punitive
  • 30. Prefixes
    • large
    • macro biotic
    • macro cosm
    • macro linguistics
    • macro fossil
    • small
    • micro film
    • micro chip
    • micro phone
    • micro wave
  • 31. Prefixes
    • small
    • mini bus
    • mini car
    • mini skirt
    • mini mart
    • above, beyond
    • over come
    • over dose
    • over act
    • over crowd
  • 32. Prefixes
    • before, early
    • pre dict
    • pre mature
    • pre historic
    • pre school
    • after
    • post war
    • post meridian
    • post script
    • post -graduate
  • 33. Prefixes
    • back, again
    • re verse
    • re cycle
    • re arrange
    • re schedule
    • half
    • semi- final
    • semi conductor
    • semi annual
    • semi circle
  • 34. Prefixes
    • under, below
    • sub conscious
    • sub marine
    • sub way
    • over / beyond / above
    • super sonic
    • super natural
    • super structure
    • super man
  • 35. Prefixes
    • across / beyond
    • trans mit
    • trans port
    • trans form
    • trans fer
    • beyond / extremely / excessive
    • ultra violet
    • ultra sonic
  • 36. Prefixes
    • beneath
    • under worked
    • under used
    • under cooked
    • instead of / as / deputy
    • vice -president
    • vice -rector
  • 37. Exercise 3
    • 1. He has made a number of minor changes /extra changes to his techniques.
    • 2. Mr. John, a foreign journalist, was being (to force sb to leave) expelled from the company because of his irresponsibility.
    • 3. Jane is a (person who is able to speak two languages) bilingual .
    • 4. Many department stores in Bangkok campaign for using UV (able to be destroyed by ultraviolet) biodegradable bags.
  • 38. Exercise 3
    • 5. This envelop is made from recycled (to treat things that have already been used so that they can be used again) paper.
    • 6. It can be dangerous for an outsider to (come between in an attempt to settle a difficulty) intervene in a family disagreement.
    • 7. Many rural people still believe in (spiritual) supernatural being.
    • 8. My writing teacher is (too ready to see things that are wrong) hypercritical of my work.
    • 9. My homework was so bad that I had to rewrite (write again) it.
  • 39. Suffixes
    • Suffix is a letter or letters added
    • to the end of a word to form a new
    • word, such as “ness” in “kindness”
    • or “ly” in “suddenly” .
  • 40.
    • Examples:
    • inact ive ( not doing anything)
    • suffix ending of adj .
  • 41. Sentence pattern
    • Subj. + v. + obj.
    • (Adj.) + n. ( adj.) + n.
    • My foreign friend can adapt to difficult situations .
    • adj. + n. v. adj. + n
    • subj.
    • obj.
  • 42. Sentence pattern
    • Subj. + v + ad j.(n.)
    • to be
    • linking verb
    • He is an intelligent student.
    • He looks happy when he heard the news.
  • 43. Sentence pattern
    • Subj. + v + obj. ( adv.).
    • He can handle the difficult situation effectively .
    • Subj. + (adv.) v. + obj.
    • He can effectively handle the difficult situation.
    • (Adv.) subj. + v. + obj.
    • Effectively , he can handle the difficult situation .
  • 44. Sufixes
    • adjective or noun Verb
    • ate / - en / - ify / - ize/
    • ( become / make)
  • 45. Suffixes
    • ADJECTIVE VERB
    • white whit en
    • short short en
    • tight tight en
    • harmony harmonize
    • category categorize
    • central centralize
    • modern modernize
  • 46. Suffixes
    • NOUN VERB
    • pure purify
    • beauty beautify
    • classification classify
    • mummy mummify
    • Central centralize
  • 47. Suffixes
    • Noun adjective
    • - al (relating to)
    • - ary (concerned with)
    • - en (made of)
    • - ful (full of)
    • - ic, -ical (pertaining to)
    • - ish
  • 48. Suffixes
    • NOUN ADJECTIVE
    • friend friend ly
    • heaven heaven ly
    • critic critic al
    • history histor ic
    • politic politic al
    • president president ial
    • self self ish
    • danger danger ous
    • space spaci ous
  • 49. Suffixes
    • NOUN ADJECTIVE
    • cloud cloud y
    • legend legend ary
    • revolution revolution ary
    • fear fear ful
    • care care ful
    • harm harmful
    • fear fear less
    • care careless
    • harm harm less
  • 50.
    • NOUN ADJECTIVE
    • cloud cloud y
    • legend legend ary
    • revolution revolution ary
    • fear fear ful
    • care care ful
    • harm harmful
    • fear fear less
    • care careless
    • harm harm less
  • 51. Sufixes
    • Noun adjective
    • - less (without)
    • - like (in the manner of)
    • - ly (like)
    • - ous (full of)
    • - y (full of)
  • 52. Sufixes
    • Verb Noun
    • -al (act of)
    • -ance, -ence (act of)
    • -ant, -ent (one who)
    • -ation, -ion, -tion, -sion, -ment,
    • -ure (act of, state of)
    • -ee, -er, or, ant, -ent , -ess,-tress
    • (one who)
  • 53. Suffixes
    • VERB NOUN
    • employ employ ment
    • advise advis or
    • attend attend ant
    • correspond correspond ent
    • employ employ ee
    • advise advis ee
    • train train ee
    • propose propos al
    • withdraw withdraw al
    • refuse refus al
  • 54. Suffixes
    • VERB NOUN
    • employ employ ment
    • advise advis or
    • attend attend ant
    • correspond correspond ent
    • employ employ ee
    • advise advis ee
    • train train ee
    • propose propos al
    • withdraw withdraw al
    • refuse refus al
  • 55. Sufixes
    • verb adjective
    • - able, -ible (able to be)
    • - ant, -ent (having quality of)
    • - ary, -ory (relating to )
    • -ive (having quality of)
  • 56. Suffixes
    • VERB ADJECTIVE
    • prevent prevent ive
    • addict addict ive
    • depend dependent
    • please pleasant
    • eat eat able
    • admit admiss ible
    • fall falling
    • scream scream ing
    • interest interest ing
    • excite excit ing
  • 57. Suffixes
    • adjective adverb
    • - ly ( in the manner of)
  • 58. Suffixes
    • ADJECTIVE ADVERB
    • sudden suddenly
    • quick quickly
    • easy easily
    • back backward
    • for forward
    • on onward
  • 59. Exercise 1: Noun Forming
    • Wheelwright
    • Locksmith
    • Philosopher
    • Humanitarian
    • Musician
    • Lawyer
    • Governess
    • Gangster
    • Auctioneer
    • fishmonger
  • 60. Exercise 2: Verb Forming
    • simplified
    • tighten
    • falsify
    • redden
    • solidify
    • necessitates
    • beautify
    • modernized
    • Equalize
  • 61. Exercise 3: Adjective Forming
    • careful
    • famous
    • thoughtful
    • dangerous
    • painful
    • useful
    • reliable
    • industrious
    • Economy
    • homeless
  • 62. Exercise 4: Supply the correct part of speech
      • #1 (adv.) probably
      • #2 (adv.) originally
      • (adj.) Spanish
      • (adj.) different
      • (adv.) Remarkably
      • (adj.) poisonous
      • (v.) believed
      • (adj.) sure
      • (v.) threat
      • (n.) legend
      • (v.) enjoyed
      • (adj.) nation
      • (v.) avoided
    • #3 (v.) dare
    • (adj.) brave
    • (n.) truth
    • (adv.) perfectly
    • (adj.) common
    • (n.) ocean
    • (adj.) traditional
  • 63. Exercise 6 :
    • “ The salmon are running” Each June, this cry brings the entire John family on a 200-mile trip to flooded banks of the great Copper River for two eventful months of 1. exciting and hard work. With their camp in readiness. Harry and his father begin the 2. construction of their fish wheel, while awaiting the 3. arrival of The rest of the family. The fish wheel, designed by Harry’s father, is very 4. effective in spite of its simplicity, and needs, but little daily
    • 5. attendance . They build it from scrap lumber-willow- or birch – and fasten it to a raft with it anchorage a
    • few feet in the water.
  • 64. Exercise 6
    • As the wheel turns with rapidity in the energetic current, it scoops up the salmon and other fish which are plenteous during a “run.” The slippery fish then slide down a trough into a large box beside the wheel. The Johns may catch 3,000 salmon – the number 6. allowable by their permit – during the season. Some of these fish they smoke for their own use; some they dry for food dogs, and if they are fortunate they have some to sell to help pay Harry’s school expense.