Research meth


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In research there are several methods which can be used. Here are some of those . Please use this as educational and research purpose.

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Research meth

  2. 2. Table of ContentsQuestion 1- Answer ................................................................................................................................. 3Question 2- Answer ................................................................................................................................. 7Question 3- Answer ............................................................................................................................... 19Question 4- Answer ............................................................................................................................... 22Question 5- Answer ............................................................................................................................... 24- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 2
  3. 3. Question 1- AnswerWhat is the purpose of research? Outline the types of research WHAT IS RESEARCH?"Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase ourunderstanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect datato answer the question, and present an answer to the question. (By Creswell, J. W.(2008))Research and experimental development is formal work undertaken systematically toincrease the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society,and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.Research is finding out what you dont already know. No one knows everything, buteverybody knows something. However, to complicate matters, often what you know, orthink you know, is incorrect.( are two basic purposes for research: to learn something, or to gather evidence. Thefirst, to learn something, is for your own benefit. It is almost impossible for a human tostop learning. It may be the theory of relativity or the RBIs of your favorite ball player,but you continue to learn. Research is organized learning, looking for specific things toadd to your store of knowledge.What youve learned is the source of the background information you use to communicatewith others. In any conversation you talk about the things you know, the things youvelearned. If you know nothing about the subject under discussion, you can neithercontribute nor understand it. (This fact does not, however, stop many people from joiningin on conversations, anyway.) When you write or speak formally, you share what youvelearned with others, backed with evidence to show that what youve learned is correct. If,- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 3
  4. 4. however, you havent learned more than your audience already knows, there is nothingfor you to share. Thus you do research.The purpose and role of ResearchResearch can be conceptualized as exhibiting one or more of the following four purposes: 1. Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring 2. Descriptive: e.g., summarizing, gathering info, mapping 3. Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations 4. Predictive: e.g., predict what might happen in various scenariosBriefly the main purpose and role of research is to help plan and gather information on acertain topic before carrying it out .It helps to test and create a theory on a certain thingand with the information given this helps to gather to generate a topic to find out moreon. By carrying out research this helps to gather and explore more into a certain topicwhich helps to backup your opinions with the findings.By researching you are able to backup and give others views and opinions in order tohelp to justify your findings.Research also helps to monitor something before carrying it out example an activity in achildcare setting research helps to identify how the activity can help children ,what usethe activity will come to how the activity may have an effect on others and this helps youto investigate more before carrying out something.Research also helps to discover new things by gathering and looking out for what othersaround have done this can helps in childcare setting as it helps to learn from others andallows developing on your learning.Research helps to test a hypothesis or theory by looking up on what others may say andstatistic that are given can strengthen and weaken your hypothesis by the information thatyour may have gathered.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 4
  5. 5. Research helps people finding result. It illuminates people: They see what have beenhidden or what has been missed.Types of researchThere are three types of research, pure, original, and secondary. Each type has the goal offinding information and/or understanding something. The difference comes in thestrategy employed in achieving the objective. 1. Pure ResearchPure research is research done simply to find out something by examining anything. Forinstance, in some pure scientific research scientists discover what properties variousmaterials possess. It is not for the sake of applying those properties to anything inparticular, but simply to find out what properties there are. Pure mathematics is for thesake of seeing what happens, not to solve a problem.The fun of pure research is that you are not looking for anything in particular. Instead,anything and everything you find may be joined with anything else just to see where thatcombination would lead, if anywhere. 2. Original ResearchOriginal or primary research is looking for information that nobody else has found.Observing peoples response to advertising, how prison sentences influence crime rates,doing tests, observations, experiments, etc., are to discover something new.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 5
  6. 6. Original research requires two things: 1) knowing what has already been discovered,having a background on the subject; and 2) formulating a method to find out what youwant to know. To accomplish the first you indulge in secondary research.For the second, you decide how best to find the information you need to arrive at aconclusion. This method may be using focus groups, interviews, observations,expeditions, experiments, surveys, etc. 3. Secondary ResearchSecondary research is finding out what others have discovered through original researchand trying to reconcile conflicting viewpoints or conclusions, find new relationshipsbetween normally non-related researches, and arrive at your own conclusion based onothers work. This is, of course, the usual course for college students.Secondary research should not be belittled simply because it is not original research.Fresh insights and viewpoints, based on a wide variety of facts gleaned from originalresearch in many areas, has often been a source of new ideas. Even more, it has provideda clearer understanding of what the evidence means without the influence of the originalresearchers prejudices and preconceptions.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 6
  7. 7. Question 2- AnswerWrite comprehensive notes to show understanding on the following a) Primary dataPrimary data is the specific information collected by the person who is doing theresearch. It can be obtained through clinical trials, case studies, true experiments andrandomized controlled studies. This information can be analyzed by other experts whomay decide to test the validity of the data by repeating the same experiments.Primary data is important for all areas of research because it is unvarnished informationabout the results of an experiment or observation. It is like the eyewitness testimony at atrial. No one has tarnished it or spun it by adding their own opinion or bias so it can formthe basis of objective conclusions.Primary data is data gathered for the first time by the researcher. Primary data is a directreport from someone who was actively involved in whatever it is you are discussing. Themerit of primary data is that it is direct information, uncontaminated by being transmittedthrough another source. The demerits of primary data are that sometimes the person whois on the field sees only part of the action.Using primary dataAn advantage of using primary data is that researchers are collecting information for thespecific purposes of their study. In essence, the questions the researchers ask are tailoredto elicit the data that will help them with their study. Researchers collect the datathemselves, using surveys, interviews and direct observationsFor example in a recent Institute study, researchers wanted to find out about workers’experiences in return to work after a work-related injury. Part of the research involvedinterviewing workers by telephone and asking them questions about how long they wereoff work and about their experiences with the return-to-work process.The workers’ answers are considered primary data. From this, the researchers gotanswers to specific information about the return-to-work process including the rates ofwork accommodation offers, and why some workers refused such an offer.Advantage and disadvantage of using Primary data is that Primary data offers tailoredinformation but tends to be expensive to conduct and takes a long time to process.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 7
  8. 8. b) Secondary dataSecondary data is data taken by the researcher from secondary sources, internal orexternal. Secondary data is of two kinds, internal and external. Secondary data – whetherinternal or external – is data already collected by others, for purposes other than thesolution of the problem on hand. The merit of secondary data is that it can be gatheredfrom a number of primary sources and weighed together to put together an overallassessment of what has happened.In research, Secondary data is collecting and possibly processing data by people otherthan the researcher in question. Common sources of secondary data for social scienceinclude censuses, large surveys, and organizational records.Advantages to the secondary data collection method are:1) It saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data,2) Provides a larger database (usually) than what would be possible to collect on ones own However there are disadvantages to the fact that the researcher cannot personally check the data so its reliability may be questioned.Using secondary dataThere are several types of secondary data. They can include information from the Census,a company’s health and safety records such as their injury rates, or other governmentstatistical information such as the number of workers in different sectorsSecondary data tends to be readily available and inexpensive to obtain. In addition,secondary data can be examined over a longer period of time. For example, you can lookat a company’s lost-time rates over several years to see at trends.Advantage and disadvantage of using Secondary data is that Secondary data is usuallyinexpensive to obtain and can be analyzed in less time. However, because it was gatheredfor other purposes, you may need to tease out the information to find what you’re lookingfor. c) Random samplingWhat Is a Random Sample?A random sample is a subset of individuals that are randomly selected from a population.Because researchers usually cannot obtain data from every single person in a group, asmaller portion is randomly selected to represent the entire group as a whole. The goal isto obtain a sample that is representative of the larger population.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 8
  9. 9. In statistics, a sample is a subject chosen from a population for investigation; a randomsample is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component. Random sampling can also refer to taking a number of independent observations fromthe same probability distribution, without involving any real population. The sampleusually is not a representative of the population of people from which it was drawn— thisrandom variation in the results is termed as sampling error. In the case of randomsamples, mathematical theory is available to assess the sampling error. Thus, estimatesobtained from random samples can be accompanied by measures of the uncertaintyassociated with the estimate. This can take the form of a standard error, or if the sample islarge enough for the central limit theorem to take effect, confidence intervals may becalculated. ( sampling is one of the most popular types of random or probability sampling.In this technique, each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected assubject. The entire process of sampling is done in a single step with each subject selectedindependently of the other members of the population. (Random Sampling - ProbabilitySampling. )There are many methods to proceed with simple random sampling. The most primitiveand mechanical would be the lottery method. Each member of the population is assigneda unique number. Each number is placed in a bowl or a hat and mixed thoroughly. Theblind-folded researcher then picks numbered tags from the hat. All the individualsbearing the numbers picked by the researcher are the subjects for the study. Another waywould be to let a computer do a random selection from your population. For populationswith a small number of members, it is advisable to use the first method but if thepopulation has many members, a computer-aided random selection is preferred.Advantages of Simple Random SamplingOne of the best things about simple random sampling is the ease of assembling thesample. It is also considered as a fair way of selecting a sample from a given populationsince every member is given equal opportunities of being selected.Another key feature of simple random sampling is its representativeness of thepopulation. Theoretically, the only thing that can compromise its representativeness is- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 9
  10. 10. luck. If the sample is not representative of the population, the random variation is calledsampling error.An unbiased random selection and a representative sample is important in drawingconclusions from the results of a study. Remember that one of the goals of research is tobe able to make conclusions pertaining to the population from the results obtained from asample. Due to the representativeness of a sample obtained by simple random sampling,it is reasonable to make generalizations from the results of the sample back to thepopulation.Disadvantages of Simple Random SamplingOne of the most obvious limitations of simple random sampling method is its need of acomplete list of all the members of the population. Please keep in mind that the list of thepopulation must be complete and up-to-date. This list is usually not available for largepopulations. In cases as such, it is wiser to use other sampling techniques. d) Systematic samplingSystem Sampling is a method of selecting sample members from a larger populationaccording to a random starting point and a fixed, periodic interval. Typically, every "nth"member is selected from the total population for inclusion in the sample population.Systematic sampling is still thought of as being random, as long as the periodic interval isdetermined beforehand and the starting point is random.( sampling is a statistical method involving the selection of elements from anordered sampling frame.Systematic sampling is to be applied only if the given population is logicallyhomogeneous, because systematic sample units are uniformly distributed over thepopulation. The researcher must ensure that the chosen sampling interval does not hide apattern. Any pattern would threaten randomness.Example: Suppose a supermarket wants to study buying habits of their customers, thenusing systematic sampling they can choose every 10th or 15th customer entering thesupermarket and conduct the study on this sample.A common way of selecting members for a sample population using systematic samplingis simply to divide the total number of units in the general population by the desired- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 10
  11. 11. number of units for the sample population. The result of the division serves as the markerfor selecting sample units from within the general population.For example, if you wanted to select a random group of 1,000 people from a populationof 50,000 using systematic sampling, you would simply select every 50th person, since50,000/1,000 = 50.In systematic random sampling, the researcher first randomly picks the first item orsubject from the population. Then, the researcher will select each nth subject from thelist.The procedure involved in systematic random sampling is very easy and can be donemanually. The results are representative of the population unless certain characteristics ofthe population are repeated for every nth individual, which is highly unlikely.Advantages of Systematic Sampling  The main advantage of using systematic sampling over simple random sampling is its simplicity. It allows the researcher to add a degree of system or process into the random selection of subjects.  Another advantage of systematic random sampling over simple random sampling is the assurance that the population will be evenly sampled. There exists a chance in simple random sampling that allows a clustered selection of subjects. This is systematically eliminated in systematic sampling.Disadvantage of Systematic Sampling  The process of selection can interact with a hidden periodic trait within the population. If the sampling technique coincides with the periodicity of the trait, the sampling technique will no longer be random and representativeness of the sample is compromised. e) Stratified sampling"Stratified sampling" is a way of getting an average which represents the entire universe,or everything that exists that somebody wants to count or measure. The entire universe isbroken down into groups that don’t overlap and a sample is taken from each group.A stratified sample is a probability sampling technique in which the researcher dividesthe entire target population into different subgroups, or strata, and then randomly selects- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 11
  12. 12. the final subjects proportionally from the different strata. This type of sampling is usedwhen the researcher wants to highlight specific subgroups within the population.For example, to obtain a stratified sample of university students, the researcher wouldfirst organize the population by college class and then select appropriate numbers offreshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors. This ensures that the researcher has adequateamounts of subjects from each class in the final sample.It is important to note that the strata used in stratified sampling must not overlap. Havingoverlapping subgroups will give some individuals a higher chance of being selected assubjects in the sample. If this happened, it would not be a probability sample.Some of the most common strata used in stratified random sampling are age, gender,religion, educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and nationality.When to Use Stratified SamplingThere are many situations in which researchers would choose stratified random samplingover other types of sampling. First, it is used when the researcher wants to highlight aspecific subgroup within the population. Stratified sampling is good for this because itensures the presence of key subgroups within the sample.Researchers also use stratified random sampling when they want to observe relationshipsbetween two or more subgroups. With this type of sampling, the researcher is guaranteedsubjects from each subgroup are included in the final sample,Advantages of Stratified SamplingUsing a stratified sample will always achieve greater precision than a simple randomsample, provided that the strata have been chosen so that members of the same stratumare as similar as possible in terms of the characteristic of interest. Administratively, it isoften more convenient to stratify a sample than to select a simple random sample.Another advantage that stratified random sampling has is that is guarantees bettercoverage of the population. The researcher has control over the subgroups that areincluded in the sample,DisadvantagesStratified sampling is not useful when the population cannot be exhaustively partitionedinto disjoint subgroups. It would be a misapplication of the technique to make subgroups- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 12
  13. 13. sample sizes proportional to the amount of data available from the subgroups, rather thanscaling sample sizes to subgroup sizesAgain it Stratified sampling can be difficult to identify appropriate strata for a study. Alast disadvantage is that it is more complex to organize and analyze the results comparedto simple random sampling f) Multistage samplingMultistage Sampling: Multistage Sampling is a sampling strategy (e.g., gatheringparticipants for a study) used when conducting studies involving a very large population.The entire population is divided into naturally-occurring clusters and sub-clusters, fromwhich the researcher randomly selects the sample.For example, you want to conduct a survey of salespeople for a nationwide retail chainwith stores all over the country. You could randomly select states, randomly selectcounties in each state, randomly select stores in each county, and randomly selectsalespeople in those stores( multi-stage sample is one in which sampling is done sequentially across two or morehierarchical levels, such as first at the county level, second at the census track level, thirdat the block level, fourth at the household level, and ultimately at the within-householdlevel. Many probability sampling methods can be classified as single-stage samplingversus multi-stage sampling. Single-stage samples include simple random sampling,systematic random sampling, and stratified random sampling. In single-stage samples, theelements in the target population are assembled into a sampling frame; one of thesetechniques is used to directly select a sample of elements In contrast, in multi-stagesampling, the sample is selected in stages, often taking into account the hierarchical(nested) structure of the population. The target population of elements is divided intofirst-stage units, often referred to as primary sampling units which are the ones sampledfirst. The selected first-stage secondary...Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling.Advantages  cost and speed that the survey can be done in  convenience of finding the survey sample  normally more accurate than cluster sampling for the same size sample- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 13
  14. 14. Disadvantages  Is not as accurate as SRS if the sample is the same size  More testing is difficult to doUsing all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensiveor not necessary. Under these circumstances, multistage cluster sampling becomes useful.Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters, the researcherrandomly selects elements from each cluster. Constructing the clusters is the first stage.Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. The technique isused frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist andis inappropriate. g) Independent variableThe independent variable is the characteristic of a psychology experiment that ismanipulated or changed.For example, in an experiment looking at the effects of studying on test scores, studyingwould be the independent variable. Researchers are trying to determine if changes to theindependent variable result in significant changes to the dependent variable (the testresults)An independent variable is a factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment(e.g. time, temperature, concentration, etc). It is usually what will affect the dependentvariable.There are two types of independent variables, which are often treated differently instatistical analyses:  quantitative variables that differ in amounts or scale and can be ordered (e.g. weight, temperature, time).  qualitative variables which differ in "types" and can not be ordered (e.g. gender, species, method). By convention when graphing data, the independent variable is plotted along the horizontal X-axis with the dependent variable on the vertical Y-axis. h) Dependent variable- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 14
  15. 15. A dependent variable is also known as a "response variable", "regressand", "measuredvariable", "observed variable", "responding variable", "explained variable", "outcomevariable", "experimental variable", and "output variable. (By Dodge, Y. (2003) TheOxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN)The dependent variable is the variable that is simply measured by the researcher. It is thevariable that reflects the influence of the independent variable. For example, thedependent variable would be the variable that is influenced by being randomly assignedto either an experimental condition or a control condition.A dependent Variable is a factor or phenomenon that is changed by the effect of anassociated factor or phenomenon called the independent variable.For example, consumption is a dependent variable because it is caused and influenced byanother variable: income. In a mathematical equation or model, the dependent variable isthe variable whose value is to be determined by that equation or model. In an experiment,it is the variable whose behavior under controlled conditions (that are allowed to changein an organized manner) is studied.( The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured in an experiment. For example, in a study on the effects of tutoring on test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants test scores. In a psychology experiment, researchers are looking at how changes in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable.Examples of Dependent Variables  Researchers want to discover if listening to classical music helps students earn better grades on a math exam. In this example, the scores on the math exams are the dependent variable.  Researchers are interested in seeing how long it takes people to respond to different sounds. In this example, the length of time it takes participants to respond to a sound is the dependent variable.  Researchers want to know whether first-born children learn to speak at a younger age than second-born children. In this example, the dependent variable is the age at which the child learns to speak. i) Hypothesis testing- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 15
  16. 16. A statistical hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter. Thisassumption may or may not be true. Hypothesis testing refers to the formal proceduresused by statisticians to accept or reject statistical hypotheses.A process by which an analyst tests a statistical hypothesis. The methodology employedby the analyst depends on the nature of the data used, and the goals of the analysis.The goal is to either accept or reject the null hypothesis.( testing is a common practice in science that involves conducting tests andexperiments to see if a proposed explanation for an observed phenomenon works inpractice. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for some kind of observed phenomenon,and is an important part of the scientific method.Any tentative explanation can be referred to as a hypothesis if it can be submitted tohypothesis testing. There are, however, a set of guidelines for an explanation to beconsidered a true scientific hypothesis. The first major point is testability; a scientifichypothesis must be able to proceed to the stage of hypothesis testing to be considered ascientifically legitimate hypothesis. It is generally suggested that a hypothesis berelatively simple, though this is not always possible. Hypotheses must also be able toexplain the phenomena under any set of conditions; if a hypothesis can only explain aphenomenon in one set of conditions, it is generally considered unacceptable.Hypotheses are generally considered useful only if they are likely to improve on thecurrent body of knowledge on a subject and pave the way for greater knowledge to beacquired in the future. Also, a hypothesis is generally not acknowledged if it defies othercommonly recognized knowledge. If a hypothesis meets all of these requirements, it willtypically proceed to the hypothesis testing phase.In hypothesis testing, the testers seek to discover evidence that either validates ordisproves a given hypothesis. Usually, this involves a series of experiments beingconducted in many different conditions. If the hypothesis does not stand up to the tests inall conditions, something is usually wrong with the hypothesis and a new one must beformed to take the new information into account. The new hypothesis is submitted to thesame hypothesis testing. If it passes and is not proven wrong, it can eventually beconsidered a scientific theory or law, though nothing in science can be proven to beabsolutely true.One common method of hypothesis testing is known as statistical hypothesis testing, andtypically deals with large quantities of data. Experiments and tests are conducted and the- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 16
  17. 17. data is collected. If the data collected shows that it is unlikely that the results occurred bychance, it is considered statistically significant and can be used to support a hypothesis.Hypothesis testing is the use of statistics to determine the probability that a givenhypothesis is true. The usual process of hypothesis testing consists of four steps.1. Formulate the null hypothesis (commonly, that the observations are the result ofpure chance) and the alternative hypothesis (commonly, that the observations show areal effect combined with a component of chance variation).2. Identify a test statistic that can be used to assess the truth of the null hypothesis.3. Compute the P-value, which is the probability that a test statistic at least as significantas the one observed would be obtained assuming that the null hypothesis were true. Thesmaller the -value, the stronger the evidence against the null hypothesis.4. Compare the -value to an acceptable significance value (sometimes called an alphavalue). If , that the observed effect is statistically significant, the null hypothesis isruled out, and the alternative hypothesis is valid. j) Cause - effect relationsCause-effect relation is a relation between cause-concept and effect-concept.Cause-effect relation is represented in the main memory by cause-effect relation table.Example:“Sun” is a cause for “heat”.“Fire” is a cause for “heat”.“Sun” is a cause for “sunburn”.So, there are 3 cause-effect relations in this example:{Sun->heat}{Fire->heat}{Sun->sunburn}- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 17
  18. 18. Why are cause-effect relations so important?Cause-effect relations are so important because:1) Cause-effect relations help to understand what would happen as a result of currentsituation. Cause effect relations help to predict the future of current context.In order to find out what would happen, strong AI should just find all effect concepts forspecified concepts.2) Cause-effect relations help to understand what strong AI can do in order to achievesome goals.In order to figure out what to do, strong AI should just find cause concepts for thespecified goal-concepts (sub goals).Example (based on diagram above):1) Let imagine that strong AI wants to find out what would be the result of the sun. Inorder to figure that out, strong AI would take a look into cause-effect relations and findout that probable results are “Heat” and “SunBurn”.2) Let’s imagine that current goal of strong AI is “Heat”. In order to achieve this goalstrong AI should follow cause-effect relation in reverse direction and find out that “Fire”and “Sun” concepts could help to achieve the current goal “Heat”.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 18
  19. 19. Question 3- AnswerDiscuss the major types of data collectionData collection is any process of preparing and collecting data, for example, as part of aprocess improvement or similar project. The purpose of data collection is to obtaininformation to keep on record, to make decisions about important issues, or to passinformation on to others. Data are primarily collected to provide information regarding aspecific topicData Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate datacollection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results.Data collection methods for impact evaluation vary along a continuum. At the one end ofthis continuum are quantatative methods and at the other end of the continuum areQualitative methods for data collection( )Quantitative and Qualitative Data collection methodsThe Quantitative data collection methods, rely on random sampling and structured datacollection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.They produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize.Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory and/orbeing able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest. Depending on the researchquestion, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments. If this is notfeasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics inorder to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. Ifthe intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, theresearcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include:  Experiments/clinical trials.  Observing and recording well-defined events (e.g., counting the number of patients waiting in emergency at specified times of the day).  Obtaining relevant data from management information systems.  Administering surveys with closed-ended questions (e.g., face-to face and telephone interviews, questionnaires etc). ( Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 19
  20. 20. InterviewsIn Quantitative research (survey research),interviews are more structured than inQualitative research. In a structured interview, the researcher asks a standard set ofquestions and nothing more.Face -to -face interviews have a distinct advantage of enabling the researcher toestablish rapport with potential participants and therefore gain their cooperation. Theseinterviews yield highest response rates in survey research. They also allow the researcherto clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate, seek follow-up information.Disadvantages include impractical when large samples are involved time consuming andexpensive.(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)Telephone interviews are less time consuming and less expensive and the researcher hasready access to anyone on the planet that has a telephone. Disadvantages are that theresponse rate is not as high as the face-to- face interview as but considerably higher thanthe mailed questionnaire. The sample may be biased to the extent that people withoutphones are part of the population about whom the researcher wants to draw inferences.Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI): is a form of personal interviewing,but instead of completing a questionnaire, the interviewer brings along a laptop or hand-held computer to enter the information directly into the database. This method saves timeinvolved in processing the data, as well as saving the interviewer from carrying aroundhundreds of questionnaires. However, this type of data collection method can beexpensive to set up and requires that interviewers have computer and typing skills.QuestionnairesPaper-pencil-questionnaires can be sent to a large number of people and saves theresearcher time and money. People are more truthful while responding to thequestionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that theirresponses are anonymous. But they also have drawbacks. Majority of the people whoreceive questionnaires dont return them and those who do might not be representative ofthe originally selected sample.(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)Web based questionnaires : A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use ofInternet based research. This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would clickon an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. This typeof research is often quicker and less detailed. Some disadvantages of this method includethe exclusion of people who do not have a computer or are unable to access a computer.Also the validity of such surveys are in question as people might be in a hurry to- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 20
  21. 21. complete it and so might not give accurate responses.( often make use of Checklist and rating scales. These devices helpsimplify and quantify peoples behaviors and attitudes A checklist is a list of behaviors,characteristics, or other entities that te researcher is looking for. Either the researcher orsurvey participant simply checks whether each item on the list is observed, present or trueor vice versa. A rating scale is more useful when a behavior needs to be evaluated on acontinuum. (Leedy and Ormrod, 2001) Qualitative data collection methods play an important role in impact evaluation byproviding information useful to understand the processes behind observed results andassess changes in people’s perceptions of their well-being .Furthermore qualitativemethods can be used to improve the quality of survey-based quantitative evaluations byhelping generate evaluation hypothesis; strengthening the design of survey questionnairesand expanding or clarifying quantitative evaluation findings. These methods arecharacterized by the following attributes:  they tend to be open-ended and have less structured protocols (i.e., researchers may change the data collection strategy by adding, refining, or dropping techniques or informants)  they rely more heavily on iterative interviews; respondents may be interviewed several times to follow up on a particular issue, clarify concepts or check the reliability of data  they use triangulation to increase the credibility of their findings (i.e., researchers rely on multiple data collection methods to check the authenticity of their results)  generally their findings are not generalizable to any specific population, rather each case study produces a single piece of evidence that can be used to seek general patterns among different studies of the same issueRegardless of the kinds of data involved, data collection in a qualitative study takes agreat deal of time. The researcher needs to record any potentially useful data thoroughly,accurately, and systematically, using field notes, sketches, audiotapes, photographs andother suitable means. The data collection methods must observe the ethical principles ofresearch.The qualitative methods most commonly used in evaluation can be classified in threebroad categories:  in-depth interview  observation methods  document review- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 21
  22. 22. Question 4- AnswerCompare and show appropriateness in use of methods and techniquesof analyzing dataAnalysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling datawith the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supportingdecision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diversetechniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social sciencedomains.Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logicaltechniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data. According toShamoo and Resnik (2003) various analytic procedures “provide a way of drawinginductive inferences from data and distinguishing the signal (the phenomenon of interest)from the noise (statistical fluctuations) present in the data”..While data analysis in qualitative research can include statistical procedures, many timesanalysis becomes an ongoing iterative process where data is continuously collected andanalyzed almost simultaneously. Indeed, researchers generally analyze for patterns inobservations through the entire data collection phase (Savenye, Robinson, 2004). Theform of the analysis is determined by the specific qualitative approach taken (field study,ethnography content analysis, oral history, biography, unobtrusive research) and the formof the data (field notes, documents, audiotape, and videotape).An essential component of ensuring data integrity is the accurate and appropriate analysisof research findings. Improper statistical analyses distort scientific findings, misleadcasual readers (Shepard, 2002), and may negatively influence the public perception ofresearch. Integrity issues are just as relevant to analysis of non-statistical data as well.Once have your data, you must ANALYZE it. There are many different ways to analyzedata: some are simple and some are complex. Some involve grouping, while othersinvolve detailed statistical analysis. The most important thing you do is to choose amethod that is in harmony with the parameters you have set and with the kind of data youhave collected.With the data in a form that is now useful, the researcher can begin the process ofanalyzing the data to determine what has been learned. The method used to analyze datadepends on the approach used to collect the information (secondary research, primary- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 22
  23. 23. quantitative research or primary qualitative research). For primary research the selectionof method of analysis also depends on the type of research instrument used to collect theinformation.Essentially there are two types of methods of analysis – descriptive and inferential.Descriptive Data AnalysisDescriptive analysis, as the name implies, is used to describe the results obtained. In mostcases the results are merely used to provide a summary of what has been gathered (e.g.,how many liked or dislike a product) without making a statement of whether the resultshold up to statistical evaluation. For quantitative data collection the most commonmethods used for this basic level of analysis are visual representations, such as charts andtables, and measures of central tendency including averages (i.e., mean value). Forqualitative data collection, where analysis may consist of the researcher’s owninterpretation of what was learned, the information may be coded or summarized intogrouping categories.Inferential Data AnalysisWhile descriptive data analysis can present a picture of the results, to really be useful theresults of research should allow the researcher to accomplish other goals such as:  Using information obtained from a small group (i.e., sample of customers) to make judgments about a larger group (i.e., all customers)  Comparing groups to see if there is a difference in how they respond to an issue  Forecasting what may happen based on collected informationTo move beyond simply describing results requires the use of inferential data analysiswhere advanced statistical techniques are used to make judgments (i.e., inferences) aboutsome issue (e.g., is one type of customer different from another type of customer). Usinginferential data analysis requires a well-structured research plan that follows the scientificmethod. Also, most (but not all) inferential data analysis techniques require the use ofquantitative data collection.As an example of the use of inferential data analysis, a marketer may wish to know ifNorth American, European and Asian customers differ in how they rate certain issues.The marketer uses a survey that includes a number of questions asking customers from allthree regions to rate issues on a scale of 1 to 5. If a survey is constructed properly themarketer can compare each group using statistical software that tests whether differencesexists. This analysis offers much more insight than simply showing how many customersfrom each region responded to each question.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 23
  24. 24. Question 5- AnswerOutline the major parts of a Final Research Report. Briefly explain thecontent expected to find in each part.Writing your research paper requires careful forethought. The major parts of a FinalResearch Report are listed as:- Introduction- Literature review- Design/ Methods- Results- ConclusionMy Outline should include the following ingredients: 1. INTROCUCTIONThe main purpose of the INTRODUCTION is to give a description of the problem thatwill be addressed. In this section the researcher might discuss the nature of the research,the purpose of the research, the significance of the research problem, and the researchquestion(s) to be addressed.Three essential parts of a good introduction are:  RATIONALE  PURPOSE  RESEARCH QUESTION(S) a) RATIONALESomewhere in the introduction you need to inform the reader of the rationale of yourresearch. This is a brief explanation of why your research topic is worthy of study andmay make a significant contribution to the body of already existing research b) PURPOSE- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 24
  25. 25. The statement of purpose is not simply a statement of why the research is being done.(That is what the rationale section is for.) Rather, "purpose" refers to the goal or objectiveof your research. The purpose statement should answer questions….  "What are the objectives of my research?" and  "What do I expect to discover or learn from this research?" c) RESEARCH QUESTIONThe introduction usually ends with a research question or questions. This question shouldbe. . .  Related to your research purpose  Focused  Clear 2. LITERATURE REVIEWAs part of the planning process you should have done a LITERATURE REVIEW,which is a survey of important articles, books and other sources pertaining to yourresearch topic. Now, for the second main section of your research report you need towrite a summary of the main studies and research related to your topic. This review of theprofessional literature relevant to your research question will help to contextualize, orframe, your research. It will also give readers the necessary background to understandyour research.Evaluating other studies:In a review of the literature, you do not merely summarize the research findings thatothers have reported. You must also evaluate and comment on each studys worth andvalidity. You may find that some published research is not valid. If it also runs counter toyour hypothesis, you may want to critique it in your review. Dont just ignore it. Tell howyour research will be better/overcome the flaws. Doing this can strengthen the rationalefor conducting your research.Selecting the studies to include in the review:You do not need to report on every published study in the area of your research topic.Choose those studies which are most relevant and most importantOrganizing the review:After you have decided which studies to review, you must decide how to order them. Inmaking your selection, keep your research question in mind. It should be your mostimportant guide in determining what other studies are relevant. Many people simplecreate a list of one-paragraph summaries in chronological order. This is not always themost effective way to organize your review. You should consider other ways, such as...- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 25
  26. 26.  By topic  Problem -> solution  Cause -> effectAnother approach is to organize your review by argument and counter argument. Forexample. You may write about those studies that disagree with your hypothesis, and thendiscuss those that agree with it. Yet another way to organize the studies in your review isto group them according to a particular variable, such as age level of the subjects (childstudies, adult studies, etc.) or research method (case studies, experiments, etc.).The end of the review:The purpose of your review of the literature was to set the stage for your own research.Therefore, you should conclude the review with a statement of your hypothesis, orfocused research question. When this is done, you are ready to proceed with part three ofyour research report, in which you explain the methods you used. 3. DESIGN & METHODThe DESIGN & METHOD section of the report is where you explain to your readerhow you went about carrying out your research. You should describe the subjects, theinstruments used, the conditions under which the tests were given, how the tests werescored, how the results were analyzed, etc.Remember that this section needs to be very explicit. A good rule of thumb is to provideenough detail so that others could replicate all the important points of your research.Failure to provide adequate detail may raise doubts in your readers minds about yourprocedures and findings.Make sure you are honest and forthright in this section. For example, if you had someproblems with validity, acknowledge the weaknesses in your study so that others can takethem into account when they interpret it (and avoid them if they try to replicate it). 4. RESULTSn the RESULTS of your report you make sense of what you have found. Here you notonly present your findings but also talk about the possible reasons for those findings.Also, if your research approach was deductive, then here is where you accept or rejectyour hypothesis (based on your findings). In addition, in this section you should use yourknowledge of the subject in order to make intelligent comments about your results.Make sure your comments are related to (and based on) your research. Do not go beyondyour data. Also, as you report and interpret your findings do not exaggerate or- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 26
  27. 27. sensationalize them. Nor should you minimize them. A straightforward matter-of-factstyle is probably best. 5. CONCLUSIONIn the CONCLUSION to your report, you do a number of important things:1. Summarize the main points you made in your introduction and review of the literature2. Review (very briefly) the research methods and/or design you employed.3. Repeat (in abbreviated form) your findings.4. Discuss the broader implications of those findings.5. Mention the limitations of your research (due to its scope or its weaknesses)6. Offer suggestions for future research related to yoursABSTRACTSome research reports end (or begin) with an abstract. An abstract is a highly abbreviated(usually 100-200 words) synopsis of your research. It should describe your rationale andobjectives, as well as your methods and findings.Because of its limited length, an abstract cannot go into detail on any of these topics. Norcan it report on the limitations of your research or offer suggestions for future research.For those, readers will have to read the entire report. But, after reading your abstract,people unfamiliar with your research should know what it is about and whether they wantto read the entire report.- Assignment: 2012 by BWANAKWELI Chantal Page 27