Introduction by Facilitator                William ChakabwataProfessional Minute Taking and Report Writing Skills         ...
Administration issues• Start time for sessions: 0900hours• Tea Break: 1100hours to 1130hours• Lunch hour: 1300hours to 140...
Course objectives• Course Objectives• Organize meetings and document proceedings and  write effective reports• Develop a p...
Course Objectives• Set the key objectives for business documents• Write reports from the readers perspective and gain  rap...
Course Objectives cont…     Determine how to choose the most appropriate medium or combination off)   media to accomplish ...
Stress management• Stress is a response to danger• Stress is part of life in a fast-paced society.• However, contrary to p...
Two Types of stress• EUSTRESS: Stress that helps a person   perform at a higher level and achieve their goals.• DISTRESS: ...
Eustress• For example, the demands of an upcoming competition,  work project or exam can create stress, which stimulates a...
Distress• However, there are times when stress is overwhelming.  This type of stress—called distress—paralyses rather  tha...
What is stress?• Stress is the body‘s physical response to a perceivedthreat.• For stress to occur, there must be a percep...
Activity 1• In your writing pad answer the following Questions then   we will discuss your answers. You have 15minutes to ...
How does the body respond to stress?• The body respond to stress by getting into fight or flight  mode it has been with us...
Fight or flight responds• The ―fight or flight‖ response helps us escape from  danger.• For most of human history, danger ...
How does the Body Respond to Stress?• This response is hardwired into us.• So what happens in a person‘s body to prepare t...
How does the Body Respond to Stress?                Cont…• This means it needs to release and use energy, absorb   oxygen ...
Physiological effects of stress• The increased blood flow to essential body systems  such as the lungs and heart is accomp...
Physiological effects of stress cont…• Studies show that during chronic (i.e. long-term or  ongoing) stress, immune functi...
• The days of being chased by a predator are long gone,  but the ―fight or flight‖ response is still wired into us.• Today...
Quiz 1• Name two hormones that the body produces in  responses to stress• Explain how these hormones affect the supply of ...
How is the body affected by the fight or               flight response?• Keeping the body in a stimulated state of ―fight ...
What are the physical signs of stress?•  Increased heart rate•  Dry mouth•  Muscle aches, stiffness or•  pain (especially ...
What are the physical signs of stress?                    Cont…•   Chest pains•   Headaches•   Indigestion•   Constipation...
What are the behavioural signs of stress?•   Increased smoking,•   drinking, drug use•   Yelling•   Swearing•   Aggression...
QUIZ 2• List the physical signs of stress above.• List the signs of behavioural stress above• How do you react when you ar...
What are the mental signs of stress?•   Difficulty concentrating•   Decreased memory•   Difficulty making decisions•   Min...
My signs for mental stress area)b)c)d)
What are the emotional signs of stress?•   Anxiety•   Anger•   Irritability•   Impatience•   Short temper•   Frustration• ...
A 5 Step Guide to managing stressStep 1: Identify if you are stressedIf you are going to work on stress, then it is import...
Step 1 identify if you are stressed• For one person, the signs might be difficulty sleeping,  back pain and aggressive beh...
Can I go and see a doctor when I have                   stress?• It is important to note that some signs of stress are als...
Step 2: Identify the stressor• An event or situation that causes stress is called a  ―stressor‖.• The following are some t...
Step 2: Identify the stressor cont…• Those who know you well might be able to shed some  light on what is causing your str...
What are the general Stressors?• Social/relational: Rudeness or aggressiveness in others,  conflicts with others, not spen...
General stressors cont…• Physiological: Poor health, physical illness,   pregnancy, injury...The Cause of My Stress is:Bel...
Step 3: Identify the reason for the                   stressor• Now that you know the stressor, you need to identify  why ...
• Therefore, a person needs to look at two aspects of the  situation: their perceived demands and their perceived  resourc...
• Often, stress happens because the perception we have  of the demands is greater than they really are, or  because the pe...
Step 4: Select an appropriate stress     management strategy and apply it• There are literally hundreds of ways to manage ...
Stress Management Strategies that       Address the Symptoms of Stress• Stress management strategies that address the  sym...
relaxation strategies that have proved to          be useful in the short term1)Breathing exercisesBreathing exercises hav...
Massage• The experience of stress can result in tense muscles.  Since massage is an effective technique to relax tense  mu...
Exercise• However, in times of stress the hormone is• secreted but there is generally no physical action (e.g.  running, j...
Visualization• Visualization is a technique whereby you use the power  of your imagination to induce feelings of relaxatio...
Visualization cont…• Another way to use visualization for stress relief is to  visualize tension fading away. You can get ...
Meditation• The word ―meditation‖ derives from the Latin  meditatum, which means "to ponder". It involves  focusing attent...
Hot bath, sauna, hot tub• The physical changes that happen in the body as a   result of stress include the constriction of...
Music appreciation• Most of us listen to music regularly, but we rarely take  the time to truly appreciate the many facets...
Sex• Sex can be a great way to relax. Sexual activity can  release tension and can take a person‘s mind off their• problem...
Hobby• Anyone who spends time doing a hobby knows that it  can take a their mind off stress-producing thoughts and  can al...
Spending time with loved ones, including                   pets• The time we spend with people (or animals) we love  promo...
Stress Management Strategies that             Address the Stressor• Remember that stress is the bodys physical response  t...
Stress Management Strategies that             Address the Stressor• As we pointed out in Step 3, a danger can be real (e.g...
• The goal of both of these approaches is to reduce the  demands, build the resources—or a combination of  both—so that th...
• Because these strategies aim to remove the danger,  they are long-term strategies. Once the danger is gone,  so is the s...
The Problem-solving Approach to             Stress Management•   Define the problem•   Be clear and specific•   • Analyze ...
The Problem-solving Approach to           Stress Management• Evaluate each solution and select the best• option• What are ...
The Problem-solving Approach to             Stress Management•   Implement the best solution•   This is where you develop ...
The Cognitive Approach to Stress              Management• Imagined dangers are generated by our perception of a    situati...
The Cognitive Approach to Stress           Management cont…• An imagined danger can also be a result of not seeing    the ...
• In stressful situations where the danger is imagined, the   most effective stress management approach is to   change the...
The strategic decision making process• Define your objective(s)• What is it you want to achieve? Be clear.• An objective u...
Brainstorm possible ideas• Be creative.• ―Think outside the box‖.• Dont edit at this point, just write down what comes toy...
Select the most desirable decision:• Select the most desirable decision: the one that best   satisfies the objective(s) wi...
Decision making conditions• The conditions under which individuals make decisions  in an organization reflect the environm...
Decision making conditions cont…• The impact of decisions is always felt in the future• Hence the accuracy of information ...
Certainty• Is the condition under which individuals are fully  informed about a problem, alternative solutions are  obviou...
Risk• Risk means that the problem and alternative solutions  fall somewhere between extremes of being relatively  common a...
Subjective probability• The likelihood that a certain outcome will occur based  on personal judgment and beliefs• Such jud...
Types of decisions• Decisions can be classified as :• Innovative• Adaptive• RoutineInnovative –are choices based on the di...
Adaptive &Routine decisions• Adaptive decisions often involve modifying and  improving upon past routine decisions and pra...
Time Management
Why Time Management is Important• “The Time Famine”• Bad time management = stress• This is life advice                    ...
Hear me Now, Believe me Later• Being successful doesn’t  make you manage your time  well.• Managing your time well  makes ...
The Problem is SevereBy some estimates, people waste about 2 hours per  day. Signs of time wasting:  – Messy desk and clut...
Goals, Priorities, and Planning• Why am I doing this?• What is the goal?• Why will I succeed?• What happens if I chose not...
The 80/20 Rule• Critical few and the trivial many• Having the courage of your convictions• Good judgment comes from experi...
Quiz1.Identify the 20 most critical activities you need to do on   your job in order to be effective.2. List trivial activ...
The 80/20 Rule• Critical few and the trivial many• Having the courage of your convictions• Good judgment comes from experi...
TO Do Lists• Break things down into small steps• Like a child cleaning his/her room• Do the ugliest thing first           ...
The four-quadrant TO DO List            Due        Not Due Soon            SoonImportant     1           2NotImportant    ...
Paperwork• Clutter is death; it leads to thrashing. Keep desk  clear: focus on one thing at a time• A good file system is ...
Speakerphone: handsare free to dosomethingelse; stressreduction when               82I‘m on hold.
Telephone• Keep calls short; stand during call• Start by announcing goals for the call• Don’t put your feet up• Have somet...
Telephone• When done, get off: “I have students waiting”• If necessary, hang up while you’re talking• Group outgoing calls...
Office Logistics• Make your office comfortable for you, and  optionally comfortable for others• No soft comfortable chairs...
Scheduling Yourself• You don’t find time for important things, you make  it• Everything you do is an opportunity cost• Lea...
Everyone has Good and Bad Times• Find your creative/thinking time. Defend it  ruthlessly, spend it alone, maybe at home.• ...
Cutting Things Short• “I’m in the middle of something now…”• Start with “I only have 5 minutes” – you can  always extend t...
Using Time Journal Data• What am I doing that doesn’t really need to  be done?• What am I doing that could be done by  som...
Procrastination“Procrastination is the     thief of time”                       Edward Young                Night Thoughts...
Avoiding Procrastination• Doing things at the last minute is much more  expensive than just before the last minute• Deadli...
The very busy people, and to make those       As an administrator , you are                                     Truth!    ...
Thevery busy people, and to make those       As college students, you are                                    Truth!       ...
Steps to Managing Your Time1.   Set goals2.   Make a schedule3.   Revisit and revise your plan
Procrastination:        “Never do today what you can put off „till tomorrow!”Forms of procrastination:• Ignoring the task,...
How to Overcome Procrastination• Win the mental battle by committing to being on time.• Set and keep deadlines.• Organize,...
Facts About Time Management• 80% of employees do not want to go to work on  Monday morning. By Friday, the rate only drops...
Facts About Time Management Cont…• By taking 1 hour per day for independent study, 7 hours  per week, 365 hours in a year,...
Facts About Time Management Cont..• 25% of sick days are taken for illness. 75% of sick days  are taken for other reasons....
Facts About Time Management Cont..• 80% of "Crisis Management" events are preventable.• The average worker spends 35 minut...
Facts About Time Management Cont..• 20% of the average workday is spent on "crucial" and  "important" things, while 80% of...
Facts About Time Management Cont..• 90% of those who join health and fitness clubs will stop  going within the first 90 da...
Facts About Time Management Cont• Good Time Managers do not allocate their time to those  who "demand" it, but rather, to ...
Facts About Time Management Cont..• Money comes from well used time:• Consultants charge for the work done according to ti...
Delegating & Time Management• Delegation is an unlimited method to multiply time for  achieving results.• The hardest part...
• Half of what is known today, we did not know 10 years  ago. The amount of knowledge in the world has  doubled in the las...
Delegation and motivation• Definition of delegation- Delegation of authority is whenManagers assign to subordinates the ri...
Delegation cont…• Managers can not accomplish organizational goals on  their own• The following six principles are importa...
Principles for improving delegation3. Involve subordinates – The challenge of work itself wont   always encourage subordin...
Principles of delegation• 5. Provide training. Delegation can be only as effective  as the ability of people to perform th...
The art of delegation• Treat delegation as a career-building tool that provides  employees with needed experience to prepa...
The art of delegation cont…• Let employees establish their own plan(s) of action• Establish feedback controls
Delegation• No one is an island• You can accomplish a lot more with help                                            113
Delegation is not dumping• Grant authority with responsibility.• Concrete goal, deadline, and consequences.• Treat your pe...
Challenge People• People rise to the challenge: You should  delegate “until they complain”• Communication Must Be Clear: “...
• Reinforce behavior you want repeated• Ignorance is your friend – I do not know how to run  the photocopier or the fax ma...
What is Assertiveness?• Assertiveness is the ability to state positively and constructively your rights or needs without  ...
Benefits of Assertiveness• Acting assertive helps maintain honesty in  relationships, allows you to feel more in control o...
• This is based upon a belief that other people‘s needs, opinions, and judgments are more important than your own. Believi...
• This can cause you to act passively to conform to  these beliefs. A few examples include the right to• decide how to lea...
Is Assertiveness Selfish?• Selfish means being concerned excessively or   exclusively with oneself. This is not assertiven...
• If you struggle with being assertive, you may have  mislabeled assertive behavior by others as aggressive.  This may hel...
Practice Makes Better• Recognizing what causes your lack of assertiveness is  helpful, but committing to change is more im...
• It‘s all part of the process of growing to be more   assertive. Notice the general trend of your success. And   give you...
• What did you say? (4) what you did well in this situation; and, (5) reminders to yourself about what you will do next   ...
QUIZ• Write three assertive statements you would want to:• use at home• at work
Non-Assertive, Assertive and             Aggressive Styles• Non-assertive – failing to stand up for oneself, or  standing ...
Tenets of Assertion• By standing up for ourselves and communicating our  needs, we gain self- respect. · Others respect a ...
• Personal relationships are more authentic when we  share our reactions with other people and encourage  others to share ...
Assertiveness• May be confused with aggressive behavior, however,  assertion does not involve hurting the other person  ph...
• May involve negotiating a new solution with another  individual. Assertiveness does not imply I win/you lose.• · Concern...
Traits that Reduce Your Assertiveness         and Leadership Effectiveness•   Arbitrariness•   · Arrogance•   · Indecisive...
Meetings• Ensure agenda and relevant papers are distributed in  time with date, time and place of meeting.• Prepare and bo...
What is a meeting?• A meeting has been defined as an act or process of  coming together.• Key word is process• Meetings mu...
What are meetings for?• Meetings are used to exchange information• Exchange ideas and knowledge• Solve problems• Can offer...
Benefits of meetings• To exchange and evaluate information• Provide a forum for feedback• Offers an opportunity for genera...
Regulations governing meetings• Statutes – eg the companies Act• Regulations- rules which regulate conduct of such  meetin...
The three essential meeting stages• The 3 stages are:• Preparing for the meeting• Conducting the meeting• Evaluating the m...
Preparing the meeting• Ask why the find meetings frustrating or unproductivePeople often respond by stating the following:...
Responsibilities before the meeting• The meeting rules should clearly identify:• The chairperson• The meeting Administrato...
Establish objectives• Why is the meeting necessary?• Can the objectives be achieved without a meeting
Guidelines on not to hold a meeting• Don‘t hold a meeting when:• The appropriate participants are not there• There is not ...
Examples of goal oriented meeting                 objectives• To assign responsibilities for implementing the first  phase...
Meetings cont…• Take notes of what is said and decided  Minimum necessary:  – mixture of mnemonics and full transcript  – ...
Taking the minutes• Ask the clarification when you need to make sure you  have the right information• Write only the key w...
How much to include?• Background – to put the item in context for readers who  were not at the meeting• Discussion- There ...
How much to include ? Cont…• Names of departments or other organizations• Decisions- a summary of what has been agreed• Ac...
Improving the style• Allow yourself time to check the minutes before  presenting them to the chairperson and distributing ...
Improving your style•    Each major contribution to the item will have a    separate paragraph• Use subparagraphs for subs...
Length of sentences• Avoid narrations: for example He said , she said  sydrome• Search for words like reported, explained,...
MEETINGSPeople express mixed views of meeting such as:• They are boring• They are unproductive• They are a waste of time• ...
THE INFORMAL MEETING• Usually scheduled by the telephone• A supervisor asks an assistant to administrator to call  several...
Informal meetings• It may take several calls and rescheduling to ensure that  your supervisor and key participants can att...
Informal meetings cont….• You may need to arrange for snacks for the meeting• If your company has a cafeteria you may need...
Venue for a meeting• A room with a large with a large central table is often   called a conference room• A conference room...
Meeting rooms• Some conference rooms may have television and or  teleconferencing facilities• A large room with chair arra...
The agenda•   Minutes of last meeting••   Review of Ms. O‘Leary‘s proposal••   Plant specifications••   Review of computer...
Exercise• Write in pair an agenda for a meeting using the  example of what you have covered so far.
The agenda• If the agenda is not distributed in advance distribute it at  the meeting.• Even if the agenda is distributed ...
Suggestions for the presider• Do not schedule meetings the day before a holiday or  Friday afternoon when people are anxio...
Suggestions for the presider• Do not allow discussion to ramble on. Always stay focused.• Do not allow the meeting to dive...
Exercise 2• List ways in which a chair can belittle other people  attending a meeting.
Suggestions for the attendee• Prepare for the meeting by reading background  material about the agenda items.• Always arri...
Suggestions for the attendee• Meet new business associates at the meeting. Do not  talk only with co-workers you know.• Do...
Why meetings are not successfull• The meeting chairperson and the attendees differ on  what is to be discussed.• The timin...
Keep control of the task• Describe the vision of the meeting. Its overall objective.  Begin each item by clarifying its go...
Keep control of the task• Be ready to focus the meeting‘s attention again and  again on these goals outcomes and measures ...
Establish the ground rules and guidelines• Establish your rules and stick to them.• Procedures should be simple, so that e...
During the meeting• Try to listen more than you talk. Improve your listening  will help you to:• Understand more fully wha...
The meeting administrator• Is the eyes and ears of the leader. He/ she advices the  leader, reminds him/ her of pertinent ...
Tips for being an effective recorder• Ask for clarification when you need to make sure you  have the right information.• W...
Minutes taking• Minutes may be defined as ― the official record of the  proceedings and business recorded at a meeting.
Uses of minutesThe principal uses and values of meetings may be  summarized as:• They constitute the official record of th...
Working minutes• This is the administrators major task at the end of the  meeting• It is also often the great headache• Le...
Working the minutes• Write up the minutes as soon as possible after the   meeting: within 24 hours if you can. They should...
Working minutes cont….•   The minutes agreed and signed•   Summaries of each item•   Matters arising•   Summarises of subm...
Working the minutes cont…• Lay out the minutes as neatly as possible• Allow a wide margin left margin and right margin and...
Constructing a minute• A fundamental principal in writing minutes is to avoid  narrative. Follow this simple structure to ...
Constructing a minutes cont…You should take care to include references to:• Recent events• Dates and place names• Names of...
Constructing a minutes cont…• Decision- a summary of what has been agreed. There  may be no point to add reasons or justif...
Constructing a minutes cont…• Each major contributing item will have a separate  paragraph• Use sub paragraphs for substan...
Writing sentences• Remove everything else –other ideas can be expressed  in their own sentence or if they are less importa...
Sentence construction• Examples:• Mr Brown reported that he had spoken to the importers  on Thursday….• Brian and Mary dis...
Resolutions• The only way in which members can express the will of the  company on any matter is by means of a Resolution ...
Recording resolutions• A well drafted resolution should : a) Be concisely and clearly worded all unnecessary big    words ...
Recording resolutions• Where an act is not only agreed upon at a meeting but    is effectively done at it, such as appoint...
Recording resolutions cont…• The phrase is however inappropriate if the matter can  not be accomplished at the meeting.
Specimen resolutions• The following examples are not purporting to cover  every contingency that may arise but should serv...
b) ―That the guarantee given by the council to the First National   Bank in respect of the overhead to be granted by the b...
Adoption of an agreement• That the agreement dated 10 December June 2012  between the Council and Namibia Breweries be and...
Writing resolutionsAppointment of an assistant Councilor. – After  considerable discussion on the question of the  appoint...
Time for writing up the minutes• Minutes in general should be written up as soon as it is  practicable , while the matter ...
Altering• Where a mistake has occurred in writing up the  minutes, they may be altered, provided that the chair  person ha...
Sentence construction cont….• Tense is another traditional bone of contention in  minute writing.• Some authorities say th...
Tenses• The minutes after all are dated: there is not a reason  why statements of current information should not be put  i...
Sentence construction• Passive verbs are the curse of minutes everywhere!• Of course minutes must be unbiased, but this do...
PLANNING A LARGE MEETING OR             CONFERENCE• Another name for a meeting is a conference.• . Meetings require carefu...
Factors to consider when planning a                    meeting• What is the purpose of the meeting? What is the hoped for ...
Factors to consider when planning a                 meeting cont…• What is the planned length of the meeting? Will the  me...
Factors to consider when planning a meeting• You will also need to determine whether the food will  include a full meal or...
Factors to consider when preparing for a                      meeting• Will there be an audio or video recording of the  m...
Where to have the meeting• Meetings can be held at hotels, motels, restaurants,  private clubs, resorts, state parks, and ...
Factors to be considered when selecting a           location for your meeting• Availability is the first consideration. Is...
Factors to be considered when selecting a       location for your meeting cont…• Are the chairs in the room comfortable? A...
Factors to be considered when selecting a       location for your meeting cont…• If equipment such as multimedia display u...
Factors to be considered when selecting a       location for your meeting cont…• What is the quality of the food? Is the f...
Factors to be considered when selecting a       location for your meeting cont…• Is there an area for displays or exhibits...
Food Service• When planning a meeting decide if food will be served.• The time of day and length of the meeting will  dete...
Food Service• . Today many people are on special diets, for example,  low-sodium, low fat, or vegetarian diets. It is impo...
Hotel/Motel Rooms• Reservations should be made for the meeting  participants who plan to stay overnight. Most hotels or  m...
Hotel/Motel Rooms• Also, if meeting participants are paying for their own  hotel rooms, you will need to decide whether th...
Execirse 3• Use the site evaluation form to evaluate the venue for  this training.
Contracts for Meeting Rooms• When a decision is made concerning a meeting location,  a contract should be signed.• Althoug...
Audio and Video Conferencing• Audio and Video conferencing are often less expensive  alternatives than bringing participan...
Very Important People• If VIPs (very important people) will be attending your  meeting, they may be given special treatmen...
Dealing with VIPs• Dealing with VIPs• Who are the VIPs?• Will the VIPs be met at the airport or train station? Who  will m...
Identification Badges• To help remember names and meet new business  associates, people attending meetings often wear name...
Web Site• To assist your meeting attendees, create a Web site or  add additional pages to your current Web site with  info...
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  • Professional minute t

    1. 1. Introduction by Facilitator William ChakabwataProfessional Minute Taking and Report Writing Skills 13– February 2013
    2. 2. Administration issues• Start time for sessions: 0900hours• Tea Break: 1100hours to 1130hours• Lunch hour: 1300hours to 1400hours• Rules of the Sessions are set by YOURSELVES.
    3. 3. Course objectives• Course Objectives• Organize meetings and document proceedings and write effective reports• Develop a professional writing process both to produce high-quality documents and to diagnose problems in documents.• Structure reports in a step-by-step format that connects with the reader• Write in a persuasive style for your audience• Set the key objectives for business documents• Write reports from the readers perspective and gain rapport
    4. 4. Course Objectives• Set the key objectives for business documents• Write reports from the readers perspective and gain rapport• Determine how to choose the most appropriate medium or combination of media to accomplish the goals of documentation.
    5. 5. Course Objectives cont… Determine how to choose the most appropriate medium or combination off) media to accomplish the goals of documentation
    6. 6. Stress management• Stress is a response to danger• Stress is part of life in a fast-paced society.• However, contrary to popular belief, stress is not• always bad.• We need some stress to stimulate us.• A certain level of stress is beneficial
    7. 7. Two Types of stress• EUSTRESS: Stress that helps a person perform at a higher level and achieve their goals.• DISTRESS: Stress that is overwhelming• and hinders performance and overall• well-being.
    8. 8. Eustress• For example, the demands of an upcoming competition, work project or exam can create stress, which stimulates a person to work harder to win the competition, finish the project on time or do well on the exam.
    9. 9. Distress• However, there are times when stress is overwhelming. This type of stress—called distress—paralyses rather than stimulates.• It contributes to decreased health and well-being. In fact, stress is a factor in 11 of the top 15 causes of death in Canada and is a significant reason for physician visits.• Therefore, an important part of healthy living is to learn to bring stress to beneficial levels
    10. 10. What is stress?• Stress is the body‘s physical response to a perceivedthreat.• For stress to occur, there must be a perception of some level of danger or threat• . If there is no danger...there is no stress• The perception of danger is usually a result of evaluating the demands of a situation, identifying the resources you have to address it and realizing that you do not have enough resources to adequately meet the demands.
    11. 11. Activity 1• In your writing pad answer the following Questions then we will discuss your answers. You have 15minutes to complete the activity.1. List issues that may cause you stress at work2. Why do you think you get stressed with these issues?3. List issues that cause you stress in your personal life.4. Why do you think you get stressed with these issues?5. What do you think you need to do to reduce or eliminate stress : a) at work b) at home
    12. 12. How does the body respond to stress?• The body respond to stress by getting into fight or flight mode it has been with us for million of years.• The stress response helped our early ancestors escape from danger• As such, it gave those who had it an evolutionary advantage.• The stress response was so advantageous for survival that most animal species today respond to stress in a similar way
    13. 13. Fight or flight responds• The ―fight or flight‖ response helps us escape from danger.• For most of human history, danger came in the form of surprise encounters with predators• When faced with this danger a person had two options for survival: attack the predator (fight) or run away as fast as possible (flight)• Although these are two different ways of addressing the situation, they both require the same physical response, which is to prepare the body for some intense physical activity.
    14. 14. How does the Body Respond to Stress?• This response is hardwired into us.• So what happens in a person‘s body to prepare them to face danger?• A body preparing to fight or flee needs to get the most power out of muscles.
    15. 15. How does the Body Respond to Stress? Cont…• This means it needs to release and use energy, absorb oxygen and circulate oxygen-rich blood to organs that need it such as heart, muscles, and the brain.• This is accomplished mainly through the release of hormones; namely adrenaline and cortisol• Together, these hormones have several important physiological effects including:• Increasing heart rate• Increasing breathing rate (respiration)• Increasing muscle tension• Increasing blood pressure• Increasing the secretion of insulin• Increasing blood flow to the brain, lungs, heart and
    16. 16. Physiological effects of stress• The increased blood flow to essential body systems such as the lungs and heart is accompanied by a decreased blood flow to less critical systems, which include the digestive tract, kidneys and skin.• Other effects of stress hormones are: a decrease in libido, an increase in the ability of blood to clot, a decrease in growth and tissue repair, and an increase in immune function.• Although the immune system initially becomes stronger in times of stress, this response lasts for a brief period
    17. 17. Physiological effects of stress cont…• Studies show that during chronic (i.e. long-term or ongoing) stress, immune function actually decreases, which leaves the body more vulnerable to infection.• Fortunately for our ancestors, once the predator was dead or safely out of range, they were able to sit down on a rock somewhere and relax.• With the threat gone, the body would stop secreting adrenaline and cortisol and the person‘s body would return to it‘s normal state of equilibrium.
    18. 18. • The days of being chased by a predator are long gone, but the ―fight or flight‖ response is still wired into us.• Today‘s threats and demands last much longer than what our ancestors were accustomed to.• Going to school, getting a job, dealing with conflicts, managing finances, daily hassles and raising a family are only a few examples of long-lasting, stress- provoking situations.• The body responds to these demands the same way it did when our ancestors were faced with a predator.
    19. 19. Quiz 1• Name two hormones that the body produces in responses to stress• Explain how these hormones affect the supply of blood:a) to the lungs and heartb) To the skinc) Explain the meaning of flight or fight response to stress
    20. 20. How is the body affected by the fight or flight response?• Keeping the body in a stimulated state of ―fight or flight‖ for long periods of time contributes to health problems, but even a short period of stress can be detrimental to health
    21. 21. What are the physical signs of stress?• Increased heart rate• Dry mouth• Muscle aches, stiffness or• pain (especially in the• neck, shoulders and lower back)• High blood pressure• Frequent colds or flu• Worsening of an existing illness (asthma, skin rashes etc.)
    22. 22. What are the physical signs of stress? Cont…• Chest pains• Headaches• Indigestion• Constipation• Stomach cramps• Sweating• Nausea• Trembling• Fatigue• Weight gain or loss
    23. 23. What are the behavioural signs of stress?• Increased smoking,• drinking, drug use• Yelling• Swearing• Aggression• Changes in eating habits• (increase or decrease)• Changes in sleeping habits• (increase or decrease)• Nervousness (nail biting,• fidgeting, pacing etc.)
    24. 24. QUIZ 2• List the physical signs of stress above.• List the signs of behavioural stress above• How do you react when you are stressed in terms of:A) Physical signsB) Behavioural stressC) Can you identify someone at work who reflects some of the signs listed above.
    25. 25. What are the mental signs of stress?• Difficulty concentrating• Decreased memory• Difficulty making decisions• Mind going blank or mind• racing• Confusion• Loss of sense of humour• Decreased libido• Inattentiveness• Bad dreams
    26. 26. My signs for mental stress area)b)c)d)
    27. 27. What are the emotional signs of stress?• Anxiety• Anger• Irritability• Impatience• Short temper• Frustration• Worry• Fear
    28. 28. A 5 Step Guide to managing stressStep 1: Identify if you are stressedIf you are going to work on stress, then it is important to start at the very beginning and identify if you are actually experiencing stress. Sometimes this is easy to do. At other times it can be challenging.The first things you should look for are your particular signs of stress.• Although there are hundreds of signs of stress, each person does not experience all of them. In reality, people tend to have their own specific reactions to stress—something like a stress fingerprint (or ―stressprint
    29. 29. Step 1 identify if you are stressed• For one person, the signs might be difficulty sleeping, back pain and aggressive behaviour. For another, they might be sleeping too much, forgetting things and sexual problems. Generally speaking, a person‘s reaction to stress remains relatively stable over situations and over time.• In order to identify if you are stressed it is important to get to know your own ―stressprint‖• If you have difficulty recognizing your signs of stress you might want to ask for the opinion of a close friend or family member. They often can provide great insight into how you react to stress.
    30. 30. Can I go and see a doctor when I have stress?• It is important to note that some signs of stress are also signs of a physical illness or health problem, and some of them—such as chest pains—can be serious. In search of a physical explanation, many people see a physician for stress-related symptoms.• It is a good idea to see a health care professional for• serious symptoms, or for ongoing ones that seriously affect your quality of life. If you do visit a health care professional and suspect that your symptoms may be• stress-related then you should clearly let• your physician know that you think stress may be a factor.
    31. 31. Step 2: Identify the stressor• An event or situation that causes stress is called a ―stressor‖.• The following are some tips for identifying the situation or event that is causing your stress.• Stress is usually related to change, so a good place to start is to look for changes in your life.• You can narrow down the stress-related changes by looking back at when the symptoms started. If you started having problems sleeping two weeks ago, then look at the changes in your life that took place two weeks ago (or around then).
    32. 32. Step 2: Identify the stressor cont…• Those who know you well might be able to shed some light on what is causing your stress. Ask them for their opinion if you can‘t seem to pinpoint the stressor(s) yourself.• Review the list below of general categories of sources of stress and see if this stimulates any ideas. Clearly this is not a complete list of stressors. Rather, it is a general overview of them:• Physical environment: Bright lights, noise, heat, cold weather, traffic...
    33. 33. What are the general Stressors?• Social/relational: Rudeness or aggressiveness in others, conflicts with others, not spending enough time with important people, lack of social support, loneliness• Financial: Taxes, bills, unplanned expenses, ―making ends meet‖...• Organizational: Rules, regulations, school or work deadlines, getting a passing grade,school or work culture..• . Life events: Death of a family member, loss of a job, illness, starting university, work promotion, birth of a child, marriage, winning the lottery...• Lifestyle choices: Not enough sleep; increased caffeine, alcohol, or drug consumption; poor time management; unhealthy nutrition...
    34. 34. General stressors cont…• Physiological: Poor health, physical illness, pregnancy, injury...The Cause of My Stress is:Below, write the situation/event that iscausing you to experience stress:a)________________________b)c)
    35. 35. Step 3: Identify the reason for the stressor• Now that you know the stressor, you need to identify why it is causing you stress. This is a very important question as it will help you select the best strategy to manage your stress.• Remember, the stress response is only triggered when you perceive a danger. In this step you need to determine why you see the situation you identified in Step 2 as a danger• In general, a person evaluates a situation to be dangerous if they perceive that they lack resources to effectively handle the demands of the situation.
    36. 36. • Therefore, a person needs to look at two aspects of the situation: their perceived demands and their perceived resources• If the perceived demands are greater than the perceived resources, then the person sees that they won‘t be able to handle the situation• It is important to emphasize that the person needs to examine the perceptions they hold of the demands and of the resources. Sometimes our perceptions are consistent with reality (i.e. the facts) and sometimes they aren‘t
    37. 37. • Often, stress happens because the perception we have of the demands is greater than they really are, or because the perception we have of our resources is less than they actually are, or a combination of both
    38. 38. Step 4: Select an appropriate stress management strategy and apply it• There are literally hundreds of ways to manage stress. The strategy you use will depend on your particular• situation. However, all stress management strategies can be placed into 2 general categories:• 1. Strategies that address the symptoms of stress• 2. Strategies that address the stressor
    39. 39. Stress Management Strategies that Address the Symptoms of Stress• Stress management strategies that address the symptoms of stress are typically relaxation strategies• . Relaxation strategies help to reverse the stimulation caused by the stress response. Therefore, they can reduce the risk of stress-related health problems.• It is important to note that relaxation strategies can be useful for managing stress in the short term, but because they dont get to the heart of what is causing stress (i.e.they dont remove the danger), they are not useful at managing stress in the long term.• Ultimately, your goal is to manage stress in the long term.
    40. 40. relaxation strategies that have proved to be useful in the short term1)Breathing exercisesBreathing exercises have been scientifically shown to induce relaxation. There are several waysto perform breathing exercises.2) Progressive Muscle Relaxation Not surprisingly, the goal of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) is to progressively relax your muscles. As with breathing exercises, techniques vary but the essence of the exercise remains the same: to progressively tense and then relax muscle groups.• As you learn to distinguish between tense muscles and relaxed ones you can become more efficient at inducing a state of relaxation in the group of muscle that you are
    41. 41. Massage• The experience of stress can result in tense muscles. Since massage is an effective technique to relax tense muscles, it can be a great short-term approach to managing stress. You can have someone massage you or you can use self-massage techniques.Exercise• During exercise, the body releases a hormone called adrenaline—the same stimulating• hormone that is released in the ―fight or flight‖ response. During exercise adrenaline serves a• purpose as it is needed to get the body moving and keep it moving. It gets "used up" and the• body returns to normal when the exercise is over. in this
    42. 42. Exercise• However, in times of stress the hormone is• secreted but there is generally no physical action (e.g. running, jumping etc.) so the body stays in this stimulated state.• Research reveals that a relaxed state usually occurs after physical activity. A few types of exercise including Yoga and Tai Chi have additional benefits as they promote body awareness and breath control.• If you are feeling stressed, take some time to go out for a brisk walk or a• run, play a sport with some friends, go to the gym, go skating or try any kind of physical activity• that you enjoy. The benefits of physical activity— especially regular physical activity—extend well beyond stress management.
    43. 43. Visualization• Visualization is a technique whereby you use the power of your imagination to induce feelings of relaxation. You close your eyes and imagine things that make you feel good or that are relaxing or soothing to you, such as spending time with loved ones, sitting on the beach, watching a waterfall or looking out at a lake surrounded by mountains. Dont just visualize this scene…feel it as if you were there. Beware of letting negative thoughts creep in: these will add to the experience of stress rather than promote relaxation
    44. 44. Visualization cont…• Another way to use visualization for stress relief is to visualize tension fading away. You can get in a comfortable position, close your eyes and imagine the tension in your body as a tight rope. Then, visualize that rope loosening up as the tension leaves your body. Yet another way is to imagine a situation that may cause you stress—such as giving a presentation to a group of people—and visualize yourself performing well at it.• Guided imagery is a form of visualization. Here you listen to a recording of someone guiding you through the visualization and relaxation process.• You can listen to a variety of guided imagery scripts on Youtube or other video sites and you can download your favorite to an MP3 player, where you can have access to it anytime you want.
    45. 45. Meditation• The word ―meditation‖ derives from the Latin meditatum, which means "to ponder". It involves focusing attention and awareness so that you gain• greater control over your thoughts. It is believed to have originated in Eastern religious tradition and has been adapted for a western audience.• There are different methods of practicing meditation. Typically, it begins by assuming a comfortable posture—such as sitting on a cushion or in a chair— where you won‘t be disturbed. Then you gently close your eyes and begin to relax your muscles. The next step is to clear your mind. You want to put all your thoughts to the side.
    46. 46. Hot bath, sauna, hot tub• The physical changes that happen in the body as a result of stress include the constriction of blood vessels, which can lead to an increase in blood• pressure. The warmth of a hot bath, a sauna or a hot tub opens up blood vessels, so that there is greater circulation of blood to the muscles, which can help you relax. Besides the physiological effects of the warmth, simply taking time to have a hot bath or sit in a sauna or hot tub can be relaxing.
    47. 47. Music appreciation• Most of us listen to music regularly, but we rarely take the time to truly appreciate the many facets of music• such as the lyrics, the beat, or even the contribution of each individual instrument. Through music appreciation• a person takes time to sit with the music and appreciate it as a whole as well as its parts. Obviously, just taking• the time to listen to music can be relaxing, but research shows that going beyond simple listening can help you• relax. Some types of music—such as classical, ambient or easy listening—are more conducive to arriving at a• relaxed state than other types such as heavy metal or hard rock.
    48. 48. Sex• Sex can be a great way to relax. Sexual activity can release tension and can take a person‘s mind off their• problems for a while. After an orgasm, an intense wave of calm and relaxation can overcome a person. The• ―fight or flight‖ response has the effect of decreasing libido (i.e. sexual interest) so it can be difficult to be ready for sex when you are stressed.Sex as a relaxation strategy does not mean anonymous or unsafe sex; this type of sex can contribute to• more stress because of an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections, concerns for safety or an unwanted pregnancy.
    49. 49. Hobby• Anyone who spends time doing a hobby knows that it can take a their mind off stress-producing thoughts and can also be relaxing.• Hobbies that are reported to produce satisfaction and contentment are those that are creative, productive or build expertise in a skill. Some ideas include crafts, gardening, noncompetitive sports, playing an instrument, writing, singing, and dancing.
    50. 50. Spending time with loved ones, including pets• The time we spend with people (or animals) we love promotes feelings of calmness and relaxation.
    51. 51. Stress Management Strategies that Address the Stressor• Remember that stress is the bodys physical response to a perceived demand or threat: Stress is a response to danger. In general, we see a situation as dangerous when we evaluate that we dont have enough resources to deal with the demands we think the situation has placed on us. In other words, when our perceived resources are less than the perceived demands, we evaluate it as a danger
    52. 52. Stress Management Strategies that Address the Stressor• As we pointed out in Step 3, a danger can be real (e.g. ―I don‘t have enough money to pay the bills‖) or it can be imagined (e.g. ―My life is over is I don‘t get all ―A‖s in my courses‖). There are two categories of stress management strategies that correspond to these two categories of danger:• There are two categories of stress management strategies that correspond to these two categories of danger:• 1. The problem solving approach (for real dangers)• 2. The cognitive approach (for imagined dangers)
    53. 53. • The goal of both of these approaches is to reduce the demands, build the resources—or a combination of both—so that the situation is no longer seen as dangerous.• In the problem solving approach you do something to remove the danger, whereas in the cognitive approach you change the way you think so you no longer perceive the situation as dangerous
    54. 54. • Because these strategies aim to remove the danger, they are long-term strategies. Once the danger is gone, so is the stress. These strategies are more effective than the relaxation strategies, but it can take some time to learn these skills and master them.• As you are learning these skills, implement the relaxation strategies to manage your stress.
    55. 55. The Problem-solving Approach to Stress Management• Define the problem• Be clear and specific• • Analyze the problem• What factors are related to the problem?• Who is involved?• When did it begin?• Why is it happening?• • Brainstorm possible solutions• Write down as many solutions as you can• without discarding any right away
    56. 56. The Problem-solving Approach to Stress Management• Evaluate each solution and select the best• option• What are the pros and cons of the solution?• Do you have sufficient resources to implement this solution?• Is this solution realistic?• What will be the impact?• Will it resolve the problem?• Will it create new problems? What are they?
    57. 57. The Problem-solving Approach to Stress Management• Implement the best solution• This is where you develop a plan of action:• - Who will do what? When? etc.• • Evaluate• Has the problem been resolved?
    58. 58. The Cognitive Approach to Stress Management• Imagined dangers are generated by our perception of a situation. They are often a result of self-created demands, not being able to recognize resources, minimizing the resources you have, or a combination ofthese.A self-created demand is often one in which you determine what you must have.• must be perfect in everything I do.‖ • ―I must win the competition.‖• ―I must look a certain way.‖ • ―I must be popular.‖• ―I must be happy.‖
    59. 59. The Cognitive Approach to Stress Management cont…• An imagined danger can also be a result of not seeing the resources you have or minimizing them. Examples or this include:• ―I‘m not attractive enough.‖• ―I don‘t have the respect of everyone.‖• ‗I don‘t have enough friends.‖ •―I don‘t have enough talent.‖• I‘m not rich enough.‖ •• ‗I‘m not popular enough.‖
    60. 60. • In stressful situations where the danger is imagined, the most effective stress management approach is to change the way you think about the situation: you need to change your perceptions of demands and resources.• The strategies in the cognitive approach to stress management will help you identify stress-producing thoughts—also called maladaptive• thoughts, cognitive distortions or ―stinking‘ thinkin‘‖— and replace them with thoughts that don‘t produce stress.
    61. 61. The strategic decision making process• Define your objective(s)• What is it you want to achieve? Be clear.• An objective usually begins with "I want to……..―• Gather relevant information• Dont assume that you have all the information you need to make a good decision. Seek out as much informationas possible. Consult a variety of sources.• Check the assumptions you have related to the decision.• Incorrect assumptions can result in poor decisions.
    62. 62. Brainstorm possible ideas• Be creative.• ―Think outside the box‖.• Dont edit at this point, just write down what comes toyour mindEvaluate each potential decision• Will it achieve the objective(s)?• What are the potential risks?• What will be the impact?• What resources will you need to put this decision in• place? Do you have sufficient resources?• Is this decision feasible? Realistic?
    63. 63. Select the most desirable decision:• Select the most desirable decision: the one that best satisfies the objective(s) with the fewest drawbacks• Review to identify any problems or oversights.• Identify any other actions that will be necessary toimplement in order to prevent undesirable consequences• Communicate the decision and put it in place• Evaluate• Have you achieved your objective(s)?
    64. 64. Decision making conditions• The conditions under which individuals make decisions in an organization reflect the environmental forces that individuals cannot control but that may in future influence the outcome of their decisions.• Managers and employees have to confront ethical and social responsibility issues.• Thus decision are affected by forces that range from new technologies or the entrance of new competitors in the environment to new laws and political turmoil eg the platinum mine of South Africa and ongoing strike action.
    65. 65. Decision making conditions cont…• The impact of decisions is always felt in the future• Hence the accuracy of information and depth of individual managerial competencies are crucial to sound decision making.• Decision usually take place under conditions of certainty, risk and uncertainty.• As information dwindles and becomes unclear, the condition of risk enters into decision making
    66. 66. Certainty• Is the condition under which individuals are fully informed about a problem, alternative solutions are obvious and the likely results of each conditions are clear.• The conditions of uncertainty allows at least anticipation and not control of events and their outcome• Once an individual identifies the alternatives solutions and their expected results , making the decision is relatively easy• The individual simply chooses the solution with the best potential outcome
    67. 67. Risk• Risk means that the problem and alternative solutions fall somewhere between extremes of being relatively common and well defined and being unusual and ambiguous• Probability- is the percentage of times that a specific outcome would occur if an individual where to make a particular decision a number of times.• Objective probability- The likelihood that a specific outcome will occur based on hard facts and numbers.• Sometimes an individual can determine the outcome of a decision by examining past records. Eg production figures during festive season
    68. 68. Subjective probability• The likelihood that a certain outcome will occur based on personal judgment and beliefs• Such judgments vary with individuals depending on their intuition, previous experience with similar situations , expertise and personality trait.• Uncertainty –is the condition under which an individual does not have the necessary information to assign probabilities to the outcomes of alternative solutions. In fact the individual may not even be able to define the problem much less identify alternatives solutions and possible outcomes. Uncertainty often suggests that the problem and the alternatives solutions are both unclear and unusual.
    69. 69. Types of decisions• Decisions can be classified as :• Innovative• Adaptive• RoutineInnovative –are choices based on the discovery, identification and diagnosis of unusual and ambiguous problems and or development of unique or creative alternative solutions.- These decisions represent a sharp break with the past- Adaptive decisions- are decisions made in response to a combination of moderately unusual and only fairly uncommon problems and alternative solutions
    70. 70. Adaptive &Routine decisions• Adaptive decisions often involve modifying and improving upon past routine decisions and practices.• In fact the concept of continuous improvement is a key to total quality management.• It involves a stream of adaptive decisions made over time that results in a large number of small, incremental improvements year after year.• Routine decisions – are standard choices made in response to relatively well defined and common problems and alternative solutions. The way in which to make various routine decisions id often covered by established rules or standard operating procedures• Eg cleaning a building, processing the payroll,
    71. 71. Time Management
    72. 72. Why Time Management is Important• “The Time Famine”• Bad time management = stress• This is life advice 72
    73. 73. Hear me Now, Believe me Later• Being successful doesn’t make you manage your time well.• Managing your time well makes you successful. 73
    74. 74. The Problem is SevereBy some estimates, people waste about 2 hours per day. Signs of time wasting: – Messy desk and cluttered (or no) files – Can’t find things – Miss appointments, need to reschedule them late and/or unprepared for meetings – Volunteer to do things other people should do – Tired/unable to concentrate 74
    75. 75. Goals, Priorities, and Planning• Why am I doing this?• What is the goal?• Why will I succeed?• What happens if I chose not to do it? 75
    76. 76. The 80/20 Rule• Critical few and the trivial many• Having the courage of your convictions• Good judgment comes from experience• Experiences comes from bad judgment 76
    77. 77. Quiz1.Identify the 20 most critical activities you need to do on your job in order to be effective.2. List trivial activities that you have to do at work which people may not even notice, but are still part of your work.
    78. 78. The 80/20 Rule• Critical few and the trivial many• Having the courage of your convictions• Good judgment comes from experience• Experiences comes from bad judgment 78
    79. 79. TO Do Lists• Break things down into small steps• Like a child cleaning his/her room• Do the ugliest thing first 79
    80. 80. The four-quadrant TO DO List Due Not Due Soon SoonImportant 1 2NotImportant 3 4 80
    81. 81. Paperwork• Clutter is death; it leads to thrashing. Keep desk clear: focus on one thing at a time• A good file system is essential• Touch each piece of paper once• Touch each piece of email once; your inbox is not your TODO list 81
    82. 82. Speakerphone: handsare free to dosomethingelse; stressreduction when 82I‘m on hold.
    83. 83. Telephone• Keep calls short; stand during call• Start by announcing goals for the call• Don’t put your feet up• Have something in view that you’re waiting to get to next 83
    84. 84. Telephone• When done, get off: “I have students waiting”• If necessary, hang up while you’re talking• Group outgoing calls: just before lunch and 5pm 84
    85. 85. Office Logistics• Make your office comfortable for you, and optionally comfortable for others• No soft comfortable chairs! I have folding chairs, some people cut off front legs 85
    86. 86. Scheduling Yourself• You don’t find time for important things, you make it• Everything you do is an opportunity cost• Learn to say “No” 86
    87. 87. Everyone has Good and Bad Times• Find your creative/thinking time. Defend it ruthlessly, spend it alone, maybe at home.• Find your dead time. Schedule meetings, phone calls, and mundane stuff during it. 87
    88. 88. Cutting Things Short• “I’m in the middle of something now…”• Start with “I only have 5 minutes” – you can always extend this• Stand up, stroll to the door, complement, thank, shake hands• Clock-watching; on wall behind them 88
    89. 89. Using Time Journal Data• What am I doing that doesn’t really need to be done?• What am I doing that could be done by someone else?• What am I doing that could be done more efficiently?• What do I do that wastes others’ time? 89
    90. 90. Procrastination“Procrastination is the thief of time” Edward Young Night Thoughts, 1742 90
    91. 91. Avoiding Procrastination• Doing things at the last minute is much more expensive than just before the last minute• Deadlines are really important: establish them yourself! 91
    92. 92. The very busy people, and to make those As an administrator , you are Truth! 168 hours effective, you have to do some planning. The Benefits of Time Management You are more productive. You reduce your stress.Yes! You improve your self-esteem. You achieve balance in your life. You avoid meltdowns. You feel more confident in your ability to get things done. You reach your goals. What is Time Management? Simply, making the most of your time and energy!
    93. 93. Thevery busy people, and to make those As college students, you are Truth! 168 hours effective, you have to do some planning. The Benefits of Time Management You are more productive. You reduce your stress.Yes! You improve your self-esteem. You achieve balance in your life. You avoid meltdowns. You feel more confident in your ability to get things done. You reach your goals. What is Time Management? Simply, making the most of your time and energy!
    94. 94. Steps to Managing Your Time1. Set goals2. Make a schedule3. Revisit and revise your plan
    95. 95. Procrastination: “Never do today what you can put off „till tomorrow!”Forms of procrastination:• Ignoring the task, hoping it will go away• Underestimating how long it will take• Overestimating your abilities and resources• Telling yourself that poor performance is okay• Doing something else that isn’t very important• Believing that repeated “minor” delays won’t hurt you• Talking about a hard job rather than doing it• Putting all your work on only one part of the task• Becoming paralyzed when having to make choices
    96. 96. How to Overcome Procrastination• Win the mental battle by committing to being on time.• Set and keep deadlines.• Organize, schedule & plan.• Divide a big job into smaller ones.• Find a way to make a game of your work or make it fun.• Reward yourself when you‘re done.• Tell your friends and room mates to remind you of Use lots of priorities and deadlines. Stickies• Learn to say ―no‖ to time wasters.
    97. 97. Facts About Time Management• 80% of employees do not want to go to work on Monday morning. By Friday, the rate only drops to 60%.• The average person gets 1 interruption every 8 minutes, or approximately 7 an hour, or 50-60 per day. The average interruption takes 5 minutes, totaling about 4 hours or 50% of the average workday. 80% of those interruptions are typically rated as "little value" or "no value" creating approximately 3 hours of wasted time per day.• On an average day, there are 17 million meetings in Africa.
    98. 98. Facts About Time Management Cont…• By taking 1 hour per day for independent study, 7 hours per week, 365 hours in a year, one can learn at the rate of a full-time student. In 3-5 years, the average person can become an expert in the topic of their choice, by spending only one hour per day.• 97% of workers, if they became financially independent, would not continue with their current employer or in their current occupation.
    99. 99. Facts About Time Management Cont..• 25% of sick days are taken for illness. 75% of sick days are taken for other reasons.• 95% of the things we fear will occur, do not occur.• Taking 5 minutes per day, 5 days per week to improve one‘s job will create 1,200 little improvements to a job over a 5 year period.• 70% of American workers desire to own their own business.• 75% of Namibians workers complain that they are tired by mid of every Monday.• The average worker gets a 6 hours and 57 minutes of sleep per night.
    100. 100. Facts About Time Management Cont..• 80% of "Crisis Management" events are preventable.• The average worker spends 35 minutes per day commuting.• When someone is asking for our time for a meeting, 80% of the time, there is an alternate date and time that will be acceptable
    101. 101. Facts About Time Management Cont..• 20% of the average workday is spent on "crucial" and "important" things, while 80% of the average workday is spent on things that have "little value" or "no value".• In the last 20 years, working time has increased by 15% and leisure time has decreased by 33%.• A person who works with a "messy" or cluttered desk spends, on average, 1 1/2 hours per day looking for things or being distracted by things or• approximately 7 1/2 per workweek. "Out of sight; out of mind." When it‘s in sight, it‘s in mind.• The average reading speed is approximately 200 words per minute. The average working person reads 2 hours per day. A Speed Reading course that will improve the
    102. 102. Facts About Time Management Cont..• 90% of those who join health and fitness clubs will stop going within the first 90 days.• 9 out of 10 people daydream in meetings.• 60% of meeting attendees take notes to appear as if they are listening.• 40% of working people skip breakfast. 39% skip lunch. Of those who take a lunch break, 50% allow only 15 minutes of less.• It takes approximately 30 days to establish a new physical or emotional habit.• The average American watches 28 hours of television per week.• Angry people are twice as likely to suffer a heart attack as a person in better control of their emotions.
    103. 103. Facts About Time Management Cont• Good Time Managers do not allocate their time to those who "demand" it, but rather, to those who "deserve" it.• The most powerful word in our Time Management vocabulary is "no".• 70% of business and professional people use a "to do" list on a regular basis to administer their "have to‘s".• 5% of business and professional people use a "to do" list on a regular basis to administer not only their "have to‘s", but also their "want to‘s".• "If you want to get something done, give it to a busy person."• It almost always takes twice as long to complete a task as what we originally thought it would take.
    104. 104. Facts About Time Management Cont..• Money comes from well used time:• Consultants charge for the work done according to time spent on a particular projector.• Some Doctors charge for missed appointment• Colleges base their fees on a number of class periods to be conducted in a day.• Commercial prostitutes charge their clients according to time spent with them.• What have you gained from your irreplaceable resource, time?
    105. 105. Delegating & Time Management• Delegation is an unlimited method to multiply time for achieving results.• The hardest part about delegation is simply letting go. "If you want a job done right, you have to do it yourself."• 1 hour of planning will save 10 hours of doing.• Hiring a college student to do routine tasks (grocery shopping, yard work, household chores, etc.) will free up as much as 20 hours per week for the average person to devote to more productive uses.• The average person today (1999) receives more information on a daily basis, than the average person received in a lifetime in 1900
    106. 106. • Half of what is known today, we did not know 10 years ago. The amount of knowledge in the world has doubled in the last 10 years. And it is said to be doubling again every 18 months.• Time Management is not doing the wrong things quicker. That just gets us nowhere faster. Time Management is doing the right things.• "If you always do what you‘ve always done, you always get what you‘ve always got."
    107. 107. Delegation and motivation• Definition of delegation- Delegation of authority is whenManagers assign to subordinates the right to make decisions and to act in certain situation.• In addition to assigning the task to the person the manager also gives the subordinate sufficient decision making power to carry out the task effectively.• Delegation doesn‘t relieve the a manager of the responsibility of and accountability• Delegation of authority by managers to employees is necessary for the efficient functioning of the organization
    108. 108. Delegation cont…• Managers can not accomplish organizational goals on their own• The following six principles are important for improving delegation of authority:• 1. Establish goals and standards – subordinates must be involved in developing the goals that they will be expected to meet.• 2 Define authority and responsibility- subordinates should clearly understand the work delegated to them. They should understand the scope of their authority and be accountable for the results.
    109. 109. Principles for improving delegation3. Involve subordinates – The challenge of work itself wont always encourage subordinates to accept the and perform delegated tasks well. Managers can motivate subordinates by involving them in decision making,by keeping them informed and helping them to improve their skills and4.Require completed tasks- subordinates should be required to carry a task through to completion. The manager‘s job is to provide guidance, help and information and not to finish the job
    110. 110. Principles of delegation• 5. Provide training. Delegation can be only as effective as the ability of people to perform the task and make the necessary decisions. Managers should always appraise delegated responsibilities and provide training aimed at building on strengths and overcoming deficiencies.• Establish adequate controls- Timely and accurate feedback should be provided to subordinates so that they may compare their performance to agreed upon standards and correct their deficiencies.
    111. 111. The art of delegation• Treat delegation as a career-building tool that provides employees with needed experience to prepare them for greater responsibility• Allow your subordinates to participate and be prepared to consider their ideas• Delegate strategically by measuring employees‘ successes against jointly set goals• Make sure that you stay on top of things and hold employees accountable• Find the right person for the task and clarify the task• Determine the acceptable level of performance in a task• And then delegate to someone who can achieve that level
    112. 112. The art of delegation cont…• Let employees establish their own plan(s) of action• Establish feedback controls
    113. 113. Delegation• No one is an island• You can accomplish a lot more with help 113
    114. 114. Delegation is not dumping• Grant authority with responsibility.• Concrete goal, deadline, and consequences.• Treat your people well 114
    115. 115. Challenge People• People rise to the challenge: You should delegate “until they complain”• Communication Must Be Clear: “Get it in writing” – Judge Wapner• Give objectives, not procedures• Tell the relative importance of this task 115
    116. 116. • Reinforce behavior you want repeated• Ignorance is your friend – I do not know how to run the photocopier or the fax machine 116
    117. 117. What is Assertiveness?• Assertiveness is the ability to state positively and constructively your rights or needs without violating the rights of others.• When you use direct, open, and honest communication• in relationships to meet your personal needs, you feel more confident, gain respect from others, and live a happier, fulfilled life.
    118. 118. Benefits of Assertiveness• Acting assertive helps maintain honesty in relationships, allows you to feel more in control of your world, and improves your ability to make decisions.Roadblocks to Assertiveness• Fear that you will harm others, or that you will experience rejection and feel shame may prevent you from acting assertive.
    119. 119. • This is based upon a belief that other people‘s needs, opinions, and judgments are more important than your own. Believing assertiveness hurts another person can keep you from meeting your legitimate physical and emotional needs. As a result, you feel hurt, anxious, and angry about life.• Lessons learned from parents or caregiverscontribute to your beliefs about the legitimacy of your personal rights.
    120. 120. • This can cause you to act passively to conform to these beliefs. A few examples include the right to• decide how to lead your life, the right to pursue goals and dreams, the right to a valid opinion, the right to say how you want to be treated, the right to say ―no‖, the right to change your mind, the right to privacy, the right to ask for help, and many more. Acting to assert any of these rights leads many people to think they are acting selfish.
    121. 121. Is Assertiveness Selfish?• Selfish means being concerned excessively or exclusively with oneself. This is not assertiveness.• Being assertive does not dismiss or ignore the needs of others. Assertiveness focuses legitimate or important needs.Is Assertiveness Aggressive?• Assertiveness is not aggression. Aggressive means that you express your rights at the expense of another or forcibly deny the rights of others.
    122. 122. • If you struggle with being assertive, you may have mislabeled assertive behavior by others as aggressive. This may help you feel justified about not being assertive.• However, believing assertiveness is aggressive can prevent you from taking steps to improve your assertiveness skills.
    123. 123. Practice Makes Better• Recognizing what causes your lack of assertiveness is helpful, but committing to change is more important. Practicing assertiveness skills helps you confront old ways of thinking, helps you become more naturally assertive,and is self-reinforcing.• Keeping track of your progress is helpful. Be patient. In the beginning, you won‘t be assertive at every opportunity. And you might be assertive in some situations where it isn‘t necessary
    124. 124. • It‘s all part of the process of growing to be more assertive. Notice the general trend of your success. And give yourself a pat on the back as things change. Simple Assertiveness Formula• Each time an opportunity occurs to be assertive make notes in a small notebook. Consider keeping it in your pocket or purse. Record: (1) the specific event that called for an assertiveness response;(2) what personal right was involved (i.e., the right to say ―no‖); (3) how you responded.
    125. 125. • What did you say? (4) what you did well in this situation; and, (5) reminders to yourself about what you will do next time to be assertive if this situation is repeated.A Few Assertiveness Tips• Assertiveness frequently means using ―I statements‖ combined with a word that describes―what‖ you want. For example, ―I want‖, ―Ineed‖, ―I would prefer‖, ―I do not like‖, ―I am upset about‖, etc. Be careful not to minimizesuch statements by couching them with questions that subordinate your needs. Example:―I don‘t want to go to the store with you – do you mind?‖ or ―I‘m tired, can you do the dishes tonight — is that okay with you?‖
    126. 126. QUIZ• Write three assertive statements you would want to:• use at home• at work
    127. 127. Non-Assertive, Assertive and Aggressive Styles• Non-assertive – failing to stand up for oneself, or standing up for oneself in such an ineffectual manner that one‘s rights are easily violated.• · Assertive – standing up for oneself in such a way that does not violate the basic rights of other people. It is a direct, honest, and appropriate expression of one ‘s feelings and opinions.• Aggressive – standing up for oneself in such a way that the rights of the other person are violated in the process. It is an attempt to humiliate or put down the other person.
    128. 128. Tenets of Assertion• By standing up for ourselves and communicating our needs, we gain self- respect. · Others respect a person who can honestly, and non-confrontationally express feelings and needs.• · Relationships are damaged when we sacrifice our integrity and deny our personal feelings.• · Expressing our feelings about other people ‘s behavior permits them to change the behavior and provides them an accurate indicator of where they stand with us.• · When we frequently sacrifice our rights, we teach others to take advantage of us.
    129. 129. • Personal relationships are more authentic when we share our reactions with other people and encourage others to share their reactions with us.· By trying never to deny any request under any circumstances, we end up hurting ourselves.Assertiveness Basics• Say what you feel• · Maintain direct eye contact• · Maintain erect posture• · Speak clearly and audibly• · Do not whine or sound apologetic• · Use body language
    130. 130. Assertiveness• May be confused with aggressive behavior, however, assertion does not involve hurting the other person physically or emotionally. · Aims at equalizing the balance of power, not ―winning the battle ‖ by putting down the other person or rendering her/him helpless.• Allows you to express your legitimate wants, needs, feelings, and ideas and creates honest relationships with others.• · Gives other individuals a right to respond to your assertiveness with their own wants,needs, feelings, and ideas.
    131. 131. • May involve negotiating a new solution with another individual. Assertiveness does not imply I win/you lose.• · Concerns not only what you say but also how you say it. Includes asking directly for something you want.• · Can be learned and maintained by constant practice.
    132. 132. Traits that Reduce Your Assertiveness and Leadership Effectiveness• Arbitrariness• · Arrogance• · Indecisiveness• · Lack of frankness and sincerity• · Failure to dele gate responsibility• · Failure to show appreciation or give credit• · Failure to see another person ‘s point of view• · Bias; letting emotions rule• · Failure to use gestures and facial expressions
    133. 133. Meetings• Ensure agenda and relevant papers are distributed in time with date, time and place of meeting.• Prepare and book the meeting space.• Have background papers and information for the chair.• Carry a copy of: (1) the constitution, (2) rules of procedure, (3) previous minutes.• Record names of attendees and apologies for absence - check quorum.
    134. 134. What is a meeting?• A meeting has been defined as an act or process of coming together.• Key word is process• Meetings must have clear goals
    135. 135. What are meetings for?• Meetings are used to exchange information• Exchange ideas and knowledge• Solve problems• Can offer a number of benefits for you and fellow participants.
    136. 136. Benefits of meetings• To exchange and evaluate information• Provide a forum for feedback• Offers an opportunity for generating creative solutions• Builds commitment to group decisions• Allows the group to build collaborative spirit and direction
    137. 137. Regulations governing meetings• Statutes – eg the companies Act• Regulations- rules which regulate conduct of such meetings e,g standing orders in the case of parliament , articles of association in the case of companies registered under the companies act, regulations or by laws in the case of voluntary associations• The common law- particular statutes or regulations are silent the common law applies
    138. 138. The three essential meeting stages• The 3 stages are:• Preparing for the meeting• Conducting the meeting• Evaluating the meeting
    139. 139. Preparing the meeting• Ask why the find meetings frustrating or unproductivePeople often respond by stating the following:a) With only a few hour notice people will only come half prepared at best.b) Nobody was clear on what the meeting objectives where likec) The people invited to attend didn‘t know they where supposed to be thered) The people didn‘t know they where supposed to bring reports or materials
    140. 140. Responsibilities before the meeting• The meeting rules should clearly identify:• The chairperson• The meeting Administrator• participants
    141. 141. Establish objectives• Why is the meeting necessary?• Can the objectives be achieved without a meeting
    142. 142. Guidelines on not to hold a meeting• Don‘t hold a meeting when:• The appropriate participants are not there• There is not enough time to go over the details properly• The subject is so confidential it can not be shared with other participants• Your mind is made up and you have already your decision• There is too much hostility – people need time to calm down
    143. 143. Examples of goal oriented meeting objectives• To assign responsibilities for implementing the first phase of the new accounts payable system• To make final recommendations on survey questions• To create a list of possible solutions to the customer ‗s complaints
    144. 144. Meetings cont…• Take notes of what is said and decided Minimum necessary: – mixture of mnemonics and full transcript – amount of detail depends on nature and purpose of meeting – must be enough to enable accurate minutes• Essential to have: – gist of discussions – exact words of proposals – names of those proposing and seconding – names of those responsible for future actions• Write the minutes - preferably as soon as possible
    145. 145. Taking the minutes• Ask the clarification when you need to make sure you have the right information• Write only the key words and phrases• Try to use the words expressed and not your own interpretation• Don‘t eliminate words or phrases because you do not agree with them• If the meeting is long and technical you have to review recorded notes periodically
    146. 146. How much to include?• Background – to put the item in context for readers who were not at the meeting• Discussion- There is no need to attribute statements to particular individuals unless they ask you to do so• You should take care to include references to:• Recent events• Dates and place names• Sums of money• Agreements or contracts• Policies• Documentations, reports and correspondences
    147. 147. How much to include ? Cont…• Names of departments or other organizations• Decisions- a summary of what has been agreed• Action- What is to be done: by whom , when, and where?
    148. 148. Improving the style• Allow yourself time to check the minutes before presenting them to the chairperson and distributing them.• Check:• -paragraphs• Sentence length• Unnecessary dialogue• Passive verbs• The use of the tense
    149. 149. Improving your style• Each major contribution to the item will have a separate paragraph• Use subparagraphs for substantial amounts of important detail• As a rough guideline do not extend any paragraph to more than about four lines of text.
    150. 150. Length of sentences• Avoid narrations: for example He said , she said sydrome• Search for words like reported, explained, proposed, expressed concern, requested , suggested, requested, introduced, and so on
    151. 151. MEETINGSPeople express mixed views of meeting such as:• They are boring• They are unproductive• They are a waste of time• However meetings are an essential part of communication in any organization• When deciding on holding meetings you also have to decide on an appropriate venue• All meetings require preparation
    152. 152. THE INFORMAL MEETING• Usually scheduled by the telephone• A supervisor asks an assistant to administrator to call several people at short notice to arrange a meeting for a specific date and time.• Prior to making the call you should review the supervisor‘s calendar to determine several alternative time that the supervisor is available• You should discuss with the supervisor which of the key participants to attend• Computer software can be used to compare the calendar of all participants
    153. 153. Informal meetings• It may take several calls and rescheduling to ensure that your supervisor and key participants can attend.• If the participants are many a conference room may be scheduled• Prepare sufficient copies of material for the meeting• Remind your supervisor of the meeting a day before
    154. 154. Informal meetings cont….• You may need to arrange for snacks for the meeting• If your company has a cafeteria you may need to contact them to prepare snacks.• If the meetings continues longer than expected then you need to order lunch possibly from a nearby restaurant• Decide if the participants or the company will pay for the meal.• You should be familiar with the manager preferences in regard to delicatessens or restaurants• determine the venue for the meeting. The venue can be adjusted to meet the particular requirements of a meeting
    155. 155. Venue for a meeting• A room with a large with a large central table is often called a conference room• A conference room may have the following a marker board on the wall with technologies such as- a) A built in screen for use with film and overhead projectors for computer use. b) You can use flip chart if necessary c) Conference rooms may have built in microphones record meetings or for audio conferencing
    156. 156. Meeting rooms• Some conference rooms may have television and or teleconferencing facilities• A large room with chair arranged in rows is usually called a meeting room• Meeting rooms are usually arranged for flexibility
    157. 157. The agenda• Minutes of last meeting•• Review of Ms. O‘Leary‘s proposal•• Plant specifications•• Review of computer purchase•• Set date of next meeting• Adjournment
    158. 158. Exercise• Write in pair an agenda for a meeting using the example of what you have covered so far.
    159. 159. The agenda• If the agenda is not distributed in advance distribute it at the meeting.• Even if the agenda is distributed in advance have extra copies available at the meeting for those who will forget their copies.
    160. 160. Suggestions for the presider• Do not schedule meetings the day before a holiday or Friday afternoon when people are anxious to leave for the weekend.• Distribute the agenda well in advance. Your associates might like to read and think about the agenda.• In advance, decide how long to wait for late participants.• Be aware of the nonverbal communications in the meeting room.• Be aware of any tension between participants.• Do not allow verbal attacks on other attendees.
    161. 161. Suggestions for the presider• Do not allow discussion to ramble on. Always stay focused.• Do not allow the meeting to divert from the agenda• Use flip-charts to organize the discussion, and use one piece of paper for each topic.• This procedure also helps keep the group focused on one topic since the topic under discussion can be seen by all participants.• If one person monopolizes the conversation, encourage others to speak.• Always summarize each agenda item prior to moving to the next item.• Avoid belittling and individual‘s comments.•
    162. 162. Exercise 2• List ways in which a chair can belittle other people attending a meeting.
    163. 163. Suggestions for the attendee• Prepare for the meeting by reading background material about the agenda items.• Always arrive on time. Your colleagues may feel that your arriving late is inconsiderate and a waste of their time.• Bring key documents such as the agenda and pertinent reports to the meeting, but do not overburden yourself with background material.• Always be courteous to all attendees.• Make notes during the meeting. You will not remember everything.
    164. 164. Suggestions for the attendee• Meet new business associates at the meeting. Do not talk only with co-workers you know.• Do not talk privately to the person sitting beside you. Always talk to the group.• New employees attending meeting should follow a ―wait and see attitude.‖ Do not jump into the conversation immediately; you may not know all of the facts. Listen and watch first. Also, observe the meeting tone, gestures, and climate before venturing into the discussion.• Thank the meeting organizer.
    165. 165. Why meetings are not successfull• The meeting chairperson and the attendees differ on what is to be discussed.• The timing of the meeting is poor because attendees have other projects that must be completed, and they are not interested in the meeting.• The attendees feel that there is no reason to have the meeting other than it is the standard weekly staff meeting.
    166. 166. Keep control of the task• Describe the vision of the meeting. Its overall objective. Begin each item by clarifying its goal what you want to achieve. Specify:• What is to be discussed• Why we are discussing it• The required outcomes• Conditions of satisfaction how we will know that we achieved the outcomes, how we might measure our success.
    167. 167. Keep control of the task• Be ready to focus the meeting‘s attention again and again on these goals outcomes and measures success.• Stick to the agenda. Disallow irrelevancy and bring the discussion back to the point by summarizing and asking questions.
    168. 168. Establish the ground rules and guidelines• Establish your rules and stick to them.• Procedures should be simple, so that everybody can understand and operate them, and flexible, to allow for maximum participation. Keep to time.• Make rules clear from the start but be prepared to adjust your style to the group. Expect the unexpected: late arrivals, early departures, sudden twists in conversation.
    169. 169. During the meeting• Try to listen more than you talk. Improve your listening will help you to:• Understand more fully what people are saying• Keep focused on the task• Clarify points and resolve muddle• Find trigger words that may spark new ideas
    170. 170. The meeting administrator• Is the eyes and ears of the leader. He/ she advices the leader, reminds him/ her of pertinent items needed for the meeting.• Set out the venue for the meeting• Take minutes• Custodians of minutes• Helps the leader in controlling the meeting• Monitors the time spent on each item• The most sensitive part of his or her work is recording the minutes. The following list provides some tips and techniques for being an effective recoder.
    171. 171. Tips for being an effective recorder• Ask for clarification when you need to make sure you have the right information.• Write only the key words and phrases. You don‘t need to get every word, like a court stenographer• Write legibly on a flip chart or white board, in full view of meeting participants• Number all charts to help maintain order and flow of information• Don‘t eliminate ideas or phrases just because you don‘t agree• If the meeting is long and technical, have the group review recorded notes periodically
    172. 172. Minutes taking• Minutes may be defined as ― the official record of the proceedings and business recorded at a meeting.
    173. 173. Uses of minutesThe principal uses and values of meetings may be summarized as:• They constitute the official record of the business transacted at the general, board and other meetings.• They are available for inspection by interested parties• They can be produced as evidence in legal proceedings• They serve as an important source of information for decision making
    174. 174. Working minutes• This is the administrators major task at the end of the meeting• It is also often the great headache• Length meetings will not be read,. There very name suggests something brief: a summary of events. Minutes are not a word for word description of all that goes on in a meeting. Minutes are a record of facts, decisions and agreed actions. Your aim is to keep the minutes as brief as possible.• Make sure that you are clear from the outset of what is required. Check with the Chair on matters of layout and style. Do not however feel obliged to copy minutes produced in the past.
    175. 175. Working the minutes• Write up the minutes as soon as possible after the meeting: within 24 hours if you can. They should follow the agenda exactly: with identical numbers and item headings.• They might include: a) The name of the meeting b) The venue date and time c) The name of the Leader administrator and participants d) Apologies for absence
    176. 176. Working minutes cont….• The minutes agreed and signed• Summaries of each item• Matters arising• Summarises of submitted reports• Motions and amendments• Proposer and seconder‘s name for each motion or amendment• Voting numbers• Decisions agreed with names and deadlines• Venue date and time of next meeting• Date of completion and at least one signature usually the leader. The administrators signature is a welcome addition.
    177. 177. Working the minutes cont…• Lay out the minutes as neatly as possible• Allow a wide margin left margin and right margin and plenty of space between items.• Highlight actions to be taken perhaps using bold type, underlining by listing them on a separate sheet or on the right hand side.• Yours will be a definitive record of the meeting• The minutes must satisfy everyone who attended and this may require a certain amount of tact• Concentrates on facts, decisions, and actions and you will be less likely to go wrong.
    178. 178. Constructing a minute• A fundamental principal in writing minutes is to avoid narrative. Follow this simple structure to make your minutes more concise and useful• Background- to put the item in context for readers who where not at the meeting. The item title may do the job, otherwise indicate briefly how the matter arose.• Discussion.-How much to include? There is no need to attribute statements to particular individuals unless they ask you to do so.
    179. 179. Constructing a minutes cont…You should take care to include references to:• Recent events• Dates and place names• Names of people met or interviewed• Sums of money• Agreements or contracts• Policies• Documentation (reports and correspondence)• Names of departments or other organizations
    180. 180. Constructing a minutes cont…• Decision- a summary of what has been agreed. There may be no point to add reasons or justification for the decision at this point.• Action – what is to be done by whom, when and where. Actions should be highlighted by being printed in bold, underlined or placed in column on the right hand side of the page.• Improving the styles – paragraphs• Sentence length• Unnecessary dialogue• Passive verbs• The use of the tense
    181. 181. Constructing a minutes cont…• Each major contributing item will have a separate paragraph• Use sub paragraphs for substantial amounts of important detail, or lists of points• As a rough guidelines, try not to extend any paragraph in a minute to more than about four lines of text• No lines should be longer than 25 words• A sentence will probably be too long because it has too many ideas –Begin by identify the main ideas
    182. 182. Writing sentences• Remove everything else –other ideas can be expressed in their own sentence or if they are less important , can be consigned to oblivion• Remember the important the idea, the more briefly it should be expressed• Avoid narration-He said she said syndrome. Search for verbs like; ‗reported‘ ‗discuused‘ ‗explained‘ ‗expressed concern‘ suggested, requested, asked, introduced and so on
    183. 183. Sentence construction• Examples:• Mr Brown reported that he had spoken to the importers on Thursday….• Brian and Mary discussed the downturn in sales figures…• Geraldine suggested that the options seemed clear• Solia expressed concern that her team was underperforming.
    184. 184. Resolutions• The only way in which members can express the will of the company on any matter is by means of a Resolution passed in meetings.• Motions , questions & Resolutions• The terms motion, question and resolution are often used indiscriminately , it is however, preferably to use them in their correct sense.• A motion is a proposal submitted to a meeting for consideration• It becomes a question when the leader accepts it and submits to the meeting for discussion.• It becomes a resolution i.e the decision of the meeting, when it is adopted by a vote
    185. 185. Recording resolutions• A well drafted resolution should : a) Be concisely and clearly worded all unnecessary big words completely excluded. b) Avoid ambiguities and possible misunderstandings c) Be worded positively that is it must not be worded negatively d) Consist of a single sentence, though it may contain one or more coordinate clauses joined together by ‗and‘. e) Each resolution should commence with the word that
    186. 186. Recording resolutions• Where an act is not only agreed upon at a meeting but is effectively done at it, such as appointment of an auditor, it is necessary to state that the meeting both resolved to do the thing and that it was done at the meeting, e.g― it was resolved: That Mr N.A Shilongo be, and is he is hereby, appointed the auditor of the Council.‖If the phrase hereby is not included in the resolution, the effect is that the meeting resolved thatMr Shikongo be elected an auditor without actually electing him.
    187. 187. Recording resolutions cont…• The phrase is however inappropriate if the matter can not be accomplished at the meeting.
    188. 188. Specimen resolutions• The following examples are not purporting to cover every contingency that may arise but should serve as a guide.a) ―That pursuant to article 51 of the regulations of the council, Messrs E. Moono, P. Havenga and L. Hiakaere be, and they are hereby appointed a committee to investigate and report back to the standing committee the alleged embezzlement in the sale of council lands‖.
    189. 189. b) ―That the guarantee given by the council to the First National Bank in respect of the overhead to be granted by the bank to the council, a copy of which has been produced by the Meetings Administrator, be and hereby approved and that Ms Ashipala is hereby authorised to sign it on behalf of the council.‖c) Allotment of plotsThat the plots specified in pages 10 to 15 of the plot register produced to this meeting of management be and hereby allotted to the several persons whose names they are set against, and the leader should and does hereby intial each sheet for identification and that a letter of allotment be sent to each allotee forthwith
    190. 190. Adoption of an agreement• That the agreement dated 10 December June 2012 between the Council and Namibia Breweries be and it is hereby approved and adopted, and the seal of the council be affixed thereto.• Removing of a leaderThat Mr C. K. Clotze be and is hereby be removed from the office of the leader of the council.
    191. 191. Writing resolutionsAppointment of an assistant Councilor. – After considerable discussion on the question of the appointment of an assistant councilor, it was Resolved:That Ms Shimbuli is, and is hereby appointed as Assitant Councilor at a salary of one hundred and fifty thousand Namibian Dollars ($150,000) per annum, the appointment commence as from 1 July 2001.
    192. 192. Time for writing up the minutes• Minutes in general should be written up as soon as it is practicable , while the matter to be recorded are fresh in the mind.• Before the minutes are circulated, it is desirable for the secretary to submit a draft to the leader for his/her approval, thereby eliminating all alterations and corrections.• Minutes of Board meetings should be circulated to the members so that they can read them while they are still fresh in their minds. Again should the minutes reveal a misunderstanding, the matter can be remedied before valuable time is lost.
    193. 193. Altering• Where a mistake has occurred in writing up the minutes, they may be altered, provided that the chair person has not yet signed them. Mistakes should be neatly corrected ruling out the incorrect part in ink and inserting the alterations, which must be initialed by the leader. Alterations must never be effected by erasure or by the use of the tippex
    194. 194. Sentence construction cont….• Tense is another traditional bone of contention in minute writing.• Some authorities say that minutes must be written in the past tense.• Certainly statements of what took place at the meeting are best expressed in the past tense:E.g. Tom presented a report on the Windhoek road construction projected.Do not however think that you must rigorously avoiding the use of the present tense . The result can be unnatural and almost unreadable.
    195. 195. Tenses• The minutes after all are dated: there is not a reason why statements of current information should not be put in the present tense.• E.g Some contractors are still claiming for unreasonably high figures per kilometres.• Use the future for actions to be taken.• The results is still accurate: it is also much easier to read.
    196. 196. Sentence construction• Passive verbs are the curse of minutes everywhere!• Of course minutes must be unbiased, but this does not mean that every verb should be passive.• E.g• Many views were expressed.• It was agreed that….• It was thought necessary to• The resolution however was not passed• The plans were considered at considerable length
    197. 197. PLANNING A LARGE MEETING OR CONFERENCE• Another name for a meeting is a conference.• . Meetings require careful preparation but having sufficient time to plan a small or large meeting is usually al luxury.• Therefore, you should establish a basic plan for meetings and keep it in your files• Computer software and the Internet have made meeting planning easier by creating Web sites that provide assistance in planning meeting
    198. 198. Factors to consider when planning a meeting• What is the purpose of the meeting? What is the hoped for outcome of the meeting?• When will the meeting be held? Before a final date and time are selected for the meeting, important individuals who will attend the meeting should be contacted to verify that they are available.• Where will the meeting be held? The number of participants, the facilities available, the length of the meeting, and your office budget will help determine the location for the meeting.• How many participants will attend and who are they? If a similar meeting has been held in the past, how many people have attended? What does the follow-up report for that meeting indicate?
    199. 199. Factors to consider when planning a meeting cont…• What is the planned length of the meeting? Will the meeting be scheduled for an hour, several hours, one day, or several days?• How many meeting sessions will be planned? If this is a large meeting with concurrent sessions, how many meeting rooms are required?• When will the meeting begin and when will it end? To keep a meeting short, schedule it before lunch or at the close of the business day. People are usually eager to leave for lunch or to go home.• Will food be served? If food is served, money must be included in the budget to cover its cost.
    200. 200. Factors to consider when planning a meeting• You will also need to determine whether the food will include a full meal or just a snack. An early morning meeting often beings with coffee, donuts, pastries, bagels, fruit, and so on.• Is special equipment required for the meetings? If so, what equipment is necessary-a multimedia display unit, overhead projector, or slide projector? Are any other items needed? How will the equipment be obtained? Who will operate the equipment? During what sessions will the equipment be needed?
    201. 201. Factors to consider when preparing for a meeting• Will there be an audio or video recording of the meeting‘s sessions?• What is the budget for the meeting?• Will there be exhibits or displays?• Will there be out-of-town guests for the meeting? If so, will hotel accommodations be required. Will transportation costs need to be included in the budget?• Will RSVP notes be sent out?• How will the meeting be evaluated?
    202. 202. Where to have the meeting• Meetings can be held at hotels, motels, restaurants, private clubs, resorts, state parks, and similar locations.• Many large companies have their own attractive meeting facilities.• Past experience and recommendations from friends and business associates will help you select a good facility for your meeting.• If your company has held a similar meeting in the past, pay particular attention to the meeting facility evaluations
    203. 203. Factors to be considered when selecting a location for your meeting• Availability is the first consideration. Is the facility available when you need it?• Price is the second element to be considered. Is the facility in your price range?• Is the location convenient for those attending? Is it close to main roads or interstate highways? If attendees are flying in, is the facility conveniently close to an airport?• Are there a sufficient number of meeting rooms?
    204. 204. Factors to be considered when selecting a location for your meeting cont…• Are the chairs in the room comfortable? Are tables available if necessary?• Will the meeting room accommodate the anticipated number of participants?• Are meeting rooms comfortably climate controlled? (This can be a major factor in making a meeting a success.)• Is there sufficient lighting?• Are there shades or drapes to block the sun?
    205. 205. Factors to be considered when selecting a location for your meeting cont…• If equipment such as multimedia display units, overhead projectors, or slide projectors, are needed, will the facility supply them? What is the cost of supplying this equipment?• Is there a sound system available? Are microphones hand held, lavaliere style, or on a podium?• Are there sufficient electrical outlets for the equipment?• Is there a technician available if there is a problem with the equipment?• Are the employees pleasant? Do they seem to be efficient and interested in servicing your meeting?
    206. 206. Factors to be considered when selecting a location for your meeting cont…• What is the quality of the food? Is the food served quickly? What is the cost for food service?• Is the site clean and attractive?• Is parking available? Is it adequate for the size of the meeting? Is there a parking fee?• If a loading dock is necessary, is it available and convenient?• Is there a lobby or registration area available? Is the area large enough, and is it convenient to the meeting rooms?
    207. 207. Factors to be considered when selecting a location for your meeting cont…• Is there an area for displays or exhibits?• For longer meetings, will the meeting room be available for 24 hours or will someone else use it a portion of the day? What security is available to protect equipment and other important items?• Are the facilities accessible to disabled persons?• Is there a satellite hookup?
    208. 208. Food Service• When planning a meeting decide if food will be served.• The time of day and length of the meeting will determine whether food will be served, and your food budget will often dictate the menu.• In addition to meals, (breakfast, lunch, or dinner), food can be served as snacks during breaks or before and after the meetings
    209. 209. Food Service• . Today many people are on special diets, for example, low-sodium, low fat, or vegetarian diets. It is important to consider these preferences when selecting a menu.• Be sure to ask if it is possible to prepare a vegetarian meal or if they can accommodate people on special diets.• Since many convention or meeting facilities will not allow you to bring in any food, confirm their policy regarding outside food if you intend to provide your own.
    210. 210. Hotel/Motel Rooms• Reservations should be made for the meeting participants who plan to stay overnight. Most hotels or motels have a variety of rooms; for example, a single, double, or suite.• When making reservations, determine the type of room desired before making the reservation. If you are making several reservations, a block of rooms can be reserved.• One of the advantages of reserving a block of rooms is that hotels usually reduce the price of rooms when they are reserved in quantity
    211. 211. Hotel/Motel Rooms• Also, if meeting participants are paying for their own hotel rooms, you will need to decide whether the participant or the company will make hotel reservations. If the company makes the reservations, you may need to get credit card numbers from the participants so you can guarantee the reservations when you make them.• Meeting participants usually are encouraged to make their own hotel reservation and are instructed to tell the hotel that they are attending your meeting in order to receive any special room rates you have arranged.
    212. 212. Execirse 3• Use the site evaluation form to evaluate the venue for this training.
    213. 213. Contracts for Meeting Rooms• When a decision is made concerning a meeting location, a contract should be signed.• Although you may not be the person who signs the contract, read it carefully to verify that everything you discussed is included.• Nothing should be omitted. For example, if a reception table is promised, it should be written into the contract.• Your contact person at the hotel or restaurant may have changed jobs by the time you have the meeting, and the new employee may be unaware of an oral promise.
    214. 214. Audio and Video Conferencing• Audio and Video conferencing are often less expensive alternatives than bringing participants together at a meeting.• These technologies are also used within a traditional meeting setting to bring in participants who could otherwise not be present.• . If audio or video teleconferences are included on the agenda of your meeting, the availability of equipment required to support these teleconferences will be a major requirement in the selection of a meeting site.
    215. 215. Very Important People• If VIPs (very important people) will be attending your meeting, they may be given special treatment. These VIPs may include company officials, honored guests, or invited speakers.• Discuss with your supervisor whether any individuals should be given VIP treatment.
    216. 216. Dealing with VIPs• Dealing with VIPs• Who are the VIPs?• Will the VIPs be met at the airport or train station? Who will meet them?• Will there be baskets of candy, fruit, nuts, or flowers in their hotel rooms?• Will you need a car and/or driver for the VIPs?• Tell the bell captain and meeting services manager who the VIPs are.• As an extra gesture, you might want to gather infor
    217. 217. Identification Badges• To help remember names and meet new business associates, people attending meetings often wear name or identification badges.• For those participants preregistered for the meeting, name tags can be prepared in advance; but pens extra name tags should be available for persons who register at the meeting.• Wearing the tag on the right shoulder allows another person to easily see your name while shaking your hand.• The use of a name tag is not limited to a large meeting or conference
    218. 218. Web Site• To assist your meeting attendees, create a Web site or add additional pages to your current Web site with information about the meeting. This will allow attendees to obtain information at their convenience without additional staff time and costs for your organization.• The Web site should contain information about the meeting agenda, airfare, auto rental, and an online meeting registration option.• The meeting Web site should also have city and hotel maps and information with links to the specific Web site
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