Bolman, L. D. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Driving change in efl context
Understand what change is.
Acquire some fundamental skills for
Get familiar with Kotter`s and Fullan`s
Understand why most change initiatives
Develop a change model suitable for
It presses us out of our
It is not a respecter of
It has an adjustment
period which depends on
It is uncomfortable
It has a ripping effect on those
who won’t let go
Flexibility is the key
It is needed when the
practices of the past don’t
Change is won by victors,
Change is awkward – at first
Change pushes you to do
your personal best
Change have casualties of
Change will cause us to
churn or learn
Change changes the
speed of time
Change is more fun to do
than to be done to
It is measured by its
impact on all who are
connected to it
Change is only a waste to
those who don’t learn
Change happens in our hearts
before it is proclaimed by our
Change is like driving in
Change is here to
Change must involve the people and
not be impressed upon the people
2 out of 3 change initiatives fail (Sirkin, H. et
al – Harvard business review Oct 2005)
Lots of people offering lots of solutions –
How much can you bite off and chew?--- Too
Discuss with your partner Why most change
initiatives fail in learning organizations?
1. Underestimate the system's complexity.
2. Management change knowledge/ skills missing.
3. Lack of accountability.
4. Management resistance/time pressure.
5. Change structures missing.
6. Participative management skills lacking.
7. Fatal assumption made—that it is easy/normal.
8. Lack of senior management modeling.
9. Poor cross-functional teamwork/ turf battles.
10. Lack of follow-through/reinforcement
(CENTRE for STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT, 2000)
Bolman and Deal (2003) claim that change
fails when the agents of change rely almost
entirely on reason and structure and neglect
human, political, and symbolic elements.
Essentially the focus is on the systems, and
processes of change, which in itself is
difficult enough to get right, without
consideration for how these changes in
systems and processes will affect their
“Changing [educational institutions] is
extremely difficult. In fact it is almost
impossible to change them in fundamental
ways...” and “like other complex organisations,
[educational institutions] confront a set of
serious barriers whenever it attempts to
(Graba, 2004, p.2 cited in Jerald, 2005, p,1
•Passive or overt
•Know how about
Michael Fullan, 2004
Change affects the way an organisation works,
two factors must be considered:
Culture – how an organisation operates; the
change programme will almost certainly be
counter cultural in some way, and
People – how people will receive the change and
the actions they may take to resist it.
The two are inextricably linked.
John Kotter Model
Micheal Fullan Model
1. Strategizing vs. strategy
2. Pressure and support
3. Know about the implementation dip
4. Understand the fear of change
5. Appreciate the difference between technical
and adaptive challenges
6. Be persistent and resilient
A ‘wrong driver’ is a deliberate policy force
that has little chance of achieving the desired
result, while a ‘right driver’ is one that ends up
achieving better measurable results for
Wrong Drivers Right Drivers
Accountability Capacity building
Individual teacher & leadership
Fragmented strategies Systemic solutions
With reference to Kotter's model and Fullan`s
drivers, try to develop a set of steps that
would facilitate change initiatives in a TEFL
Lesson 1: Learn to live with Change.
Lesson 2 : Change is a process.
Lesson 3: Change in education context
should be about people, structures and
Lesson 4: A reculturing process is required to
sustain change initiatives.
Lesson 5: Change can be initiated by any of
the three organization layers.