Proposal for rolls royce to adapt an erp system
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Proposal for rolls royce to adapt an erp system

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Pointing out the differences between SAP and Oracle (Business Suite) and recognizing the best ERP system for a large enterprise like Rolls-Royce.

Pointing out the differences between SAP and Oracle (Business Suite) and recognizing the best ERP system for a large enterprise like Rolls-Royce.

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Proposal for rolls royce to adapt an erp system Proposal for rolls royce to adapt an erp system Document Transcript

  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP System TABLE OF CONTENTAbstract .................................................................................................................................................. 2Company Background.............................................................................................................................. 3Enterprise Resource Planning System ...................................................................................................... 4The need for ERP Adaptation in an organization ...................................................................................... 4SWOT Analysis on the basis of IT and Business ........................................................................................ 6Drawbacks of the Current Systems Used by Rolls Royce........................................................................... 8 ERP Systems Considered for Rolls-Royce.............................................................................................. 8 SAP vs. Oracle’s E-Business Suite ......................................................................................................... 9SAP Technologies Recommended for Rolls Royce .................................................................................. 10Service Provider recommended for the SAP implementation ................................................................. 11Business Process.................................................................................................................................... 11Standard MAP’s (Models, Artifacts and Processes) ................................................................................ 12Implementation (Big Bang vs. Phased Approach) ................................................................................... 13Organizational Change........................................................................................................................... 14Issues after Go-Live ............................................................................................................................... 15 Risks Involved .................................................................................................................................... 15Steps to be taken to overcome the risk .................................................................................................. 16Summary and Conclusion ...................................................................................................................... 17References ............................................................................................................................................ 18 By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemAbstractSince 1990s organizations around the world have been implementing ERP systems to have aconsistent or standardized information system in their organization and re-engineering theirbusiness processes (Rajagopal, 2002). ERP system packages have the merit of reduced cost,rapid implementation, and high system quality (Lucas et al., 1988). Even though theseapplications have its own advantages over custom design software, they may face problems ofuncertainty in acquisition and lots of hidden cost during the implementation process.Successful implementation of ERP must be managed as a program of wide-rangingorganizational change initiatives and not as a software installation effort. These types of ITinitiatives require change of the organizations social and economic systems, which then are gottogether with technology, people, task culture and structure. So, organizational fight to change isrecognized as a significant success factor for ERP Implementation (Hong and Kim, 2002).Organizations have to match and adapt to implement these modern large scale ES Systems whichare built with pre-determined business process methods. As a result, customization is important,lengthy, and expensive aspect in the successful implementation of enterprise resource planningsystem. It is examined how such companies develop and enlarge cliental trust which is aconsequence of relevant and trustworthy customization. Considering the significance of ERP, anattempt has been made in this paper to select and implement the right ERP system for aprestigious company in UK. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemCompany BackgroundRolls-Royce made a comeback in the private sector in the year 1987 and took over NorthernEngineering Industries in the year 1989 which enabled Rolls-Royce to show its capabilities inindustrial power. It further acquainted Allison Engine Company a US based company in the year1995, enabling it-self to grow the company’s presence in aero propulsion and industrial gasturbines. This acquisition further enabled Rolls-Royce to get a major foothold in the US markets.Rolls-Royce then came up with the most modern family of engines the ‘Trent Series’ which wereused to power Airbus A330, A340-500. This series of engine offered good maintenance costs,long range flight capabilities, economical operating and greater thrust. Rolls-Royce is into PowerGeneration Market which includes both electrical and nuclear power, which also includes marineapplications. Rolls-Royce is truly global business offering a range of first class world leadingproducts. By Kunal Chadha View slide
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemEnterprise Resource Planning SystemInnovations in the 1990s in IT led to the development of variety of software applicationstargeting at the integration of the information flow throughout the company and these packageswere known as Enterprise Systems. During this period when lots of new software packages wereintroduced in the market one particular enterprise system known as the ERP system caught theeye of some of the world’s leading companies. ERP systems targets to integrate the businessprocess through the support of an integrated computer information system.ERP helps in integrating individual functions systems such as Finance, Manufacturing,Procurement and Distribution. This system allows companies to swap their current informationsystem as well as to standardize the stream of management information.Internet Technologies are used by ERP to integrate the stream flow of information from theinside of business and information from customers & suppliers. The relational database system isused by the ERP system with the help of the client/server networks architecture to take-over theimportant management data. The most important motive behind the system is to input the datafrom a variety of modular applications just once. After the data has been stored, it shouldautomatically update all concerned information in the system. This ERP system can virtuallyhold all the areas of the organization which includes all the internal and external business units.The need for ERP Adaptation in an organizationThe most important use in adaptation of an ERP system in an organization is to provide acommon platform which would include all the internal and external business functionsinformation recorded in a single database system. Another most important reason was to replacethe legacy system that used obsolete technologies that lead to higher spending and maintenancecost. Most of the organizations preferred ERP systems which would in turn enable improvise theprocess of cycle time from order to delivery. In view of the fact that ERP systems are highlyintegrated, they have the potential to provide managers with better information to supportdecision making and data visibility. Data visibility is used to illustrate a one expression todifferent customers and to be acquainted with global customer as a single entity. Other advantageof adapting an ERP system would be overhead cost reduction and customer satisfaction.  Below are a few bulleted points that pin out the importance of ERP system to be used in an Organization  The necessity or for a common platform  Improvement in Business and IT processes  Data Visibility  Reductions in Operating Systems  Augmented customer receptiveness towards the organization. By Kunal Chadha View slide
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP System  Enhanced strategic decisionThe table below pins out a few more detailed use of ERP systems in small scale and large scaleorganization with regards to Business and Technical reasons: By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemSWOT Analysis on the basis of IT and BusinessStrength (Business)  Rolls-Royce holds number one position in the super-luxury car segment.  Major market share with leading aircraft manufacturing companies like Airbus and BoeingStrength (IT)  The company used a system known as CPA for monitoring financial transactions which included pipeline inventory, inter-site transport.  Rolls Royce used a CAD system that supported in the process of altering the file formats.Weakness (Business)  Perception of high prices  Constant delay in delivery of engines to clients. For example, Boeing blamed engine make Rolls Royce for yet another delay in delivery for its first 787 Dreamliner. (Robertson, 2010)Weakness (IT)  Data redundancy was a major area of concern in Rolls Royce.  The company had issues with data accuracy  In the current system the data was not normalized, screened and was not stored in a sensible format in the data repository which led to problems in copying data to other systems.  The company lacks a legacy system. The company has implemented more than 1500 systems over a period of time.  Due to numerous systems used within the company, they had problems establishing direct online communication with customers and partners.  Systems were conventional with absolutely no room for growth to sustain changing business environment.  The company used a system called MERLIN (Mechanized Evaluation of Resources Logistics and Inventory); which was a scheduling system based on MRPII systems. The software was capable enough to handle the scheduling but involved a lot manual manipulation. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP System  The company worked with systems for controlling procurement, finance and commercial functions which had problems in communicating with former systems.Opportunities (Business)  Internationalize there operations as an active player in the modern market  Modification of business process to adjust and fit in the new ERP systems available  Workshops and training to employees should be provided to work with the current systems and the systems that are to be implemented to make the maximum benefit out of the systems implemented.  Demand for comfortable and relatively cheaper cars.Opportunities (IT)  Implementation of an ERP system that would reduce manual manipulation which would reduce time consumption.Threats (Business)  As per Porters ‘ Five Forces’ model of industry competition it has discovered: o Potential entrants and the threat of entrants o Power of buyers o Power of Suppliers and threat of substitute as well as one within the industry – Competitive rivalry  The rising price of raw materials such as steel threatens to offset the company’s earning  Threat from rival companies such as Engine Alliance who manufactures and supplies air craft engines.Threats (IT)  Use of SAP by other major manufacturers in the market.  Engine Alliance has already implemented SAP A&D (Aerospace & Defense)  Transmission of data across communication links due to globalization poses IT Security risk to the data. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemDrawbacks of the Current Systems Used by Rolls RoyceRolls Royce has been a global power system and services company, yet the company had severalproblems in there management systems. Rolls Royce currently uses a number of systems,approximately more than 1500 systems. Many of these systems were developed within thecompany itself. The company had no particular legacy system, and maintaining and operating alegacy system would fall expensive and difficult. The current systems did not provide anaccurate, consistent and accessible data which was important for timely decision making andperformance assessing. These systems are quite out dated and often had problems incompatibility to the new manufacturing environment. Work within Rolls Royce was purposeoriented and different departments worked in isolation. One of the last systems which wereimplemented was MERLIN (Mechanized Evaluation of Resources, Logistics and Inventory), thissystem was mainly designed to manage scheduling but was prone to manual manipulation alsothe system did not support communication with other manufacturing system like IBIS which wasmeant for inventory based instructing system, problems in communication with the two systemsled to problems such as data transferring and hence could not be tracked properly which furtherled to errors in inventory and stock take problems.An additional system was also used which would manage and handle the finances called CCA(Corporate Cost Accounting), which included inventory handling as well as inter-site transport.Apart from this there are other individual systems at Rolls Royce that are meant for controllingand monitoring commercial, financial and procurement functions, these systems had troubleinterfacing each other because each of them had different file formats. Use of such systems didnot support the growth of the business and were not capable to meet up to the changes that tookplace in the business environment.ERP Systems Considered for Rolls-RoyceThere are two ERP systems that are taken into consideration for Rolls-Royce, SAP -Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (System analysis & programme development in dataprocessing), which is a German enterprise software application; and Oracle E-Business Suitewhich is a collection of applications. Both ERP systems are rated on top two in the list of ERPsystems. Let us furthur see the pros and cons of using this system in a business organization likeRolls-Royce, the information provided below will help the decession makers to choose the righttype of ERP system for their business. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemSAP vs. Oracle’s E-Business SuiteIt is very difficult to determine the best ERP system fit for the company as it depends on thefunction and requirements of the company. However a common difference between SAP andOracle is given below: SAP Oracle (E-Business Suite)SAP is focused on people do their jobs better. Oracle is focused on helping computers to do their jobs better.Implementation takes longer time with ‘more’ Takes less time for implementation with a fewefficient results. inaccuracies.SAP customers are more satisfied with higher Oracle did not meet the required satisfactorylevel executive satisfaction, employee level of customer requirements.satisfaction and customer satisfaction.Maintenance rates for SAP customers are Maintenance rates for Oracle customers arelower. higher as compared to SAP.SAP is regarded as ‘Vanilla Software’ (that is Oracle has higher level of flexibility and can benot customized from its delivered form and can customized to suit the company needs.be used without any customization applied toit.)SAP continues to enhance and build on core Oracle is moving towards fusion.product offeringSAP has been created on its own from the base Oracle has been developed mainly fromlike sales and operation planning, financial gaining best-of-breed point solution. E.g.reporting, CRM, functionalities into its core Acquisition of Demantra for advance sales andECC and developed all in one ERP solutions operations planning, Siebel for CRM etc.SAP has the ability to keep its business risks at Oracle keeps its business at a higher riskits lowest operational disruptions during the during the ‘go-live’ process.‘go-live’ process. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemAs seen in the above table it is apparent that SAP wins the race when in comparison withOracle’s E-Business Suite. Below is a detailed view as in how and what types of SAPtechnologies that should be implemented in Rolls-Royce.SAP Technologies Recommended for Rolls RoyceAs the study suggests, the company needs to implement an Enterprise Resource Planning system.SAP would be the best recommended ERP system for Rolls Royce as SAP has been devoted toprovide products that would improve the return and management of information collected by theorganization. Software packages that would be best suited for to meet the current requirements atRolls Royce would be:  SAP R/3 is an integrated computer system that can manage and sustain the entire business management tasks of an organization. In Rolls Royce, SAP r/3 would be able to handle business process such as invoice payment, production resource management and financial account control. These tasks can be accomplished by employing various modules such as MM (Materials Management) and SD (Sales Distribution). Since, all these modules come under the SAP itself the communication between departments would not be a problem anymore at Rolls Royce. SAP R/3 is one of the world’s most used standard business software for client server computing. SAP R/3 is highly customizable and is compatible with other systems which would avoid the problem of data transferring that has been occurring at Rolls Royce while using the current system. Also, the system handles document updates and master file databases which would avoid data redundancies. The system can support an unlimited number of servers and a variety of hardware configurations An additional advantage of implementing the SAP R/3 would be that it can aggregate itself with the existing computer system which would make sure there will be no data lost after implementing the new system.  SAP Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry solution has been a market leader in the industry. It is known for its configurable flexibility. The system allows intelligent and quick response to demand and supply of dynamics across global supply network to serve the purpose of outstanding performance based services. SAP for A&D supports processes in manufacturing operations, proposal management, and program management, as well as project and contract manufacturing and order management. With the use of SAP for A&D can help Rolls Royce to manage complexity, cut costs and boost productivity. The system responds to the area of MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul). SAP A&D will support important business processes in Rolls Royce and provide tools that would help managing these processes with greater efficient and effectiveness. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemService Provider recommended for the SAP implementationThere are many service providers available in the market for implementing SAP systems.Amongst which the market leader is IBM. IBM has been supplying SAP services to many majorfirms as they are known for their efficient business processes. IBM can help modifying the SAPsystems, which would help it to function more efficiently and cost effectively to meet thedemands of Rolls Royce and achieve a competitive advantage in the market place.Apart from this, IBM can also help Rolls Royce in cost cutting with their Full Economy Model.Together SAP and IBM offer reliable business processes.Another service provider which plays major role in the market is INFOSYS, their SAPimplementation approach is highly focused and in lockstep with industries best practices. Thecompany assures compliance during every phase of implementation and upgrade, providingorganizations with sufficient opportunities to re-align their internal business practices.Business Process Implementation of ERP system in Rolls Royce would probably lead to the change of current business process; this can be achieved by internal business process reengineering. This would involve a few steps such as: 1) Drawing and mapping the current processes 2) Identifying problems or issues from the current processes mapped 3) Applying some of these problems to SAP, to compare the problems to the new system that would be implemented. 4) Remapping and modifying the process inline to SAP. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemStandardized MAP’s (Models, Artifacts and Processes)One of the most important and critical area of concern during any of the ERP systems follow upsare the choice of common standard MAP’s, i.e. Models (e.g. organization models), Artifacts (e.g.vendor numbering schemes and lists), Processes (e.g. order management). ERP will design onestandard MAP format, to which the organization will stick, rather than following differentstandard of MAP’s designed earlier by its legacy systems for every business unit.The quality of the MAP’s will have a huge impact on the organization. If, the MAP for anorganization is not designed in an efficient manner, the organization could push down on in itsoverall performance. Similarly, MAP’s that are efficiently designed as per the requirements ofthe business will push up the performance giving it a competitive edge in the market. As a result,it makes it very important for choosing the right type of MAP for the organization before gettingon to the implementation process. It makes the implementation process of ERP a lot moreefficient after standard MAP’s have been taken care of. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemImplementation (Big Bang vs. Phased Approach)Enterprise System Implementation strategy ranges from a Phased approach and Big Bangapproach. A Big Bang approach is an incremental implementation where the recommendedsystem goes from being a test version to being the actual system used to capture transactions in amatter of days. Such an approach requires simultaneous implementation of multiple modulesalong with large amount of testing before the actual implementation of the new system over fromthe legacy systems. However, such a system determines the complexity and the timeline for theproject over an extensive period of time to the complete implementation of a system within ashort period of time (Brown & Vessey 2003). This strategy mainly focuses on an intense andshort period and the disadvantage of such strategy is that the details are often overlooked andthere are high amount of risks connected with it. On the contrary, a Phased approach is a modulewhich is implemented one at a time or in a group of modules, often at a single location whichrequires orderly implementation of designing, developing, testing and installing differentmodules. The problem with a phased approach is that each module relies on the informationreceived from other module which may result in incorrect facts and figures. Moreover,substantial attention and maintenance to be given to former systems at each phase so as tofacilitate the new ERP system.The task of deciding the best implementation approach is a challenging task because of attacheduncertainties that need to be taken into consideration. In this case, as Rolls Royce is a largecompany with numerous organizational domains, a phased rollout strategy would berecommended. Such approach would enable the designated team members to utilize enough timeand resources in planning, training, testing while continuing to work with older systems andrecommend any suggestion during the course of the changing phase.The implementation strategy would be executed in three phases. Key 1 Strategy & Direction Phase One 2 Planning Analysis & Convergence Phase Two 3 Early Deployment 4 Wave one – Focus on Operations Phase Three 5 Wave two – Focus on implementation Fig: ERP Implementation Model  The first phase would be to conduct a short study to determine the scope of the project which would provide a base to outline the blue print and costing. A specific body would be formed who will monitor the finance of the project along with controlling the genuine implementation process. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP System  In the second phase, a detailed plan would be created and a prototype system would be installed. This phase would be very crucial where the model would be developed based on previous implemented models and all existing projects would be drawn together and merged. In this stage a review regarding the whole module would be conducted based on the results derived from the prototype and any suggestions would be considered.  Finally, in the third stage the actual module would be implemented. But, since this phase would be too large, the implementation would be made in two ‘waves’. Both the physical and the architecture would be taken into consideration during the execution process. The first wave would deal with replacing the older system with the new ERP system where prototype would act as a foundation for the ultimate implementation process. In the second wave, the necessary infrastructure would be set in place; the employees would be thoroughly trained to use the new desired ERP system. During this wave, the older systems would be set to ‘view only’ mode as SAP would become the primary system. Once the new system provides some positive responsive, the older system would be completely eradicated.Organizational ChangeThere are many factors to be understood by the management before implementing Enterprisesystem. Such issues are important for the success of the ERP achievement. In order tosuccessfully implement the ERP system, the management of Rolls Royce should plan andmanage the execution process with the objective to proficiently fit within the company. There arefew ways the management should consider for the success of the project implementation:  At an individual level, the reaction of the employees to the new proposed system needs to be identified. There is a need to understand if the employees are exposed to ERP in their past? Whether they are computer literate? If not, the management must provide adequate training and education so that it can encourage the employees to use the new system.  Both individual and organizational issues must be considered for the introduction of Enterprise system.  The problem of resistance to change from the employees must be taken into consideration which is very vital for Rolls Royce.  At the organizational level, the business objectives of Rolls Royce must be identified. Based on this, several questions need to be answered, such as, how critical it is to integrate the business process? How important is the cost of implementation of Enterprise system and the return on investment (ROI). By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP System  It is very essential for the top management to support and give total obligation to the implementation of Enterprise System.  The management responsible for the change must not only involve in planning the change but also for introduction of new system and process. A good communication within the company will guarantee the effectiveness of the implementation.  Change management involves in managing the change in addition to the result of the implementation.  The stakeholders have to be informed prior and post the implementation of the system. This makes sure that the shareholders are aware of the present situation and how the change would help the company.Issues after Go-LiveThere are a certain risk factors that are discussed below that may or may not occur depending onthe adaptability abilities of an organization. However, by taking certain steps of precautionsduring and after the phase of implementation can overcome these barriers. Below are a few riskinvolved with the implementation of a new enterprise planning system, again, which may or maynot happen:Risks InvolvedRisk management is one of the major challenges of the project, and is an important area ofconcern amongst the stake holders as it requires several precautions and brainstorming amongstthemselves. The ERP project that will be implemented would cover various departments. Thereare certain risks that might take place during the course of the project which need to be handledeffectively. In order to avoid such potential failures and errors, the ERP Implementation teamshall record and maintain a risk register, which will contain all the details. Some of the majorrisks involved after the project going Live:  Conflicting directions in the organization can lead to potential failures or inability to align the new IT systems with the business process  Lack of reliable IT infrastructures and hardware’s due to unavailability or limitation, before and during the implementation of the ERP system  Providing insufficient and ongoing support to the company after implementation of the system might not be possible. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP System  The management and the supervision might resist adapting to the change in the process methods.  The project may be treated as a mere IT Implementation by the management and supervisions rather than a complete transformation in the business process.  Insufficient training or education provided to the workforce to operate the new system appropriately.  Possible failure to give ERP sufficient priority due to the number of existing and ongoing business processes.  The implementation of the ERP project may possibly have an effect on the company’s interim and end of year accounts.  Possible failure to cut over to the new system through the inappropriate systems testing of volume, stress and data conversion  Difficulties in maintenance might occur on bridged legacy systemsSteps to be taken to overcome the riskPre-Go-Live end user training should be performed to mitigate many risk factors involved afterthe implementation process.Additional re-enforcement after go-live like core project team members should be appointed toprovide general support, answer simple process and system focused queries.It is observed that more than 80% of the issues are associated with lack of understanding and notsome problems related to the system, to avoid such kind of a scenario ‘superusers’ should be thefirst level of support.Providing employees with training documentation such as cheat sheets will make the employeesmore comfortable with the system more swiftly.Providing training to fresher’s as and when needed on an on-going basisIt is seen that defining your go-live and on0going processes as a part of your overall ERPplanning will help your ERP technology to realize real business benefits and Return oninvestments from you ERP project. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemSummary and ConclusionSuccessful implementation of ERP requires a structured methodology which is strategy-peopleand process focused which is the only way to manage risk effectively. A good methodology isone which covers all expectations without severe negative consequences even when unexpectedsituation pops up (Donovan). Rolls Royce is a large business with complex process and suchproject would require the whole business to be assessed thoroughly for the effects. A companywith a magnitude of ten medium sized companies as one would cause administrative difficultieswhile implementing a new system particularly in the first phase while creating the strategy andplanning. Rolls Royce need to understand business, cultural and technical difficulties of such alarge project and must develop a solid core implementation team. It is bound that a project of thissize would never run smoothly without a team using their specialized skills of consultancyspecialists. This team must take into account both the needs at the managerial and end userlevels. They need to understand and solve the problems such as matching the process to softwareconfiguration, providing adequate training so as to reduce the resistance to change, enable newway of work, and bridge the gap between the legacy systems and the new system and so on.SAP gives a guarantee that their newer version of the software’s will upgrade SAP reports.However, reports specially created would require re-writing of the software. ERP systems arecharacterized by features such as functional coverage, single database, interdependentrelationships and standard management and processing rules; all of which are able to bringvarious kinds of changes in the company and enhance productivity. By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemReferencesBrown, CV & Vessey, I 2003, Managing the Next Wave of Enterprise Systems: LeveragingLessonm from ERP, MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45-57.Brunelli, M 2007, ‘Oracle takes on SAP with new GRC suite’, viewed on 24 th September 2010,<http://searchoracle.techtarget.com/news/1246218/Oracle-takes-on-SAP-with-new-GRC-suite?asrc=SS_CLA_302850&psrc=CLT_41>Daniel E. O’Leary 2000, Enterprise Resource Planning System, 1 st edn, The Press Syndicate ofUniversity of Cambridge, Cambridge , United Kingdom.Donovan, RM Successful ERP Implementation the first time, viewed 26/9/10,<http://www.inventoryinc.com/pdf/perfor8.pdf> Exforsys Inc, 2010, SAP R/3, viewed on 26th Sept 2010 <http://www.exforsys.com/tech-articles/sap-r3.html>Hong, K.-K., Kim, Y.-G., 2002. The critical success factors for ERP implementation: anorganizational fit perspective. Information & Management 40, 25–40.IBM Solutions, 2010, Solution s for SAP, IBM Solutions, United States, viewed on 25 thSeptember 2010 <http://www.ibm.com/solutions/sap/us/en/index/aerodefense.html>Lucas, H.C., Walton, E.J., Ginzberg, M.J., 1988. Implementing software. MIS Quarterly 537–549.Kimberling, E 2010, ERP Software Clash of the Titans: SAP vs. Oracle, viewed 24 th September2010< http://panorama-consulting.com/erp-software-clash-of-the-titans-sap-vs-oracle/>Kimberling, E 2006, Supporting Your ERP System After Go Live, viewed 24 th September 2010< http://it.toolbox.com/blogs/erp-roi/supporting-your-erp-system-after-go-live-12492>O’Brien, J., 1999. Management Information Systems. McGraw-Hill Inc., LondonRajagopal, P., 2002. An innovation-diffusion view of implementation of enterprise resourceplanning (ERP) systems and development of a research model. Information & Management 40,87–114.Robertson, D 2010, ‘Boeing blames Rolls-Royce for 787 delay’, viewed 20th September 2010,<http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/news/boeing-blames-rolls-royce-for-787-delay/story-e6frg90o-1225911178775>SAP Global, 2010, SAP for Aerospace and Defense- Compete for New Business using SAP,SAP Global, United States, viewed 26th September 2010, < http://www.sap.com/industries/aero-defense/index.epx> By Kunal Chadha
  • Proposal for Rolls –Royce to adapt ERP SystemYusuf, Y, Gunasekaran, A & Abthorpe,M 2004, Enterprise information systems projectimplementation: A case study of ERP in Rolls-Royce, International Journal of ProductionEconomics, vol.87, pp.251-266 By Kunal Chadha