Civics & Economics Top 100 What every student should know to pass the Civics & Economics EOC Goal 2
Goal 2: The learner will analyze how the government established by the United States Constitution embodiesthe purposes, values, and principles of American democracy.
Principles of the Constitution• Popular sovereignty• Federalism• Separation of Powers• Checks & Balances• Limited Government• Flexibility
3 Branches of Government• Legislative – makes laws• Executive – executes or enforces laws• Judicial – interprets laws
Bill of Rights, 1791• The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
Suffrage Amendments• 15th gave African Americans the right to vote.• 19th gave women the right to vote.• 23rd gave residents of the District of Columbia the right to vote in presidential elections.• 24th abolished poll taxes.• 26th gave citizens 18 years and older the right to vote.
Civil War Amendments• 13th abolished slavery.• 14th defined citizenship and guaranteed all citizens “equal protection under the law.”• 15th gave African Americans the right to vote.
Impeachment• A majority of the members of the House of Representatives accuse the President or other high government officials of serious wrongdoing.
Judicial Review• The Supreme Court’s power to overturn any law that it decides is in conflict with the Constitution.• Judicial Review was established by the decision in Marbury v. Madison.
Landmark Supreme Court Cases• Marbury v. Madison – judicial review• Plessy v. Ferguson – “separate but equal”• Brown v. Board of Education – “separate is not equal”• Gideon v. Wainwright – court-appointed attorney• Miranda v. Arizona – rights of the accused
States’ Rights• The states rights concept is usually used to defend a state law that the federal government seeks to override, or to oppose a perceived violation by the federal government of the bounds of federal authority.
Government Revenue• Money the government collects, such as taxes, fines, bonds, or user fees.
Contemporary Issues• Strict versus loose construction of the Constitution• States’ rights• Electoral College and process• Civil and personal liberties
Government Agencies• Conservation of natural resources• Immigration and naturalization• Crime control and drug prevention• Information gathering and policy formation• Health and human services• National security• Transportation