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food additives chapter 15

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  1. 1. Health Foods Possess health-giving, curative properties beyond their ordinary nutritive action.
  2. 2. Organically-grown foods foods grown without the use of any manufactured agricultural chemicals and fertilizers (insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics, hormones) processed without the use of food chemicals or additives (synthetic sweeteners, preservatives,dyes, emulsifiers, stabilizers)
  3. 3. Natural foods Food in their original state.  Raw fruits  Vegetables *with minimal refinement and processing
  4. 4. Food Additives Substances that are combined with food to 1.prevent growth of microbes orspoilage 2.improve nutrient quality 3.enchance texture, flavor, color, andodor. Used to keep food safe and edible.
  5. 5. Chemical and MicrobialInhibitors
  6. 6. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) andSucrose Oldest and most used microbial inhibitors * Why? -they absorb water, and makefood less available for chemicalreactions and microbial growth.
  7. 7. Citric acid, aceticacid, phosphoric acid They lower the pH of food to an acid state in which organisms cannot grow.
  8. 8. Other growth microbial growthinhibitors Calcium propionate  Added to bread Sorbic acid  Added to beverages
  9. 9. Antioxidants Added to foods to reduce spoilage Natural food component examples: *sprinkling vitamin C powder on sliced apples and potatoes (this will prevent browning through action of enzymes.)
  10. 10. Synthetic Antioxidants Added to polyunsaturated acids to prevent formation of toxic substances Examples:  BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)  BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole)
  11. 11. Other antioxidants Metal chelating agents  Bind trace metals and prevent them from catalyzing the oxidation of lipids.  examples: ○ EDTA ○ Citric acid
  12. 12. 3 processes used for improvingnutrient quality of food1. Restoration2. Enrichment3. Fortification
  13. 13. Restoration Selected nutrients are added to a food to restore nutrients lost through processing Example:  Adding vitamin C to sterilize fruit juice
  14. 14. Enrichment Nutrients are added to a food to conform to standards established for certain nutrients. Example:  Iron  Niacin  Thiamin  Riboflavin  Calcium  Vitamin D (added to flour or bread)
  15. 15. Fortification Selected nutrients not normally present in that particular food is added. Example:  Vitamin D in milk  Vitamin A in margarine
  16. 16. Agents Essential for foodProcessing
  17. 17. Agents Essential for Foodprocessing1. Leaving agents (yeast, baking powder) -cause bake foods to rise2. Emulsifiers (lecithin) -keep oil- or fat-containing ingredientsmixed with water base -give bake foods a light texture
  18. 18. Agents Essential for Foodprocessing3. Thickeners (gelatin) -give foods a smooth thick texture -prevent ice crystal formation in frozenfoods such as ice cream4.Humectants -prevent foods such as marshmallows fromabsorbing water
  19. 19. Agents Essential for Foodprocessing5. Artificial flavors and colors -impart the expected flavor and colorto a food(margarine is colored yellow to resemblebutter)6.Foaming agents -cause bubbles in such beverages asinstant hot chocolate mix
  20. 20. Unacceptable and Questionablysafe additives1. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) -synthetic growth hormone that wasused in animal feeds, has been removed2. FDC red dye #2 -coloring agent used in lipstick andbeverages -has been under study for mutageniceffects but permits have been granted forits use at lower levels
  21. 21. * FDC red dye # 3 -used in plaque disclosing tablets isacceptable3. Violet dye # 1 -used for stamping the grades ofmeat into beef carcasses , is suspected ofbeing carcinogenic. If exposure is so low itis not considered a significant risk
  22. 22. Unacceptable and Questionablysafe additives4. Synthetic sweeteners ( cyclamates andsaccharin) -still being used but are periodicallybeing assessed regarding their safety.5. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) -it’s a flavor enhancer -shown to cause tissue damage to thebrain in mature rats -has been removed to baby food