Health Foods Possess health-giving, curative properties beyond their ordinary nutritive action.
Organically-grown foods foods grown without the use of any manufactured agricultural chemicals and fertilizers (insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics, hormones) processed without the use of food chemicals or additives (synthetic sweeteners, preservatives,dyes, emulsifiers, stabilizers)
Natural foods Food in their original state. Raw fruits Vegetables *with minimal refinement and processing
Food Additives Substances that are combined with food to 1.prevent growth of microbes orspoilage 2.improve nutrient quality 3.enchance texture, flavor, color, andodor. Used to keep food safe and edible.
Sodium Chloride (NaCl) andSucrose Oldest and most used microbial inhibitors * Why? -they absorb water, and makefood less available for chemicalreactions and microbial growth.
Citric acid, aceticacid, phosphoric acid They lower the pH of food to an acid state in which organisms cannot grow.
Other growth microbial growthinhibitors Calcium propionate Added to bread Sorbic acid Added to beverages
Antioxidants Added to foods to reduce spoilage Natural food component examples: *sprinkling vitamin C powder on sliced apples and potatoes (this will prevent browning through action of enzymes.)
Synthetic Antioxidants Added to polyunsaturated acids to prevent formation of toxic substances Examples: BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole)
Other antioxidants Metal chelating agents Bind trace metals and prevent them from catalyzing the oxidation of lipids. examples: ○ EDTA ○ Citric acid
3 processes used for improvingnutrient quality of food1. Restoration2. Enrichment3. Fortification
Restoration Selected nutrients are added to a food to restore nutrients lost through processing Example: Adding vitamin C to sterilize fruit juice
Enrichment Nutrients are added to a food to conform to standards established for certain nutrients. Example: Iron Niacin Thiamin Riboflavin Calcium Vitamin D (added to flour or bread)
Fortification Selected nutrients not normally present in that particular food is added. Example: Vitamin D in milk Vitamin A in margarine
Agents Essential for Foodprocessing1. Leaving agents (yeast, baking powder) -cause bake foods to rise2. Emulsifiers (lecithin) -keep oil- or fat-containing ingredientsmixed with water base -give bake foods a light texture
Agents Essential for Foodprocessing3. Thickeners (gelatin) -give foods a smooth thick texture -prevent ice crystal formation in frozenfoods such as ice cream4.Humectants -prevent foods such as marshmallows fromabsorbing water
Agents Essential for Foodprocessing5. Artificial flavors and colors -impart the expected flavor and colorto a food(margarine is colored yellow to resemblebutter)6.Foaming agents -cause bubbles in such beverages asinstant hot chocolate mix
Unacceptable and Questionablysafe additives1. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) -synthetic growth hormone that wasused in animal feeds, has been removed2. FDC red dye #2 -coloring agent used in lipstick andbeverages -has been under study for mutageniceffects but permits have been granted forits use at lower levels
* FDC red dye # 3 -used in plaque disclosing tablets isacceptable3. Violet dye # 1 -used for stamping the grades ofmeat into beef carcasses , is suspected ofbeing carcinogenic. If exposure is so low itis not considered a significant risk
Unacceptable and Questionablysafe additives4. Synthetic sweeteners ( cyclamates andsaccharin) -still being used but are periodicallybeing assessed regarding their safety.5. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) -it’s a flavor enhancer -shown to cause tissue damage to thebrain in mature rats -has been removed to baby food