American Colonial EmpiresPortuguese and Spanish Empires
History of Portugal• In 868, Count Vímara Peres reconquered and governed the region between the rivers Minho and Douro. The county was then known as Portucale (i.e., Portugal).• Two million Portuguese people ruled a vast empire with millions of inhabitants in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.• From 1514, the Portuguese had reached China and Japan.• The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories that are now part of 49 different sovereign states.• First global empire in history, longest-lived of modern European colonial empires, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999 spanned nearly six centuries.• Portugals land-based boundaries ,notably stable in history such as the border with Spain almost unchanged since the 13th century.
The Portuguese Empire • The Treaty of Windsor (1386) created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day. • Henry the Navigators exploration with some technological developments in navigation allowed Portugals and led to advances in geographic, mathematical, scientific knowledge and technology, more specifically naval technology. • Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa in 1419, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the caravel, in order that they might find a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice trade. • Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571, a string of outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia. This commercial network brought great wealth to Portugal.
Portugal in the Period of the Discoveries• July 25, 1415 marked when the Portuguese Armada departed to the rich trade Islamic centre of Ceuta in North Africa with King John I and his wife Phillipa of Lancaster and their sons Prince Duarte (future king), Prince Pedro, Prince Henry the Navigator (born in Porto in 1394) and Prince Afonso, and legendary Portuguese hero Nuno Álvares Pereira.• On August 21, 1415, Ceuta, the city on the coast of North Africa directly across from Gibraltar, was conquered by Portugal, thus the beginning of the long-lived Portuguese Empire.• In 1484, Portugal officially rejected Christopher Columbuss western approach idea of reaching India , it was seen unreasonable. Some historians have claimed that the Portuguese already had performed accurate calculations concerning the size of the world and therefore knew that sailing west to reach the Indies would be a longer journey than navigating east.• This created a long-lasting dispute which resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain in 1494. The treaty divided the (largely undiscovered) world equally along a north-south meridian line 370 leagues (1770 km/1100 miles) west of the Cape Verde islands, with all lands to the east belonging to Portugal and all lands to the west to Spain.
Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia during the 17th century broughtan end to the Portuguese trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean.Brazil became Portugals most valuable colony until, as part of theindependent movements that swept the Americas in early 19th century, itbroke away in 1822.Portugals Empire was reduced to its colonies on the African coastline ,whichwere expanded inland during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century,East Timor, and enclaves in India and Macau.
The Consolidation of the Monarchy in Portugal• Between 1580 and 1640 Portugal and Spain were in a union of the two countries crowns, depriving Portugal of a separate foreign policy, and Spains enemies became Portugals. Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain and envious of Iberian successes overseas: the Netherlands, Britain and France.• Englands ally since the Treaty of Windsor in 1386. War between Spain and England led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugals oldest ally, and the loss of Hormuz.• From 1595 to 1663 Dutch-PortugueseWar led to invasions of asian countries and commercial interests in Japan, Africa and South America.1624 Dutch seized the capital of Brazil. The Treaty of 1654 returned Pernambuco to Portuguese control.
• Although Portugal had substantially attained its independence in 1640, the Spanish continued to try to reassert their control for the next twenty-eight years, only accepting Portuguese independence in 1668.• Portugal was unable to effectively defend its overstretched network of trading posts, and the empire began a long and gradual decline.• The new government immediately changed policy and recognized the independence of all its colonies, except for Macau which was returned to China in 1999, thereby marking the end of the Portuguese Empire.• Currently, the Azores and Madeira archipelagos are the only territories overseas that remain politically linked to Portugal.
Colonial Brazil• Viceroyalty of Brazil with the Portuguese from 1500 until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to kingdom alongside Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.• During over 300 years of Brazilian colonial history, exploration of the territory was first on brazil wood extraction (16th century), sugar production (16th–18th centuries), and on gold and diamond mining (18th century). Slaves, Africa, provided most working force for Brazilian economy.• The Portuguese severely restricted colonial trade, Brazil was only allowed to export sugar, tobacco, cotton and native products and imported wine, olive oil, textiles and luxury goods from Portugal and other Portuguese colonies– the latter imported by Portugal from other European countries.
• In 1530, an expedition led by Martim Afonso de Sousa arrived to patrol the entire coast, ban the French, and to create the first colonial villages, like São Vicente, at the coast.• Brazil was first fifteen private, hereditary captaincies. Pernambuco succeeded by growing sugar cane. São Vicente prospered by dealing in indigenous slaves.• The other thirteen captaincies failed, the king made colonization a royal effort rather than a private one.• In 1549, Tomé de Sousa sailed to Brazil to establish a central government. His first act was the foundation of the capital city, Salvador da Bahia, in Northeastern Brazil, in todays state of Bahia.• De Sousa brought Jesuits, who set up missions, saved natives from slavery, studied native languages, and converted natives to Roman Catholicism. The Jesuits work to pacify a hostile tribe helped the Portuguese expel the French from a colony they had established at present-day Rio de Janeiro.
The expeditions to inland Brazil were :• The Entradas were done in the name of the Portuguese crown and were financed by the colonial government. Its main objective was to find mineral riches, as well as to explore and chart unknown territory.• The Bandeiras, on the other hand, were private initiatives sponsored and carried out mostly by settlers of the São Paulo region (the Paulistas). The expeditions of the Bandeirantes, as these adventurers were called, were aimed at obtaining native slaves for trade and finding mineral riches. The Paulistas, who at the time were mostly of mixed Portuguese and native ancestry, knew all the old indigenous pathways (the peabirus) through the Brazilian inland and were acclimated to the harsh conditions of these journeys.
The Spanish Empire• The Spanish Empire ,one of the largest empires in world history, was one of the first modern global empires..• Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon were known los Reyes Católicosas :the "Catholic Monarchs", by Pope Alexander VI.• Married in 1469 in Valladolid, they united both crowns with a union in title only, as each region retained its own political and judicial structure. Setting the stage for the creation of the Kingdom of Spain, at the dawn of the modern era. Still today Spain remains internally divided.• The monarchs oversaw the final stages of the Reconquista of Iberian territory from the Moors with the conquest of Granada, conquered the Canary Islands and expelled the Jews and Muslims from Spain under the Alhambra decree, though Muslim (Morisco) culture remained influential.• They authorized the expedition of the first known European to reach the New World since Leif Ericson, Christopher Columbus. This led to an influx of wealth into Spain, supplementing income from within Castile for the state that would prove to be a dominant power of Europe for the next two centuries.
Reconquista• Al-Andalus• Caliph Al-Walid Ipaid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in the Umayyad Caliphate(second major Arab dynasty after Mohammad and the first Arab dynasty of Al-Andalus) era. It was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Spain.• A decisive victory for the Christian kingdoms at Covadonga, Asturias, Battle of Covadonga in the summer of 722.• Muslims were stopped by a king, Pelagius of Asturias, who started the monarchy of the Kingdom of Asturias. The battle was one of the first stages of the Reconquista.
Reconquista• As the Reconquista continued, small parts of the Iberian Peninsula were captured from the Moors. These small parts were formed into individual Christian kingdoms and principalities.• In the 15th century, the most important among all of the separate kingdoms that made up the country of Spain were the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon.• The rulers of these two kingdoms were allied with dynastic families in Portugal, France, and other neighboring kingdoms.
Spanish Golden Age• The Spanish Golden Age Spains cultural golden age in the 16th and 17th centuries was a period of flourishing arts and letters in the Spanish Empire The arts during the Golden Age flourished despite the decline of the empire in the 17th century.• Spain and Portugal were the European global exploration and colonial expansion, the opening of trade routes across the oceans, with trade flourishing across the Atlantic between Spain and the Americas and across the Pacific between East Asia and Mexico via the Philippines.
Habsburg Spain• Marriage politics of the Reyes Católicos, resulted in their Habsburg grandson Charles inheriting the Castilian empire in America, the Aragonese Empire in the Mediterranean (including a large portion of modern Italy), the crown of the Holy Roman Empire, the Low Countries, Franche-Comté, and Austria . This hereditary Habsburg domain was almost immediately transferred to Ferdinand, the Emperors brother.• Charles became the most powerful man in Europe, his rule over an empire in Europe unrivalled until the Napoleonic era.• This overseas empire of the Spanish Golden Age was controlled, not from inland Valladolid, but from Seville.-• The Habsburg dynasty spent the Castilian and American riches in wars across Europe on behalf of Habsburg interests, defaulted and bankrupt several times. Tensions between the Empire and the people of Castile exploded in the popular rebellion of the Castilian War of the Communities (1520–22).
• The Habsburgs political goals were several:• Access to the resources of the Americas, gold, silver,sugar and products of Asia, porcelain, spices,silk. Undermining the power of France and confining it in eastern borders.• Maintaining Catholic Habsburg hegemony in Germany, defending Catholisicm against the. However, Charless piety could not stop his mutinying troops from plundering the Holy See in the Sacco di Roma.• Defending Europe against Islam, notably the Ottoman Empire.• To bring religion to the souls of the new world. With conflict between Catholics and Protestants raging in Europe, the new world was an ideal place for more Catholics to be recruited.
Damiana da cunha catechist and sertanista• 1820s• Christianized style of caiapo life• Woman• Grandaughter of angrai-oxa ,teacher missionary mediator, frontiers woman and expedition leader.
Damiana da Cunha• Damiana da cunhas intelligence, piety and accuracy in the Portuguese language was quite impressive to the foreign travelers of the 1820s . Childhood and adulthood was more enriched than many for Damiana.• Knowledge of different culture and language brought significant benefit. Authority among her people and the ability to persuade .• Raised in the caiapo culture of the aldeias, she was loyal neither to the culture of the capitol nor to the culture of the caiapo in the backlands. Her commitment was to a Christianized style of caiapo life that had been worked out over the years by the caiapo themselves in resistance to the authoritarian and corrupt administrators.• She wore herself out in the futile efforts to bring peace to the frontier, to preserve the aldeia way of life, and to save her people from extinction by the settlers.• Consistently throughout the period of her political influence she worked to encourage her people to adapt to the settled way of life that provided them with access to he Christian faith, some protection against extermination, and a few of the “amenities” life on the colonial frontier . While she went through the extraordinary efforts to share this way of life with those who lived in the forests, at the same time she resisted total assimilation to the ways of the outsider..
Catarina de monte sinay• 1696• Desterro convent of bahia in brazil• Female• Nun and Entrepreneur
Catarina de monte sinay• -as a young woman from a good family , daughter of a councilman,her life would fit the expected pattern : she would marry or enter the convent,and the latter alternative had been chosen for her.• In a period of over half a century she had built up a working capital of 4,402,000 reis- a considerable sum equal approximately to half of the wealthy convents total annual income.(far from the state of poverty she had vowed to accept.)• First she earned a handsome income from money she lent as loans. Catarina admitted that she had frequently let her sentiments rather than her business sense guide her.• She made money from selling a slave. Much of her money she had lent came from her rentals of houses. She owned five substantial residential buildings of whitewashed limestone.• What had kept her the most occupied was her preparing and selling of sweets. For this she retained 12 slaves .
Juan de Morga and Gertrudis de Escobar –rebellious slaves 165• Middle years of the 17th century• Central Mexico• Mulatto• -Juan-male Gertrudis -female• young mulatto slaves
• Juan born a slave in the city of oaxaca , son of European secular priest and locally born slave woman. Unlike other slaves of his day he learned to read write and work with figures in at least a rudimentary way . And at the age of 23 he was unmarried. After his first attempt at escaping to create his own life his cycle of unfortunate events began. Enduring the grasp of one heathen , attempting to escape only to fall into the hand of a worse set of punishing hands. -Gertrudis de escobar born a free mulatta, had been put to work as a small girl in the convents of mexico city. An unfortunate series of events including her aunt selling her into slavery in 1659 at only fourteen to work on a sugar plantation of zacatepec, was only the beginning . Her life was a cycle of trying to escape and enduring punishment. – These two individuals were rebels against their oppressive circumstances which was directly linked to helping destroy the restrictive colonial social order.
Beatriz de Padilla :mistress and mother • 1650 • Lagos, near Guadalajara in western New Spain. • Mulatta ex slave, Morisca • Female
Beatriz de Padilla :mistress and mother• Born a slave she was granted freedom .• The fact that the lovers Beatriz had were all important men who were crazy about her, such as the commissioner of the holy office and the lord mayor of Juchipila. This fact produced enough enemies whos jealousy drove them to conspire against her.• She was arrested and removed to mexico city from her position as housekeeper and mistress in service of don Diego de las Marinas, the lord mayor of Juchipila. Accused of being responsible for mysterious happenings in her husbands lives.• Never failing at representing herself to the fullest her strengths helped her succeed in her life.
Miguel Hernandez :master of mule trains 298• sixteenth century mexico• Free mulatto• male• Self made educated community figure
• Did work as a muleteer, learned the complexities of trade and developed personal and financial associations with people of wealth. His ability to contract large debts without being forced into servitude is strong evidence of the standing he achieved in the community.• He hauled goods, sold cloth, and sold mules.• He earned enough to buy valuable property, a slave which helped his status. Miguel Hernandez :master of mule trains
Micaela Angela carillo: widow and pulque dealer • 1740-50s • Nuestra senora de asuncion amozoque ,a predominantly indian village • mestiza • female
Micaela Angela Carillo • She married a cacique,Juan tapia y Luna,this solidified her ties to the hereditary nobility of the town. • Struggling after her husband died, but very successful making pulque to support herself. Her business became very lucrative and her sense was in the right place providing much for her in her life as well as her childrens future. No obstacle was too much for this level headed powerful woman.