Dutch Colonization (1641- 1824)
Group Members : TOPICS : Dutch Colonization British Colonization Federated Malay States Unfederated Malay States
Dutch defeated Portuguese The Dutch had treaties with the Johor Sultans to get rid of the Portuguese. On 14 January 1641, the Dutch took possession of the fortress of Malacca, with the help of their ally the Sultan of Johor. At that time Johor was under Sultan Abdul Jalil, the successor of Sultan Ahmad Shah. Initially, the Dutch was grateful to Johor for helping them.
In 1639, they signed a Treaty with Johor which granted the nobles of Johor, free access to trade in Malacca as a sign of friendship.
Dutch expands its Influence The Malays thought that with the help of the Dutch, Malacca would regain its throne. Unfortunately, this was not the Dutch aim. After the capture, the Dutch set up a government. Malacca was too important for the VOC strategies, as the city was situated on the main trade route to the Far East (Spices islands, China and Japan) and was a formidable strategic outpost.
The Dutch expanded its influence in the trade by extending their activities beyond the borders of Malacca.
They started expanding their influence in Perak and Selangor because of its tin monopoly. In 1782 ,the Johor- Holland friendship was establish after the defeat of the Portuguese in Malacca was severely tested by commercial rivalry between the two parties.
Holland was not pleased with the competition posed by Johor because it interrupted their objective for monopoly.
To prevent British occupation, the Dutch attacked Riau, on 29 October 1784, the Bugis was defeated. The resulting treaty ended Johor's independence, and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau). Under the 1784 agreement, they forced Sultan Mahmmud III to surrender the port of Riau to them. Johor was in fact placed under Dutch influence although Sultan Mahmud III was acknowledged as the ruler of Johor. The Sultan’s disenchantment was intensified when the Dutch sent a Resident to Riau. Consequently, in 1787 Johor launched a military attack on the Dutch settlement in Riau.
The Dutch, however, recaptured Riau in the same year.
BRITISH COLONIZATION (1824-1942)
ANGLO-DUTCH TREATY Signed o n the 16th March 1824 between the British and the Dutch to resolve their conflict as well as preserve each other's interests. Singapore, the Malay States and India will be under the British colonization. The South of Singapore and East India will be under the influence of the Dutch.
Both powers will not expand their influence over the other's territory.
STRAITS SETTLEMENT Following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty, Singapore, Malacca and Penang Island were now under the British influence. In 1826 , they are combined into one administration called the Straits Settlements, with Penang as the administrative center and ruled by a Governor. I n 1832 , its capital was moved from Penang to Singapore
In 1867 , the Settlement became a British Crown Colony and was administered directly from London and not India.
Governance in the Straits Settlement Coat of Arms of the Straits Settlement Currency
BRITISH COLONIZATION IN PERAK, SELANGOR, NEGERI SEMBILAN AND PAHANG
The Pangkor Treaty The Pangkor Treaty marked the beginning of British political control over Malaya. In 1871, the Sultan of Perak died. A quarrel broke out over who should succeed him.
Meanwhile, Chinese secret societies fought over the control of tin mines, which caused the supplies of tin to Britain to be disrupted.
Raja Abdullah made an agreement with the British, claiming he was the rightful heir to the Sultan. The agreement was known called the Pangkor Treaty .
In return for recognizing him as the Sultan of Perak, Raja Abdullah must accept a British 'advisor', who would 'advise' him on all matters except those concerning Malaysian religion and customs.
Perak The Pangkor Treaty marked the beginning of British political control over Malaya. In 1871, the Sultan of Perak died. A quarrel broke out over who should succeed him. Meanwhile, Chinese triad groups ( Ghee Hin and Hai San ) fought over the control of tin mines, which caused the supplies of tin to Britain to be disrupted. Raja Abdullah made an agreement with the British, claiming he was the rightful heir to the Sultan. The agreement was known called the Pangkor Treaty .
In return for recognising him as the Sultan of Perak, Raja Abdullah must accept a British 'advisor', who would 'advise' him on all matters except those concerning Malaysian religion and customs.
Selangor A rising feud between the royal family resulted in the Klang War. Tengku Kudin (the reigning sultan's son-in-law) was elected to stop the civil war. Facing oppositions, he asked for foreign support from the British.
The British tried to persuade Sultan Abdul Samad to accept a Resident, but failed.
However, a turn of events in the early 1870s caused Selangor to be under the British's power; - a British merchant ship from Penang to Melaka was looted near Langat in 1834. - the lighthouse built by the British in Tanjung Rachado was attacked in 1874.
J.G. Davidson was elected as Selangor's first Resident.
Negeri Sembilan Dato' Kelana Syed Abdul Rahman and Dato' Bandar Kulop Tunggal were contending over their influence in Sungai Ujong. Dato' Bandar had the support of the locals and Chinese tin miners.
Feeling threatened, Dato' Kelana asked for the British help to acknowledge his position as ruler over Sungai Ujong. In return, the British have full power to collect taxes.
Dato' Bandar was against this, but was exiled to Singapore.
In 1895, all the districts in Negeri Sembilan were united, with Tunku Muhammad ibni Yamtuan Antah as the first Yang Dipertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan and Martin Lister as Negeri Sembilan's first British Resident.
Pahang The British wanted Pahang as well so that they could obstruct any other foreign powers from taking over the Malay States. To prevent Pahang from being colonized, Sultan Ahmad brought in European investors and developed the state. In 1886, British tried to persuade Sultan Ahmad but failed.
However, in 1887, with the help of Sultan Abu Bakar from Johor, the British managed to convince the sultan to accept British influence.
In 1888, a British civilian was murdered near the sultan's palace, giving the British the chance to intervene.
J. P. Rodger was the first Pahang Resident.
The Sultans at the First Malayan Durbar
Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States A Federation of 4 protected states in Malay Peninsula – Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang which was establish by the British in 1895 and lasted until 1946. The Federated Malay states were formed to : to address Pahang’s financial problems; for the purpose of efficiency and uniformity in administration;
to check the Resident’s power;
The Sultans were allowed to remain and were duly respected, empowered to act as figureheads and religious leaders, but the British effectively ran everything else. The federation had Kuala Lumpur, which was then part of Selangor, as its capital.
A Resident System was implemented for the Federated Malay States, while an advisory system was implemented for the Unfederated Malay States.
The first FMS Resident General was Sir Frank Swettenham , and the main duties include advising the Sultan in every area except for areas concerning Islam and Malay cultures.
The federation along with the other Malay states of the peninsular and British possessions was overrun and occupied by the Japanese. After the liberation of Malaya due to the Japanese surrender, the federation was not restored. However, the federal form of government was retained as the principal model for consolidating the separate States as an independent Federation of Malaya and the Federation's later evolution into Malaysia.
Flag of Federated Malay States
Coat of Arms of The Federated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 Treaty between the United Kingdom and Thailand signed on March 10, 1909 in Bangkok. The agreement, in which the Malays were not represented, effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts.
These four states, along with Johor later became known as the Unfederated Malaya States.
So what exactly is an Unfederated Malay State?
A former group of five states in the Malay Peninsula, under indirect British control and forming a part of the former Federation of Malaya: now part of the federation of Malaysia.
History Started with the invention of motorcars which led to the increase in demand of rubber to make tires, Malaya being one of the suppliers. To maintain their monopoly over the rubber industry, the British intended to gain control over the whole of Malaya.
They sent ‘Advisors’ who were suppose to assist the Sultans in the running of the state.
4. They started with the Northern States – Kelatan Perlis Kedah Terengganu
Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis .
5. 5 years later Johor joined them as the final Unfederated State as it wished to remain independant.
The Area Colored Blue UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES
How does it differ from Federated States? The Unfederated states lacked common institution.
The presence of ‘advisors’ meant that the British influence was not as strong.
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