Rizal’s plans of coming back home• As early as 1884, Rizal wanted to go back to the Philippines for thefollowing reasons:• – Financial difficulties in Calamba• – Desire to prove that there is no reason to fear going home.• – His belief that the Spanish regime will not punish the innocent.
Decision to return home• After five years of his memorable sojourn in Europe, Rizal returnedto the Philippines.• However, Rizal was warned by the following not to return to thePhilippines because his Noli Me Tangere angered the friars:• Paciano Mercado – Rizal’s adviser and only brother.• Silvestre Ubaldo – Rizal’s brother in law; husband of Olimpia.• Jose Ma. Cecilio (Chenggoy) – one of Rizal’s closest friends.
Decision to return home• Rizal was determined to come back to thePhilippines for the following reasons:– To operate his mother’s eyes– To serve his people who had long been oppressed by Spanishtyrants.– To find out for himself how the Noli Me Tangere and hisother writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards.– To inquire why Leonor Rivera remained silent.
Rizal arrives in Manila• Rizal left Rome by train to Marseilles, a Frenchport and boarded Djemnah, the same steamerthat brought him to Europe five years ago.• There were 50 passengers: 4 Englishmen, 2Germans, 3 Chinese, 2 Japanese, 40 Frenchmen,and 1 Filipino (Rizal)• In Saigon (Ho Chi Minh), Vietnam – hetransferred to another steamer, Haiphong, thatbrought him to Manila.
Happy Homecoming• When Rizal arrived in Calamba, rumors spread that hewas a:– German spy– An agent of Otto Von Bismarck – the liberator ofGermany.– A Protestant– A Mason– A soul halfway to damnation
In Calamba• Rizal established a medical clinic.• Doña Teodora – was Rizal’s first patientDoctor Uliman – Rizal was called this namebecause he came from Germany.• Gymnasium – was opened by Rizal for theyoung people.• He introduced European sports fencing andshooting to discourage them from cockfighting and gambling.
Sad Moments in CalambaLeonor Rivera – Rizal tried to visit her in Tarlacbut his parents forbade him to go becauseLeonor’s mother did not like him for a son-in-law.Olimpia Mercado-Ubaldo – died because ofchild birth.
Storm over Noli Me Tangere• Governor General Emilio Terrero – wrote to Rizalrequesting to come to Malacañang Palace.– Somebody had whispered to his ear that the Noli containssubversive ideas.– Rizal explained to him that he merely exposed the truth, but didnot advocate subversive ideas.– He was pleased by Rizal’s explanation and curious about thebook, he asked for a copy of the novel.
Rizal revisited the Jesuits• Rizal visited the Jesuit fathers to ask for theirfeedback on the novel.• He was gladly welcomed by the followingfriars:– Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez– Fr. Jose Bech– Fr. Federico Faura – told Rizal that everything inthe novel was the truth and warned him that hemay lose his head because of it.
Jose Taviel de Andrade• A young Spanish lieutenant who camefrom a noble family• He was cultured and knew painting• He could speak French, English and Spanish.
Attackers of the Noli• Archbishop Pedro Payo– a Dominican– Archbishop of Manila– Sent a copy of the Nolito Fr. Gregorio Echavarria, Rector ofthe University of SantoTomas to examine thenovel.
Attackers of the Noli• Governor-General Terrero – was not satisfiedwith the report of the Dominicans so he sent the novel to thePermanent Commission of Censorship which wascomposed of priests and lawyers.• Fr. Salvador Font – Augustinian friar curate ofTondo was the head of the commission.– The group found that the novel contain subversiveideas against the Church and Spain and recommendedthat the importation, reproduction and circulation ofthe pernicious book in the islands be absolutelyprohibited.
Attackers of the Noli• The newspaper published Font’s writtenreport• The banning of the Noli Me Tangere served tomake it popular• The masses supported the book.
Attackers of the Noli• Fr. Jose Rodriguez – Augustinian Prior ofGuadalupe– Published a series of eight pamphlets under theheading Questions of Supreme Interest to blastthe Noli and other anti-Spanish writings.– Copies of anti-Rizal pamphlets were sold afterMass.– Many Filipinos were forced to buy them in ordernot to displease the friars.
Attackers of the Noli• The novel was fiercely attacked in the session hallof the Senate of the Spanish Cortes.• Senators:– General Jose de Salamanca– General Luis de Pando– Sr. Fernando Vida• Vicente Barantes – Spanish academician ofMadrid who formerly occupied high governmentposition in the Philippines bitterly criticized thenovel in an article published in the Madridnewspaper, La España Moderna.