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  • 1. EVOLUTION OF THE AIRPLANE<br />BY: JIMMY TANG, CJ PATTON<br />
  • 2. What is an aircraft?<br />An aircraft is a vehicle which is able to fly by being supported by the air, or in general, the atmosphere of a planet.<br />Rockets are not considered aircraft because they do not rely on lift from aerodynamics to fly, relying instead on rocket thrust.<br />
  • 3. First Flight<br />Orville and Wilbur Wright<br />December 17, 1903<br />First powered flight<br />Created method for pilots to control<br />Formula for lift – Smeaton coefficient<br />http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/history/top10/wright-flyer.jpg<br />
  • 4. SmeatonCoefficent<br />http://wright.nasa.gov/airplane/smeaton.html<br />
  • 5. 1903-1927<br />1903 – First flight by Wright Brothers<br />1909 – First flight across English Channel<br />1910 – Henri Fabre takes off from water<br />1914 – Aerial combat in WWI, no deaths<br />1919 – First transatlantic crossing by two<br />1922 – First successful parachute jump<br />1927 – Lindbergh flies solo across Atlantic<br />http://www.census.gov/history/img/StLouis1920s.jpg<br />http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2134/2143767421_9a647d1f2d_z.jpg?zz=1<br />
  • 6. 1927-1949<br />1929 – Fritz Opel makes first rocket flight<br />1937 – Hanna Reitsch pilots helicopter<br />1939 – First successful turbojet engine<br />1942 – Messerschmitt Me-262 is flown for the first time, the fastest aircraft of WWII<br />1947 – Yeager breaks sound barrier in X-1<br />1949 – B-50A circles the globe nonstop<br />http://www.webpromotor4u.com/no.gif<br />http://history.nasa.gov/x1/x1_color.gif<br />http://www.aviationspectator.com/files/images/Boeing-B-50-Superfortress-034.preview.jpg<br />
  • 7. 1952-Present<br />1952 – First commercial jetliner<br />1969 – Tu-144 jetliner breaks sound barrier<br />1981 – Solar powered craft flies across English Channel<br />1986 – Nonstop global flight without refuelling<br />2006 – Steve Fosset flies around the world twice<br />
  • 8. Evolution<br />
  • 9. Early aircraft design<br />Biplanes and triplanes<br />Number of wings meant lots of drag, but enough lift for low speed take-offs<br />Low performance<br />Weak engines<br />Wooden propellers<br />Rotary engines<br />Wooden construction<br />http://www.youngeagles.com/photos/gallery/Biplanes/HatzBiplane.jpg<br />http://www.avsim.com/pages/0801/combat_aces/redbaron_fokker_triplane.jpg<br />
  • 10. Pinnacle of the Piston Engine<br />Transition to metals<br />Faster, higher flying<br />Larger payload<br />More agile<br />Powerful engines<br />Longer range<br />Hydraulic controls made high speed maneuvers possible<br />http://www.propagandaposters.us/imagesofwar/b-17.jpg<br />http://www.allfordmustangs.com/articlemanager/uploads/1/p51.jpg<br />
  • 11. First Turbojets<br />Turbojets used controlled explosion<br />More speed, power<br />Swept wing design lowered drag<br />Larger aircraft<br />Commercial aircraft becoming more common<br />http://files.blog-city.com/files/A05/141484/p/f/b47_stratojet.jpg<br />http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/commun/ml-fe/images/articles/fullSize/12-39-12c.jpg<br />
  • 12. High Performance<br />Powerful engines such as the J-74 pushed speeds past mach 2<br />Extreme ranges and payloads possible<br />Engines became more efficient, afterburner introduced<br />http://gadgetophilia.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/f-4_phantom_ii_in_flying.jpg<br />http://www.myptsmail.com/hotdog256/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/bombers_b52_0008.jpg<br />
  • 13. Commercial Enterprise<br />Boeing 707, Douglas DC-10 became successful<br />Efficient transport<br />More people could move through the air<br />Safe way of travel<br />http://www.thewallpapers.org/photo/14996/Boeing_707-003.jpg<br />http://www.youngeagles.org/photos/gallery/Airliners/DouglasDC-10_1.jpg<br />
  • 14. Turbofans Evolve<br />Turbofans increased efficiency<br />Fly-by-Wire<br />Increase in speed, range, payload<br />Turbofans used larger air compressors<br />http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/images/f-16c-19990601-f-0073c-005.jpg<br />http://www.scramble.nl/wiki/images/thumb/e/e4/ENG_F110-GE-129_Testing_lg.jpg/300px-ENG_F110-GE-129_Testing_lg.jpg<br />
  • 15. Next Generation<br />Experiments with forward swept wings for higher agility<br />F-35 JSF vertical take-off and landing<br />Improved computer power allows potentially unstable aircraft to fly with great agility<br />http://media.defenseindustrydaily.com/images/AIR_F-35_JSF_lg.jpg<br />http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/s37/images/img7.jpg<br />
  • 16. Commercial Future<br />Automated landings<br />Larger passenger capacity<br />Longer flight range<br />More services onboard<br />Technologically rich environments<br />http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/2007/08/17/AirbusA380_wideweb__470x290,0.jpg<br />https://bcsengage.wikispaces.com/file/view/BOEINg.jpg/51185931/BOEINg.jpg<br />
  • 17. Environmental and Social Impact<br />
  • 18. Atmospheric Effects<br />Higher altitudes mean more effect of greenhouse gases on the Earth<br />Huge amounts of carbon dioxide emitted into the air<br />Approx. 1.5M people a day fly in the U.S.<br />http://www.valc.com.vn/Uploads/LibraryImages/2009/11/18/contrails.jpg<br />
  • 19. Emissions Chart<br />http://dev.ulb.ac.be/ceese/ABC_Impacts/glossary/images_glossary/emissions_CO2.png<br />
  • 20. Bibliography<br />Anonymous. (n.d.). How many people fly in the USA every day? | Answerbag. Answerbag.com | Ask Questions, Get Answers, Find Information . Retrieved September 12, 2010, from http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/1289342 (tags: none | edit tags)<br />Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment. (n.d.). U-M Personal World Wide Web Server. Retrieved September 12, 2010, from http://www-personal.umich.edu/~murty/planetravel2/planetravel2.html (tags: none | edit tags)<br />The, t. l. (n.d.). Smeaton Pressure Coefficient. Re-Living the Wright Way -- NASA. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://wright.nasa.gov/airplane/smeaton.html (tags: none | edit tags)<br />Thornborough, A. (1995). Modern Fighter Aircraft Technology and Tactics: Into Combat With Today&apos;s Fighter Pilots. cambridge: Patrick Stephens. (tags: none | edit tags)<br />Timeline of Flight. (n.d.). Diseno-art.com | From Concept Cars to Power Boats. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://www.diseno-art.com/encyclopedia/archive/timeline_of_flight.html (tags: none | edit tags)<br />Wright Flyer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wright_Flyer (tags: none | edit tags)<br />name. (n.d.). Aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft (tags: none | edit tags)<br />

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