Incredible Invaders: how
wood boring beetles are
colonizing the world
Caroline Storer
Jiri Hulcr
Craig Bateman
Martin Kost...
lionfish

wild pigs

hydrilla

fire ants

purple swamphen
The wood boring ambrosia beetles
The redbay ambrosia beetle
Are
avocados
next?
Cumulative number of established invasive
bark and ambrosia beetles species in the U.S.

Lee et al. 2007
Why are bark and ambrosia beetles
incredible invaders?	
  
Ambrosia beetles build galleries in the xylem of
dying trees for farming their symbiotic fungus
They carry fungus in specialized tissue called mycangia
Ambrosia beetles push
excavated material out
of galleries for fungus
farming
Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics
Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics

Haplo-diploid: Females
produce many diploid
daughters and one haploid
son

haploid...
Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics

Haplo-diploid: Females
produce many diploid
daughters and one haploid
son

haploid...
Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics

Haplo-diploid: Females
produce many diploid
daughters and one haploid
son
Inbreed:...
A single female can start a new
population
Provide new insights into the ecology of
the ambrosia beetles using emerging
molecular tools
Diversity and specificity of fungal symbionts in
Ambrosia beetles
Diversity and specificity of fungal symbionts in
Ambrosia beetles

Fungal cultures from exotic and native beetles
Diversity and specificity of fungal symbionts in
Ambrosia beetles
Xyleborus affinis

Xylosandrus crassiusculus

Xyleborus ...
Diversity and abundance of fungal communities is variable and
sometimes beetle species specific
Patterns of symbiont diversity

Beetle

Fungus community

Euwallacea

diverse, less specific

Xyleborus

diverse, less spe...
Patterns of symbiont diversity

Beetle

Fungus community

Euwallacea

diverse, less specific

Xyleborus

diverse, less spe...
Population structure and inbreeding in
Ambrosia beetles
Xylosandrus crassiusculus

1	
  mm	
  

o  Abundant
o  Exotic (in the US)
o  Sometimes pest
Xylosandrus crassiusculus

Maryland
Northern NC

1	
  mm	
  

Southern NC
South Carolina

o  Abundant
o  Exotic (in the US...
genotype-bysequencing
genotype-by-sequencing
genotype-by-sequencing
o  Fast

-  No marker development
-  Sample prep takes days
genotype-by-sequencing
o  Fast

-  No marker development
-  Sample prep takes days

o  High-throughput

-  100s of individ...
genotype-by-sequencing
o  Fast

-  No marker development
-  Sample prep takes days

o  High-throughput

-  100s of individ...
genotype-by-sequencing
o  Fast

-  No marker development
-  Sample prep takes days

o  High-throughput

-  100s of individ...
restriction-site associated sequencing
(RADseq)
restriction-site associated sequencing
(RADseq)

Petterson et al. 2012
restriction-site associated sequencing
(RADseq)

ddRADseq enables the sequencing of the same genomic region in
many taxono...
No population structure associated with
geographic location
Central Florida
North Florida
South Carolina
Southern North Ca...
Inbreeding detected at most loci
1	
  
0.8	
  
0.6	
  

FIS

0.4	
  

FIS > 0
inbreeding

0.2	
  
0	
  
-­‐0.2	
  
-­‐0.4	...
o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible
o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible
o  High inbreeding (>0.8) at most loci, but
some outbreeding may occur
o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible
o  High inbreeding (>0.8) at most loci, but
some outbreeding may occur
o  No genetic...
o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible
o  High inbreeding (>0.8) at most loci, but
some outbreeding may occur
o  No genetic...
o  What is the global population structure
ambrosia beetles?
o  What is the global population structure
ambrosia beetles?
o  How does population structure differ between
outbreeding a...
o  What is the global population structure
ambrosia beetles?
o  How does population structure differ between
outbreeding a...
o  What is the global population structure
ambrosia beetles?
o  How does population structure differ between
outbreeding a...
o  What is the global population structure
ambrosia beetles?
o  How does population structure differ between
outbreeding a...
Why are bark and ambrosia beetles
incredible invaders?	
  
Why are bark and ambrosia beetles
incredible invaders?	
  
o  Fungal community diversity and specificity may
facilitate co...
Why are bark and ambrosia beetles
incredible invaders?	
  
o  Beetle fungal community diversity and specificity
may facili...
www.backyardbarkbeetles.org/	
  
The Forest Entomology
Lab at University of
Florida

Dr. Jiri
Hulcr
Andrew
Johnson
	
  

Martin
Kostovcik
Polly Harding (no...
Thanks!

cgstorer@gmail.com
http://about.me/caroline.storer
1

Sequences are sorted by an individual’s unique barcode...
1

Sequences are sorted by an individual’s unique barcode...

2

then assembled into locus stacks based on sequence simila...
89,429 stacks in
catalog
89,429 stacks in
catalog
89,429 stacks in
catalog

21,860 stacks
shared across
individuals
89,429 stacks in
catalog

21,860 stacks
shared across
individuals

2,984
SNP loci
genotyped
Incredible invaders: How bark and ambrosia beetles are colonizing the world
Incredible invaders: How bark and ambrosia beetles are colonizing the world
Incredible invaders: How bark and ambrosia beetles are colonizing the world
Incredible invaders: How bark and ambrosia beetles are colonizing the world
Incredible invaders: How bark and ambrosia beetles are colonizing the world
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Incredible invaders: How bark and ambrosia beetles are colonizing the world

  1. 1. Incredible Invaders: how wood boring beetles are colonizing the world Caroline Storer Jiri Hulcr Craig Bateman Martin Kostovcik School of Forest Resources and Conservation University of Florida
  2. 2. lionfish wild pigs hydrilla fire ants purple swamphen
  3. 3. The wood boring ambrosia beetles
  4. 4. The redbay ambrosia beetle
  5. 5. Are avocados next?
  6. 6. Cumulative number of established invasive bark and ambrosia beetles species in the U.S. Lee et al. 2007
  7. 7. Why are bark and ambrosia beetles incredible invaders?  
  8. 8. Ambrosia beetles build galleries in the xylem of dying trees for farming their symbiotic fungus
  9. 9. They carry fungus in specialized tissue called mycangia
  10. 10. Ambrosia beetles push excavated material out of galleries for fungus farming
  11. 11. Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics
  12. 12. Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics Haplo-diploid: Females produce many diploid daughters and one haploid son haploid son diploid mother
  13. 13. Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics Haplo-diploid: Females produce many diploid daughters and one haploid son haploid son diploid mother
  14. 14. Ambrosia beetles have bizarre genetics Haplo-diploid: Females produce many diploid daughters and one haploid son Inbreed: The haploid son mates with its sisters haploid son diploid mother
  15. 15. A single female can start a new population
  16. 16. Provide new insights into the ecology of the ambrosia beetles using emerging molecular tools
  17. 17. Diversity and specificity of fungal symbionts in Ambrosia beetles
  18. 18. Diversity and specificity of fungal symbionts in Ambrosia beetles Fungal cultures from exotic and native beetles
  19. 19. Diversity and specificity of fungal symbionts in Ambrosia beetles Xyleborus affinis Xylosandrus crassiusculus Xyleborus ferrugineus High-throughput sequencing of exotic and native beetle fungal communities
  20. 20. Diversity and abundance of fungal communities is variable and sometimes beetle species specific
  21. 21. Patterns of symbiont diversity Beetle Fungus community Euwallacea diverse, less specific Xyleborus diverse, less specific Xylosandrus less diverse, more specific
  22. 22. Patterns of symbiont diversity Beetle Fungus community Euwallacea diverse, less specific Xyleborus diverse, less specific Xylosandrus less diverse, more specific Mycangia
  23. 23. Population structure and inbreeding in Ambrosia beetles
  24. 24. Xylosandrus crassiusculus 1  mm   o  Abundant o  Exotic (in the US) o  Sometimes pest
  25. 25. Xylosandrus crassiusculus Maryland Northern NC 1  mm   Southern NC South Carolina o  Abundant o  Exotic (in the US) North Florida Central Florida o  Sometimes pest 2-3 beetles sequenced from 6 locations
  26. 26. genotype-bysequencing
  27. 27. genotype-by-sequencing
  28. 28. genotype-by-sequencing o  Fast -  No marker development -  Sample prep takes days
  29. 29. genotype-by-sequencing o  Fast -  No marker development -  Sample prep takes days o  High-throughput -  100s of individuals -  100s of genotypes
  30. 30. genotype-by-sequencing o  Fast -  No marker development -  Sample prep takes days o  High-throughput -  100s of individuals -  100s of genotypes o  Robust -  High-quality sequence data -  Biological signals are recoverable (Buerkle & Gompert 2013)
  31. 31. genotype-by-sequencing o  Fast -  No marker development -  Sample prep takes days o  High-throughput -  100s of individuals -  100s of genotypes o  Robust -  High-quality sequence data -  Biological signals are recoverable (Buerkle & Gompert 2013)
  32. 32. restriction-site associated sequencing (RADseq)
  33. 33. restriction-site associated sequencing (RADseq) Petterson et al. 2012
  34. 34. restriction-site associated sequencing (RADseq) ddRADseq enables the sequencing of the same genomic region in many taxonomically related individuals Petterson et al. 2012
  35. 35. No population structure associated with geographic location Central Florida North Florida South Carolina Southern North Carolina Northern North Carolina Maryland Principal coordinate 2 (14.54%) Principal coordinate 1 (35.34%)
  36. 36. Inbreeding detected at most loci 1   0.8   0.6   FIS 0.4   FIS > 0 inbreeding 0.2   0   -­‐0.2   -­‐0.4   -­‐0.6   FIS < 0 outbreeding -­‐0.8   -­‐1   locus
  37. 37. o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible
  38. 38. o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible o  High inbreeding (>0.8) at most loci, but some outbreeding may occur
  39. 39. o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible o  High inbreeding (>0.8) at most loci, but some outbreeding may occur o  No genetic structure associated with geographic location
  40. 40. o  Genotype-by-sequencing is possible o  High inbreeding (>0.8) at most loci, but some outbreeding may occur o  No genetic structure associated with geographic location o  High genetic similarity between some individuals, but not clonal
  41. 41. o  What is the global population structure ambrosia beetles?
  42. 42. o  What is the global population structure ambrosia beetles? o  How does population structure differ between outbreeding and inbreeding ambrosia beetles?
  43. 43. o  What is the global population structure ambrosia beetles? o  How does population structure differ between outbreeding and inbreeding ambrosia beetles? Native and exotic?
  44. 44. o  What is the global population structure ambrosia beetles? o  How does population structure differ between outbreeding and inbreeding ambrosia beetles? Native and exotic? o  Is population structure correlated with fungal symbiont biodiversity?
  45. 45. o  What is the global population structure ambrosia beetles? o  How does population structure differ between outbreeding and inbreeding ambrosia beetles? Native and exotic? o  Is population structure correlated with fungal symbiont biodiversity? o  Are species complexes a phenotypically plastic single species or distinct cryptic species?
  46. 46. Why are bark and ambrosia beetles incredible invaders?  
  47. 47. Why are bark and ambrosia beetles incredible invaders?   o  Fungal community diversity and specificity may facilitate colonization
  48. 48. Why are bark and ambrosia beetles incredible invaders?   o  Beetle fungal community diversity and specificity may facilitate colonization o  Some outbreeding may increase genetic variation, increasing the chances of establishing populations in a new environment  
  49. 49. www.backyardbarkbeetles.org/  
  50. 50. The Forest Entomology Lab at University of Florida Dr. Jiri Hulcr Andrew Johnson   Martin Kostovcik Polly Harding (not shown) Craig Bateman   UF Graduate Student Council
  51. 51. Thanks! cgstorer@gmail.com http://about.me/caroline.storer
  52. 52. 1 Sequences are sorted by an individual’s unique barcode...
  53. 53. 1 Sequences are sorted by an individual’s unique barcode... 2 then assembled into locus stacks based on sequence similarity Stack 1 Stack 2 Stack X
  54. 54. 89,429 stacks in catalog
  55. 55. 89,429 stacks in catalog
  56. 56. 89,429 stacks in catalog 21,860 stacks shared across individuals
  57. 57. 89,429 stacks in catalog 21,860 stacks shared across individuals 2,984 SNP loci genotyped

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