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D2L Fusion (Boston)
D2L Fusion (Boston)
D2L Fusion (Boston)
D2L Fusion (Boston)
D2L Fusion (Boston)
D2L Fusion (Boston)
D2L Fusion (Boston)
D2L Fusion (Boston)
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D2L Fusion (Boston)
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D2L Fusion (Boston)

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  • Big idea – why are we talking about this?Education / Research Dream is simple: Everyone in the world can attain all the education they desire. It will require we share the educational resources we produce and that we spend our limited public resources wisely.WA K-12 is a common core state – opportunity to share.
  • And the world needs this dream to come true … and quickly… if we are to meet the global demand for higher / tertiary education.Sir John Daniel, President & DEO of the Commonwealth of Learning notes:What do you think the odds are the world will buildfour major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years?
  • Home equity not there anymore – can’t tap a second mortgage to pay for tuition.
  • StoreCopyDistribute
  • We have to help policy leaders understand the affordances of digital things… and how digital courses, textbooks, data, research, science… can be non-rivalrous resources IF educational resources are openly licensed.
  • Clearly, the Internet has empowered us to copy and share with an efficiency never before known or imagined. However, long before the Internet was invented, copyright law began regulating the very activities the Internet makes essentially free (copying and distributing).Consequently, the Internet was born at a severe disadvantage, as preexisting laws discouraged people from realizing the full potential of the network.
  • This isn’t just my dream. Many have this Dream In 2006, Cathy Casserly and Mike Smith (@ Hewlett Foundation) wrote: “At the heart of the movement towards Open Educational Resources is the simple and powerful idea that the world’s knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the Worldwide Web in particular provide an opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse it.”------------------(Smith, M.S. and Casserly, C.M. 2006. The promise of Open Educational Resources. Change, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 8-17)
  • The next year, there was a meeting in Cape Town, South Africa.TheCape Town Declaration begins:We are on the cusp of a global revolution in teaching and learning. Educators worldwide are developing a vast pool of educational resources on the Internet, open and free for all to use. These educators are creating a world where each and every person on earth can access and contribute to the sum of all human knowledge.
  • Sharing educational resources is a global movement.In 2002 UNESCOparticipants expressed “their wish to develop together a universal educational resource available for the whole of humanity”10 years later = 195 nations – debated and signed the Paris OER Declaration – moving the World’s nations toward open policies and support for OER.
  • CC is the law catching up with the way the internet actually works.But think about all the ways the internet has changed in the past ten years. It’s time to think about how CC will evolve.
  • within the jurisdiction, public and legal lead volunteers help to make the licenses work in their individual countries’ legal systemwe have 74 active affiliate teams with several more in process
  • Open license is key.Free as in free beer and free as in freedom
  • What about something small – local? Do open policies make sense on a smaller scale?Even one open textbook for a top 100 course makes sense.But WA should (a) ask if anyone else has already done this and openly licensed it (e.g., CK12), (b) alert other states / countries that it is going to make this investment and share.
  • White House Public Access Policypolicy introduced Feb 22, 2013allowable embargo 12 months19 federal agenciesagencies must coordinate and have plans in place by Aug 22, 2013Effortto return scholarly publishing to its original purpose: to spread knowledge and allow that knowledge to be built upon.John Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, “has directed Federal agencies with more than $100M in R&D expenditures to develop plans to make the published results of federally funded research freely available to the public within one year of publication and requiring researchers to better account for and manage the digital data resulting from federally funded scientific research.”---------------Open Access FASTRlegislation introduced Feb 14, 2013public access to publicly funded research after allowable 6 month embargofederal agencies with extramural research over $100M/yearState levelCaliforniapassed Assembly, now debated in Senate12 month embargoIllinoisNew YorkOERnew U.S. GAO report shows textbooks becoming increasingly expensive (textbook costs to students at higher education institutions are rising 6% per year on average, and have risen 82% over the last decade). Openly licensed textbooks can be a piece of the solution. California Senate Bill 520 - http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201320140SB520This bill would establish the California Online Student Access Incentive Grant program. The bill would require the online courses supported by incentive grant funds to be placed in the California Virtual Campus. Online courses means educational materials that been released with an intellectual property license that permits their free use or repurposing by others. Open DataObama Executive Order on Open DataProject Open DataOpen licenses (aligned with Open Knowledge Definition) may be used by agencies for data outside of that in public domain under Section 105
  • Global GDP comes in at just about $58.3T – World Bank Data (2009)If countries spend roughly 5% of GPD on education = $58.3T x 5% = US $2.9T / year If we can move to a simple open public policy, hundreds of billions of dollars of educational resources will be available under an open license and will be freely available to the public that paid for them.National / state / provincial governments and education systems all play a critical role in setting policies that drive education investments, and have an interest in ensuring that public funding in education make a meaningful, cost-effective contribution to socio-economic development.Given this role, these policy-making entities are ideally positioned to encourage or mandate recipients of public funding to produce educational resources under an open license.
  • In order to ensure that the Federal investment of these funds has as broad an impact as possible and to encourage innovation in the development of new learning materials….
  • Challenge: Existing Structures are Difficult to Change  Most educational content business models built on gatekeeping and locking up resources (to make them rivalrous) are challenged by these trends that allow digital resources to be non-rivalrous. Existing business models are starting to fight, and they have money and lobbyists.  
  • The US House Appropriations Committee released a draft fiscal year 2012 funding bill. Included in this bill is the following provision, which would appear to strip the ability of the DOL to support any further OER investments:Really? No one is allowed to build anything with public funds, with our tax dollars, “…unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development…"?Really?If the American people want to get maximum benefit from their precious public investments, the US Congress would rewrite the budget language to:"SEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Act for the Department of Labor may be used to purchase proprietary, non-openly licensed new courses, modules, learning materials, or projects in carrying out education or career job training grant programs unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive Open Educational Resources analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available under an open license that allows free reuse for students who require them to participate in such education or career job training grant programs."Let’s get to the crux of the issue. This is not about duplicating publisher works - this is about we, the tax payers, getting free and legal access to what we paid for... and our students, tax paying citizens, having access to high quality, affordable, openly licensed learning materials.The Department of Labor (DOL) has put forth a simple, rational public policy: Taxpayer-funded educational resources should be open educational resources. Information that is designed, developed and distributed through the generosity of public tax dollars should be accessible to the public that paid for it. If the publishers wish to debate, it will be on this point.What publishers and industry trade associations would do well to recognize is the CC BY license does not restrict commercialization of the open content produced by the DOL grantees. To be clear, the commercial publishers can take ALL of the content created in this DOL grant, modify it, make it better, add value, and sell it. The consumer (states, colleges, students) will then have a choice: (a) use the free openly licensed version(s) or (b) purchase the commercial for-a-fee version. If the commercial content / services are worth paying for, people will pay. If not, they won’t. Releasing information created with public funds should be a public right – not viewed as a disadvantage to commercial interests.How can you tell me I can’t have access to what I paid for – that’s crazy.
  • The current market is failing because existing publishers are not offering what we’re asking for. We would welcome it if they chose to compete to provide what the new environment demands.
  • Some are Naïve – putting their head in the sandneed to leverage the tools of the day – question existing business models – look for your core value proposition
  • Finally, for those who see MOOCs as the future of American higher education, ask yourselves how the people we educate today will deal with complex issues in the workplace of tomorrow. Imagine a team of national-security leaders in 2025 analyzing whether promoting economic development would prevent terrorism. Imagine government officials, public-health experts, anthropologists, and economists searching together for the solution to a border-crossing disease. All taking account of multiple views. All trying to interpret data. All working at the mind's limits.The vital work that takes place in such a scenario is the real-world form of the seminar—still one of the best models for developing the mind that has emerged in four centuries of American higher education.Let's see the MOOCs top that.Daniel R. Porterfield is president of Franklin & Marshall College.
  • If we are to fight this nonsense, Open Policy strategy must follow NEW RULES.  Disruptive Innovation Lessons (Clayton Christensen): Never attack existing business models head-on – incumbents typically win because you are playing by their rules rather play by new rules that “the trends” afford – KEY point to remind policy makers – I’ve found this is NOT obvious to people.e.g., Open Course Library – we changed the rules - $30 cap – want to play? We will do this with or without you… would rather partner, but don’t oppose us – we have all the best arguments and the public is on our side.And as Professor Eben Moglen reminds us: when we openly license our work, and leverage the Internet as a free distribution channel, we put the creator / the author, and not the distributor, in control of human knowledge.We make things and we give them away. Here we made this, would you like it? Take some it's freehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tN00_v7gpbo&feature=youtu.be&t=6m45s----------------(1) Choose the most open license (e.g., public domain, CC BY) possible to (a) increase the degrees of freedom for downstream use, (b) increase interperability among licenses = more re-mix opportunities, and (c) reduce concern from existing for-profit businesses.
  • Thank you.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Open Education, MOOCs, Student Debt, Textbooks and other Trends Dr. Cable Green Director of Global Learning cable@creativecommons.org @cgreen
    • 2. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
    • 3. Children Reading Pratham Books and Akshara By Ryan Lobo http://www.flickr.com/photos/prathambooks/3291CC BY
    • 4. (1) Demand for Higher Education
    • 5. “Nearly one-third of the world’s population (29.3%) is under 15. Today there are 158 million people enrolled in tertiary education1. Projections suggest that that participation will peak at 263 million2 in 2025. Accommodating the additional 105 million students would require more than four major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years.1 ISCED levels 5 & 6 UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures 2 British Council and IDP Australia projections By: COL http://www.col.org/SiteCollectio s/JohnDaniel_2008_3x5.jpg
    • 6. (2) Student Debt  / Perceived Value 
    • 7. http://www.time.com/time/interactive/0,31813,2072670,00.html Asthecostofhighereducation skyrockets,anewPewstudyfindsthat studentsandfamiliesarequestioningits value.
    • 8. (3) Affordances of Digital Things
    • 9. vs. Rivalrous vs. Non-Rivalrous Resources
    • 10. Cost of “Copy” For one 250 page book: • Copy by hand - $1,000 • Copy by print on demand - $4.90 • Copy by computer - $0.00084 CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
    • 11. Cost of “Distribute” For one 250 page book: • Distribute by mail - $5.20 • $0 with print-on-demand (2000+ copies) • Distribute by internet - $0.00072 CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
    • 12. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything CC BY: David Wiley, BYU
    • 13. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, and Textbooks Movies and TV Shows: • Amazon Prime – $6.59/month ($79/year) for access to 10,000 movies and TV shows • Netflix – $7.99/month for access to 20,000 movies and TV shows • Hulu Plus – $7.99/month for access to 45,000 movies and TV shows CC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
    • 14. Movies, TV Shows, Songs, and Textbooks Music: • Spotify – $9.99/month for access to 15 million songs • Rhapsody – $14.99/month for access to 14 million songs CC BY: David Wiley: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2348
    • 15. CC BY ND / Delta Initiative / http://tinyurl.com/bw3ztnt
    • 16. (4) Open Educational Resources including: open courseware open textbooks open access journals
    • 17. Dreaming Girls Head By: Elfleda http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolinespics/1531CC BY-NC-ND
    • 18. http://www.capetowndeclaration.org
    • 19. By: UNESCO: http://www.moveoneinc.com/blog/wp-
    • 20. A simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to your creative work.
    • 21. Step 1: Choose Conditions Attribution ShareAlike NonCommercial NoDerivatives
    • 22. Step 2: Receive a License
    • 23. Over 500 million items
    • 24. Over 77,000 contributors working on over 22 million articles in 285 languages
    • 25. 175+ Million CC Licensed Photos on Flickr 3
    • 26. http://www.flickr.com/photos/22240293@N05/3735172478/in/set-72157621681117648 By: Francisco Diez
    • 27. Higher Ed
    • 28. K-12
    • 29. Open Educational Resources (OER)
    • 30. OER are teaching, learning, and research materials in any medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits their free use and re-purposing by
    • 31. Search & Discovery
    • 32. Translations & Accessibility
    • 33. Customization & Affordability
    • 34. 5 Challenges of OER (for another day): (1) Faculty Doesn't Know what To Do with OER (2) Not Everyone Trusts Free Resources (3) Expectations Around OER Quality are High (4) Institutional Processes Aren't Always Flexible (5) No Effective Discovery and Assessment OER Tool http://campustechnology.com/Articles/2013/04/24/5-Hurdles-to-OER-
    • 35. / Open Textbooks
    • 36. There is a direct relationship between textbook costs and student success       60%+ do not purchase textbooks at some point due to cost 35% take fewer courses due to textbook cost 31% choose not to register for a course due to textbook cost 23% regularly go without textbooks due to cost 14% have dropped a course due to textbook cost 10% have withdrawn from a course due to textbook cost Source: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual Campus www.projectkaleidoscop
    • 37. The Vision  100% of students have 100% free, digital access to all materials on day 1 Drive student success by designing, adopting, measuring and improving OER-based courses www.projectkaleidoscope.org
    • 38. http://techplan.sbctc.edu “We will cultivate the culture and practice of using and contributing to open educational resources.”
    • 39. But using open educational resources – and contributing to them – requires significant change in the culture of higher education. It requires thinking about content as a common resource that raises all boats when shared. (p.11)
    • 40. English Composition I • 60,000+ enrollments / year • x $175 textbook • = $10.5 Million every year
    • 41. English Composition I • 55,000+ enrollments / year • x $175 textbook • = $9.6+ Million every year
    • 42. • We must get rid of our “not invented here” attitude regarding others’ content –move to: "proudly borrowed from there" • Content is not a strategic advantage • Nor can we (or our students) afford it WA Community Colleges:
    • 43. http://opencourselibrary.org
    • 44. CC-BY licensed textbooks for 90 university courses
    • 45. Does it make any sense WA State and K-12 Districts together spend $130M/year on textbooks and the results are: • Books are (on average) 7-10 years out of date • Paper only / no digital versions. • Students can’t write / highlight in books • Students can’t keep books at end of year • All rights reserved… teachers can’t
    • 46. / Open Access
    • 47. • Text Global Trends
    • 48. Current research funding cycle does not maximize dissemination, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, resear ch grants awarded Scientific research conducted and papers written Articles submitted to journals and peer review occurs Acceptance in journals; authors transfer copyright to publishers Articles published in mainly closed access journals Libraries subscribe or public pays per article fee to view on publisher's website Public granted little or no reuse rights beyond access to read articles Slow scientific progress, poor return on public investment
    • 49. Optimized research funding cycle maximizes public access, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, open license requirements included, research grants awarded Scientific research conducted and papers written Acceptance in journals; public access policy ensures deposit in open repository Articles published in traditional journals under embargo Public can download articles from open access repository Public granted full reuse rights under open licenses Accelerated scientific progress, optimal return on public investment Articles submitted to journals and peer review occurs
    • 50. White House issues directive supporting public access to publicly funded research
    • 51. (5) Open Policy
    • 52. Publicly funded resources should be openly licensed resources.
    • 53. $60 trillion x 5% = $ 3 trillion
    • 54. $500 million - Wave 2 ($2 billion over four years)
    • 55. “as a condition of the receipt of a TAACCCT grant, the grantee will be required to license to the public (not including the Federal Government) all work created with the support of the grant (Work) under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) license. Work that must be licensed under the CCBY includes both new content created with the grant funds and modifications made to pre-existing, grantee-owned content using grant funds.” SGA, Round 2 (p. 8 / Section I.D.5 )
    • 56. Current educational resource funding cycle does not maximize dissemination, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, educa tion grants awarded Educational resources produced Peer review limited to grantee's institution Copyright with grantee, no obligation to share Content only used at grantee institution Public does not know about education resources Public granted little or no reuse rights Slowed learning, poor return on public investment
    • 57. Optimized educational resource funding cycle maximizes public access, economic efficiency, social impact Government RFPs announced, open license requirements included, educatio n grants awarded Educational resources produced Peer review broadene d to education communit y Copyright vests with grantee, all resources openly licensed Content used by grantee and beyond Public knows about education resources Public granted full reuse rights Accelerated learning, maximum return on public investment
    • 58. massive change By: sookieCC BY
    • 59. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012 Labor, Health and Human Services funding bill SEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Act for the Department of Labor may be used to develop new courses, modules, learning materials, or projects in carrying out education or career job training grant programs unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development for students who require them to participate in such education or career job training grant programs. http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
    • 60. U.S. House Appropriations Committee draft FY2012 Labor, Health and Human Services funding bill SEC. 124. None of the funds made available by this Act for the Department of Labor may be used to develop new courses, modules, learning materials, or projects in carrying out education or career job training grant programs unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development for students who require them to participate in such education or career job training grant programs. http://appropriations.house.gov/UploadedFiles/FY_2012_Final_LHHSE.pdf
    • 61. When the Marginal Cost of Sharing is $0… - educators have an ethical obligation to share - governments need to get maximum ROI by requiring publicly funded resources be openly licensed resources - governments and educators need openly licensed content: (a) so you can revise & remix (b) buying and maintaining is cheaper than leasing (w/time bombs)
    • 62. (6) MOOCs (vs. MOCs)
    • 63. “The problem is that as online education becomes more pervasive, universities can no longer primarily be in the business of transmitting technical knowledge. Online offerings from distant, star professors will just be too efficient. As Ben Nelson of Minerva University points out, a school cannot charge students $40,000 and then turn around and offer them online courses that they can get free or nearly free. That business model simply does not work. There will be no such thing as a MOOC university.” New York Times: The Practical University. By DAVID BROOKS http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/opinion/Brooks-The-Practical- University.html?hp&_r=3&
    • 64. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/05/02/s urvey-finds-presidents-are-skeptical-moocs
    • 65. Higher Education FunctionalPossibilities Time What Happens if we Don’t?
    • 66. / Your Play
    • 67. http://chronicle.com/article/2013-Year-of-the-Seminar/138799/
    • 68. CC BY-NC-ND 046: Rule #2: See Rule #1 By: William Couch http://www.flickr.com/photos/wcouch/226861055
    • 69. Dr. Cable Green Director of Global Learning cable@creativecommons.org twitter: cgreen

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