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A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
A difficult past
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A difficult past


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  • 1. A Difficult Past
    By: Courtney Grace
  • 2. 19th Century
    • Everyone started heading towards the West and the United States doubled in size.
    • 3. “By the 1840s westward expansion was well underway, and many Americans spoke of a "manifest destiny" to occupy all of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. “
    • 4. After 1840 conflict between Euro-American and indigenous people moved west of the Mississippi River.
  • 19th Century
    • Electing Abraham to be President was what caused the war of the states.
    • 5. The beginning of the war ended in stalemate.
    • 6. “90 percent of the country's industrial capacity and approximately two-thirds of its railroad lines-but still they fought four bitter years against a formidable enemy.”
    • 7. Political and social issues divided the American republic.
  • The Frontiers Of The America’s
    • In the 1860s and 1880s the metis, which is the offspring of the union of French Canadians and Indian women, became a political problem
    • 8. “Religion often provided a justification for racial exclusiveness “
    • 9. In North America, missionaries left Indians and focused on creating settlers.
    • 10. “The main parallel to Latin America's mission frontier is to be found in French Canada: the missions of the early seventeenth century in Huronia were run by the Jesuits and the Recollets “
    • 11. The Frontier ended up being the breeding ground for evangelism, which is where the Great Awakening and the sects found passion in Canada and the U.S.
  • The Frontiers Of The America’s
    • Geographical factors played a strong role
    • 12. An Oil boom can be a temporary hold
    • 13. Physical conditions and lack of easy access to food and transport makes the Arctic frontiers capital
    • 14. Railways played a limited role in opening up frontiers
    • 15. “increasing land values and opening up urban markets, became a contributory factor behind the rising number of Indian disturbances “
  • The Little Ice Age
    • Was Also known as the “Big Chill”
    • 16. Occurred during the fourteenth to the nineteenth century
    • 17. Violent storms caused flooding and ice began to take over.
    • 18. Millions of people perished
    • 19. During the Winter of 1780 New York Harbor froze over and people were able to walk from Manhattan to Staten Island
    • 20. The Scientist have tentatively identified four causes: decreased solar activity, increased volcanic activity, altered ocean current flows, and inherent variability of global climate
  • Crossroads Of Freedom
    • Northern troops controlled: Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland- though they lost two battles in Missouri
    • 21. There first stop to Richmond they were stopped by a defeat along the banks of Bull Run in July 1861
    • 22. “Northern spirits had risen temporarily in November when a Union warship captured Confederate envoys James Mason and John Slidell from the British steamer Trent”
    • 23. June-July a small army was lead by McClellan to victories that secured Union control to what became West Virginia
    • 24. “Farragut headed the Gulf Expeditionary Force of twenty-four warships carrying 245 guns, nineteen mortar boats each containing a thirteen inch mortar for high-angle fire against the forts, and 15,000 army troops”
  • Crossroads Of Freedom
    • In July 1862- weeks went on and they navy’s two hundred guns and twenty-three mortars were set off onto Vicksburg and took heavy fire in return
    • 25. Halleck went to Washington to become a general in chief in July and was assumed by Grant for the command of the occupation forces
    • 26. Portative ending to Lee’s decision: Victory or defeat; foreign intervention; Lincoln’s emancipation proclamation; northern elections; and the willingness of people
  • Crossroads Of Freedom
    • Soldiers believed they would get 50,000 in Maryland
    • 27. Lee saw many of them to be cowards and stragglers
    • 28. Farmers began to pack up and take their families and cattle north of the Susquehanna river
    • 29. On September 7th- an army of Potomac moved out of Washington to find the enemy
    • 30. They tried to see the best of the situation due to the fact they were under McClellan's command
    • 31. On September 7th Walter Taylor declared that, “now is the time for Maryland or never”
  • Crossroads Of Freedom
    • Lincoln had hoped to destroy the Army of Northern Virginia, though it did not happen, but it was badly hurt
    • 32. Lincoln called for a meet of the Cabinet five days after
    • 33. He reminded members of their decisions they made two months prior to postpone issuances of an emancipation proclamation
    • 34. He said, “I think the time has come now… I wish it was a better time…”