Unit 1
• Elements of Communication
• Objectives of Communication
• Media and types of Communication

1/8/2014
What are the most common ways to
communicate?

Written Word
All communication methods are important
but our emphasis will be upon the spoken
word... since
70 % or all our communicati...
Communication
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

What is communication?
Why do we communicate?
How do we communicate?
Verbal communication
Non...
What is Communication?
It is when you express:
 an Opinion
 an Impression
 a Comment
 a Judgment
 a Bias

1/8/2014
Why Do We Communicate?
There are 3 purposes, either separately or in
combination:
1. To Inform
2. To Instruct
3. To Influe...
The Goals of Communication
To change behavior
To get and give
Information

To persuade

To get action

To ensure understan...
How Do We Communicate?
There are 2 basic forms of communication:
1. Verbal communication
2. Nonverbal communication

1/8/2...
Verbal Communication
Verbal communications uses Language i.e.
words and grammar.
We create Thought with words and use
gram...
Speaking & Writing
More commonly used in business, e.g.
instructions, interviews, meetings, etc.
 Writing complements spo...
Process of Listening & Reading
Step 1: Register the information.
- focus your attention.

Step 2: Interpret and evaluate t...
Nonverbal Communication



It
1.
2.

The most basic form of communication.
Has few rules and usually occurs
unconsciousl...
Components of Nonverbal Communication
1. Body - attitudes are analyzed based on body
language.
- the main aspects are
post...
Functions of Nonverbal Communication
Used to support & clarify verbal
communication. It has 5 specific
functions:
1. To pr...
Importance of Nonverbal Communication
It has more impact even when unplanned.
2. Important in conveying feelings; accounts...
Process of Communication
Has 5 phases linking sender to receiver:
1. Sender has an idea.
2. Idea is changed into a message...
Communication is the process of sending
and receiving information among people…
Feedback

receiver

SENDER

sender

RECEIV...
All messages do not reach the
receiver due to “distortion”
Feedback

Receiver

Sender

Distortion
Effective Communications
As Sender:
 Decide what action or response you want.
 Choose the most suitable language and com...
Effective Communications
As a Receiver:
 Give the message your whole attention.
 Check that the medium suits your needs....
Effective Nonverbal Communication
Improvement is mostly through practice
and relaxation techniques.
Based on person’s nonv...
Communication Channels
All communications use 1 of 3 channels:
written, oral and nonverbal.
 Can be formal or informal; d...
Written Communication
Common forms:
letters, memos, reports, notes, advertisem
ents, press releases, facsimiles, etc.
 Va...
Written Communication Characteristics

Time
◦ High preparation time (writer)
◦ Short reading time
◦ Writer has no control ...
Written Communication Characteristics
Place – Readers do not have to be in the same
place.
Detail – Can be very detailed.
...
Written Communication
Conclusion – choose to write if:
 You have time to prepare,
 Your reader’s time is limited,
 Cost...
Oral Communication
Common forms: impromptu face-to-face
conversations, telephone
calls, interviews, meetings, seminars, wo...
Oral Communication Characteristics
Time

◦ Varies; depends on size of audience.
◦ Listener’s time is longer.
◦ Speaker has...
Oral Communication Characteristics
Place – For groups, all must be in the same place;
for 1 person, can be face-to-face or...
Oral Communication
Conclusion – choose to speak to a group if:
 You have time to prepare and arrange,
 Your audience has...
Oral Communication
Conclusion – choose to speak individually if:
 You do not have time to prepare,
 You need a very fast...
Nonverbal Communication









Common forms: visual aids
(graphs, pictures, etc.), tools (tape
recorders, dictating...
Nonverbal Communication Characteristics

Time – Preparation time of visual aids vary.
Cost – Cost of visual aids vary.
Pla...
Nonverbal Communication Characteristics

Record – Visual aids are a permanent
record; body language, no.
Response – Immedi...
Nonverbal Communication
Conclusion – choose to use visual aids if:
 It complements other forms of
communication.
 It is ...
Nonverbal Communication:
Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦

Reinforces oral communication
Added visual stim...
Nonverbal Communication:
Advantages & Disadvantages
Disadvantages:
◦ Difficulty interpreting without written or spoken
wor...
The End
At the end of this chapter, you should:
know what is communication,its
meaning, importance and process
Objectives ...
Prepared by-Chetan Goyal/Chet Deewan
Write to me for ppt on any topicchetangoyal36@gmail.com
chetangoyal36@hotmail.com
www...
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Elements of communication By Chet Deewan

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What are different elements of communication.how a communication takes place and much more.

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Elements of communication By Chet Deewan

  1. 1. Unit 1 • Elements of Communication • Objectives of Communication • Media and types of Communication 1/8/2014
  2. 2. What are the most common ways to communicate? Written Word
  3. 3. All communication methods are important but our emphasis will be upon the spoken word... since 70 % or all our communication efforts are: misunderstood, misinterpreted, rejected, di sliked, distorted, or not heard (in the same language, same culture)!
  4. 4. Communication – – – – – – – What is communication? Why do we communicate? How do we communicate? Verbal communication Nonverbal communication Process of communication Communication channels 1/8/2014
  5. 5. What is Communication? It is when you express:  an Opinion  an Impression  a Comment  a Judgment  a Bias 1/8/2014
  6. 6. Why Do We Communicate? There are 3 purposes, either separately or in combination: 1. To Inform 2. To Instruct 3. To Influence 1/8/2014
  7. 7. The Goals of Communication To change behavior To get and give Information To persuade To get action To ensure understanding 1/8/2014
  8. 8. How Do We Communicate? There are 2 basic forms of communication: 1. Verbal communication 2. Nonverbal communication 1/8/2014
  9. 9. Verbal Communication Verbal communications uses Language i.e. words and grammar. We create Thought with words and use grammar to arrange them in the proper sequence. The Message is then sent in spoken or written form. Effective communications depends on speaking and writing skills to send messages, as well as listening and reading skills to receive messages. 1/8/2014
  10. 10. Speaking & Writing More commonly used in business, e.g. instructions, interviews, meetings, etc.  Writing complements spoken messages.  Writing 9% Speaking 30% Reading 16% Listening 45% 1/8/2014
  11. 11. Process of Listening & Reading Step 1: Register the information. - focus your attention. Step 2: Interpret and evaluate the information. - decide what is important and what isn’t. - look for main ideas and supporting details. - understand the relationship among the ideas. Step 3: File away the data for future reference. 1/8/2014
  12. 12. Nonverbal Communication   It 1. 2. The most basic form of communication. Has few rules and usually occurs unconsciously. differs from verbal communication in 2 ways: Nonverbal communication is less structured. Nonverbal communication is done unconsciously and naturally. 1/8/2014
  13. 13. Components of Nonverbal Communication 1. Body - attitudes are analyzed based on body language. - the main aspects are posture, gestures, face and eyes. 2. Voice - tells about the speaker’s emotional state. - the most important aspect is inflection. 3. Space - this is the way you communicate through distance of the space around you (standing distance, seating, etc.). 4. Surrounding - nonverbal communication is affected by objects around you (seating, office, dress, etc.). 1/8/2014
  14. 14. Functions of Nonverbal Communication Used to support & clarify verbal communication. It has 5 specific functions: 1. To provide information. 2. To regulate the flow of conversation. 3. To express emotion. 4. To qualify, complement, contradict or expand verbal messages. 5. To control or influence others. 1/8/2014
  15. 15. Importance of Nonverbal Communication It has more impact even when unplanned. 2. Important in conveying feelings; accounts for 93% of the emotional meaning exchanged in any interaction. 3. More reliable. Most people can deceive more easily with words than with their nonverbal behavior. It helps to establish credibility and leadership potential. If you manage the impression you create, you can communicate competence, trustworthiness and dynamism. 1. 1/8/2014
  16. 16. Process of Communication Has 5 phases linking sender to receiver: 1. Sender has an idea. 2. Idea is changed into a message (encode). 3. Selection of medium & message sent. 4. Receiver gets the message (decode). 5. Receiver interprets message. 6. Receiver reacts and sends feedback to sender. 1/8/2014
  17. 17. Communication is the process of sending and receiving information among people… Feedback receiver SENDER sender RECEIVER
  18. 18. All messages do not reach the receiver due to “distortion” Feedback Receiver Sender Distortion
  19. 19. Effective Communications As Sender:  Decide what action or response you want.  Choose the most suitable language and combination of written/spoken/nonverbal communication for the message.  Choose the best medium for your message.  Put yourself in the receiver’s position. Will he/she understand? What is his/her emotional state?  Make sure that the message cannot be misunderstood.  Check for feedback. Decide if you need to answer. 1/8/2014
  20. 20. Effective Communications As a Receiver:  Give the message your whole attention.  Check that the medium suits your needs.  Check references and ask for explanations if necessary.  Check for underlying meanings and implications.  Make sure that you provide sufficient and appropriate feedback. 1/8/2014
  21. 21. Effective Nonverbal Communication Improvement is mostly through practice and relaxation techniques. Based on person’s nonverbal communication, we decide: 1. the personality type, 2. the level of confidence & selfesteem, and 3. the level of awareness of what others think. 1/8/2014
  22. 22. Communication Channels All communications use 1 of 3 channels: written, oral and nonverbal.  Can be formal or informal; domineering to passive.  Each channel has its own characteristics.  Each also have different forms or methods of communicating.  1/8/2014
  23. 23. Written Communication Common forms: letters, memos, reports, notes, advertisem ents, press releases, facsimiles, etc.  Varies in formality.  1/8/2014
  24. 24. Written Communication Characteristics Time ◦ High preparation time (writer) ◦ Short reading time ◦ Writer has no control of ‘if’, ‘when’ and ‘how’ message will be read. ◦ Slow transmission time except for email. Cost ◦ Writer’s and Reader’s time. ◦ Secretary, materials, postage, etc. 1/8/2014
  25. 25. Written Communication Characteristics Place – Readers do not have to be in the same place. Detail – Can be very detailed. Privacy – Can be very private. Record – Permanent record for future reference. Response ◦ Can be delayed. ◦ Does not include nonverbal ◦ Writer may not know Reader’s response unless they reply. Relationship – Can be impersonal. 1/8/2014
  26. 26. Written Communication Conclusion – choose to write if:  You have time to prepare,  Your reader’s time is limited,  Costs are not to high,  You need to communicate a lot of details,  You need a permanent record,  You do not need immediate response, or  You do not need a response at all. 1/8/2014
  27. 27. Oral Communication Common forms: impromptu face-to-face conversations, telephone calls, interviews, meetings, seminars, work shops, speeches, presentations, etc.  Chief advantage: immediate response.  General purpose: collaboration with audience.  1/8/2014
  28. 28. Oral Communication Characteristics Time ◦ Varies; depends on size of audience. ◦ Listener’s time is longer. ◦ Speaker has control of ‘when’ and ‘how’ well the message is heard. ◦ Transmission is fast. Cost ◦ Speaker’s and Listener’s time. ◦ Possible travel, facility and/or telephone expense. 1/8/2014
  29. 29. Oral Communication Characteristics Place – For groups, all must be in the same place; for 1 person, can be face-to-face or on the telephone. Detail – Can vary. Privacy – For a group, none; for 1 person, yes. Record – None unless on video or audiotape. Response – Immediate but may not include nonverbal. Relationship – Can build with group or individual. 1/8/2014
  30. 30. Oral Communication Conclusion – choose to speak to a group if:  You have time to prepare and arrange,  Your audience has time to attend,  Cost is not too high,  You need a group to hear or discuss at the same time,  You want to build a group identity or relationship,  You want group response with nonverbal response 1/8/2014
  31. 31. Oral Communication Conclusion – choose to speak individually if:  You do not have time to prepare,  You need a very fast answer,  Costs are not to high,  You do not need to communicate a lot of details,  You want to build relationship,  You do not need a permanent record,  You need extensive, immediate response. 1/8/2014
  32. 32. Nonverbal Communication      Common forms: visual aids (graphs, pictures, etc.), tools (tape recorders, dictating machines, etc.), body language. Body Language: physical appearance, posture, gestures, facial expression. Voice: accent, intonation, and pitch. Space: use & control of space. Personal Effects: a person’s image of themselves. 1/8/2014
  33. 33. Nonverbal Communication Characteristics Time – Preparation time of visual aids vary. Cost – Cost of visual aids vary. Place – Both visual aids and body language occur in the same place. Detail – Form and format of visuals vary; body language details also vary. Privacy – None. 1/8/2014
  34. 34. Nonverbal Communication Characteristics Record – Visual aids are a permanent record; body language, no. Response – Immediate and varied. Relationship – Can build group or individual relationship. 1/8/2014
  35. 35. Nonverbal Communication Conclusion – choose to use visual aids if:  It complements other forms of communication.  It is not costly.  You have enough time to prepare. Be aware and avoid negative signals of body language. Use body language to transmit positive signals, e.g. trust, competence, etc. 1/8/2014
  36. 36. Nonverbal Communication: Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Reinforces oral communication Added visual stimuli Simplifies written and spoken word Quantifies ideas Provides simulations of situations 1/8/2014
  37. 37. Nonverbal Communication: Advantages & Disadvantages Disadvantages: ◦ Difficulty interpreting without written or spoken word. ◦ Comprehension and interpretation skills needed. ◦ Can be expensive. 1/8/2014
  38. 38. The End At the end of this chapter, you should: know what is communication,its meaning, importance and process Objectives of communication, and know how messages can be communicated effectively. 1/8/2014
  39. 39. Prepared by-Chetan Goyal/Chet Deewan Write to me for ppt on any topicchetangoyal36@gmail.com chetangoyal36@hotmail.com www.facebook.com/cgoyal2 1/8/2014
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