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Seneca   psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods
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Seneca psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods






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Seneca psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Instructor: Charlotte Goldfried
  • 2. What is Psychology
    • Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and of the mind.
  • 3. Early Psychologies
    • Structuralism - Wilhelm Wundt (1832 to 1920) was a medical doctor who established the first psychology laboratory.
    • Wundt developed a way of studying the mind called introspection
    • This involved asking individuals to objectively describe what was going on in their minds after being exposed to a particular object, such as a light or a sound
    • The researcher would then try to determine the different parts of the mind that were being used.
    • The problem with this approach was that it did not produce consistent results. Today, most psychologists reject this method of investigation as being too subjective.
  • 4. Early Psychologies
    • Behaviourism – developed by Watson (1878 to 1958) - originated in the United States.
    • Watson believed that the only information that could be scientifically examined was observable behaviour.
    • Watson believed all behaviour was worthy of being studied – he legitimized the the study of both human and animal behaviour.
  • 5. Early Psychologies
    • Psychoanalytic Theory – was developed by Sigmund Freud between 1885 and 1939.
    • He was the first person to talk about the unconscious, a part of the mind that was unseen, but frequently controlled human behaviour
    • He also developed a stage model of personality
    • Humanistic Psychology focuses on the uniqueness of individuals and the potential for choice and growth.
    • Cognitive Psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, learning, and perceiving. Unlike the behaviourists they believe there is more to behaviour than simply what is observed.
  • 6. Descriptive Research Methods
    • These methods describe. They do not explain.
    • 1. Naturalistic observation - observing and recording behaviour in a natural setting,
    • No interference
    • Advantage – normal setting and natural
    • Disadvantage - you must wait for an event or situation to occur
    •   Observer bias – the researcher's expectations cause them to see what they expect to see.
    • 2. Laboratory observation.
    • Advantage – more control and more accurate measurement
    • Disadvantage - behaviour may not be genuine or natural
  • 7. Descriptive Research Methods
    • 3 . Case Study
    • in-depth study of one or a few subjects.
    • Information is gathered through observation, interviews and sometimes through psychological testing.
    • The purpose of this type of research is to provide a detailed description of a behaviour.
    • Advantage - Provides very detailed descriptive accounts.
    • Disadvantage – cannot provide information about causation
    • 4. Survey .
    • interviews, and/or questionnaires to answer a set of questions.
    • Advantage – able to gather information about large numbers of people.
    • Disadvantage - information may not be accurate.
  • 8. Experimentation
    • Experimental Method This method is different from naturalistic observation because researchers create conditions that will occur and can be observed. Most experiments take place in a laboratory.
    • Variable A variable is a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals.
    • Independent variable The variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher.
    • Dependent variable The variable that is observed for changes.
  • 9. Experimentation
    • Hypothesis A prediction about the result that will be obtained from an experiment.
    • Experimental Group The group that is exposed to the independent variable or treatment.
    • Control Group The group that is similar in characteristics to the experimental group, but is not exposed to the independent variable or treatment.
    • Selection bias occurs when groups within an experiment have been set up to have systematic differences.
  • 10. Experimentation
    • Population The collection of all individuals of interest in a study.
    • Placebo effect This occurs when a person's response to a treatment is due to expectations about the treatment rather than to the actual treatment.
    • Placebo a harmless substance such as a sugar pill or saline solution.
    • Experimenter bias occurs when researcher's preconceived notions or expectations cause them to find what they expect to find.
  • 11. Experimentation
    • Double-blind technique is a procedure where neither the subject nor the experimenter knows whether the subject is in the treatment or control group until the end of the experiment Sample A set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a study.
    • Representative sample A sample of participants selected from the population so that important subgroups within the population are included in the sample in the same proportions as they are found in the population.
  • 12. Experimentation
    • Random sampling is a process for obtaining a sample from a population that requires that every individual in the population has the same chance of being selected for the sample. A sample obtained by random selection is called a random sample.
    • Random assignment is a process that assures that each individual has an equal chance of being assigned to each of the treatment conditions.
  • 13. Correlation
    • Looks at changes between two variables as they naturally occur.
    • No attempt to control or manipulate the variables.
    • A correlation measures the direction and the degree of the relationship between the two variables.
    • Advantage – we are able to make predictions
    • Disadvantage – cannot determine cause and effect