Behaviourism – developed by Watson (1878 to 1958) - originated in the United States.
Watson believed that the only information that could be scientifically examined was observable behaviour.
Watson believed all behaviour was worthy of being studied – he legitimized the the study of both human and animal behaviour.
Psychoanalytic Theory – was developed by Sigmund Freud between 1885 and 1939.
He was the first person to talk about the unconscious, a part of the mind that was unseen, but frequently controlled human behaviour
He also developed a stage model of personality
Humanistic Psychology focuses on the uniqueness of individuals and the potential for choice and growth.
Cognitive Psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, learning, and perceiving. Unlike the behaviourists they believe there is more to behaviour than simply what is observed.
Descriptive Research Methods
These methods describe. They do not explain.
1. Naturalistic observation - observing and recording behaviour in a natural setting,
Advantage – normal setting and natural
Disadvantage - you must wait for an event or situation to occur
Observer bias – the researcher's expectations cause them to see what they expect to see.
2. Laboratory observation.
Advantage – more control and more accurate measurement
Disadvantage - behaviour may not be genuine or natural
Descriptive Research Methods
3 . Case Study
in-depth study of one or a few subjects.
Information is gathered through observation, interviews and sometimes through psychological testing.
The purpose of this type of research is to provide a detailed description of a behaviour.
Advantage - Provides very detailed descriptive accounts.
Disadvantage – cannot provide information about causation
4. Survey .
interviews, and/or questionnaires to answer a set of questions.
Advantage – able to gather information about large numbers of people.
Disadvantage - information may not be accurate.
Experimental Method This method is different from naturalistic observation because researchers create conditions that will occur and can be observed. Most experiments take place in a laboratory.
Variable A variable is a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals.
Independent variable The variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher.
Dependent variable The variable that is observed for changes.
Hypothesis A prediction about the result that will be obtained from an experiment.
Experimental Group The group that is exposed to the independent variable or treatment.
Control Group The group that is similar in characteristics to the experimental group, but is not exposed to the independent variable or treatment.
Selection bias occurs when groups within an experiment have been set up to have systematic differences.
Population The collection of all individuals of interest in a study.
Placebo effect This occurs when a person's response to a treatment is due to expectations about the treatment rather than to the actual treatment.
Placebo a harmless substance such as a sugar pill or saline solution.
Experimenter bias occurs when researcher's preconceived notions or expectations cause them to find what they expect to find.
Double-blind technique is a procedure where neither the subject nor the experimenter knows whether the subject is in the treatment or control group until the end of the experiment Sample A set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a study.
Representative sample A sample of participants selected from the population so that important subgroups within the population are included in the sample in the same proportions as they are found in the population.
Random sampling is a process for obtaining a sample from a population that requires that every individual in the population has the same chance of being selected for the sample. A sample obtained by random selection is called a random sample.
Random assignment is a process that assures that each individual has an equal chance of being assigned to each of the treatment conditions.
Looks at changes between two variables as they naturally occur.
No attempt to control or manipulate the variables.
A correlation measures the direction and the degree of the relationship between the two variables.