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Who gets the information Arame Tall

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This presentation was held by Arame Tall, scientist at the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), during a live streamed session discussing who has the right …

This presentation was held by Arame Tall, scientist at the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), during a live streamed session discussing who has the right to climate adaptation. View the live streamed session here: http://ccafs.cgiar.org/videostream

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  • Introduction. Sharing key LESSONS FROM THE FRONTLINES about WHO GETS THE INFORMATION? Equity Considerations in the Design of Community Climate Services for Farmers
  • Mounting evidence is showing that climate services can effectively contribute to adaptation of farmer communities Climate information, input as relevant as shock-resilient Seeds, irrigation, Pesticides or Water conservation techniques. To overcome CONSTRAINTS that farmers face in Agriculture (rainfall variability, pests and diseases and temperature changes- all weather related phenomena) Postulate: EW>EA- Empowering Farmers to anticipate climate-related risks So that climate-related Hazards, do not necessarily turn into food crises that rock the livelihoods of farmers across the region…
  • It is mission possible. However we will will only be able to Achieve Mission if we join hands to meet the address the following 4 priorities:
  • FOCUS on Reaching the Most vulnerable. Climate-adapted Vulnerability and Capacity Asessment (VCA) tool utilized in PAR process. Credit: Red Cross VCA Toolkit Result: CO-PRODUCTION OF CLIMATE INFORMATION SERVICES > IDENTIFICATION OF FEMALE FARMER SPECIFIC-NEEDS
  • From 2011-2012: Early Warning Message production and communication through mediums identified by women as appropriate to reach them (at water borehole, sms, etc.
  • What do we find?
  • These different gender roles in the production process and in society in all likelihood explains the differential impacts of climate change, and gender differentiated capacities to cope with specific adaptation needs. This appears to confirm that different roles of men and women in their communities and in the production process make women more vulnerable to climate change impacts as their workload increases with increasing environmental degradation (Patt et al., 2010). This is reaffirmed by our findings from sample focus groups and in-depth household interviews. We found that because women lack control of means of production (dependence on male-owned carts, donkeys, inputs, seeds) and men will plant for themselves first, before planting for women, women are susceptible to a larger burden resulting from harsher farming conditions. Because women do not control means of production, they are more exposed to shortfalls of early season cessation, which affects their food production, income, and family welfare, which they significantly contribute to seasonal cessation forecasts are particularly needed for women. “Climate-related disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones and extreme temperatures can have different and inequitable impacts on men and women, depending on their roles in the community and the productive process.” (Wisner et al. 2004). Although the level of women’s vulnerability compared to men varies from place to place our sampled villages show that women farmers consistently emerged as the most vulnerable sub-segment of the community, before handicapped, youth and children. This confirms Wisner and al.’s statement that “Gender intersects with economic, ethnic and other factors, creating hazardous social conditions that can place groups of women at greater risk when disasters unfold” (Wisner et al. 2004).
  • This has to be made an explicit objective however- can not pay lip service to it, In season 1, Men got the information, in season 2 pro-active targetting changed this
  • Differing cliat
  • Differin
  • 1) It is Key to ensure that focus is kept on equity and women Farmers ’ Information needs, as well as men;s (needs of the most vulnerable in general) to adapt to a changing CC- Hence the need to open dialogues to : 2.1 understand and address farmer needs in terms of content, packaging and tailoring ( VERY PLACE SPECIFIC ) 2.2 But also opening spaces for iterative dialogues between providers of climate information services themselves to ensure that they collectively address the needs of end users, continually assessing and improving products and services provided to farmers, ensuring they indeed do address needs In this context Participatory Action Research is critical > Illustration of the value of this approach of co-producing from one of our projects i Kaffrine, in arid central Sneegal, where since , using an approach that started wiith farmers ’ climate information gaps (information needs not addressed by current traditiona knowledge) RESULTS>
  • Remaining questions:
  • What next on this research Agenda? - Applying learning from Kaffrine research to other sites
  • Why Lessons from GFCS workshop
  • It can be done with a good dose of willingness + the community at the center: partnerships needed at all levels of intervention NEED TO MAINTAIIN COMMUNITY-CENTERED APPROACH: KEEP COMMUNITIES AND THEIR NEEDS AT THE CENTER so we can shift from response
  • Transcript

    • 1. CCAFS Science seminar- “Who has a right to climate information adaptation? Social Differentiation in Promoting Climate Resilience” – Copenhagen, February 18, 2013 WHO GETS THE INFORMATION? Equity Considerations in the Design of Climate Services for Farmers Dr. Arame Tall Climate Information Services- Scientist, Champion a.tall@cgiar.org
    • 2. Why do African farmers need2 • 3/21/11 Climate Services? Climate information as critical input to farm-level adaptation and climate risk management, by empowering farmers to anticipate and manage climate- related risks
    • 3. Within vulnerable Communities,WHO GETS THE INFORMATION?
    • 4. Our Investigation takes us4 • 3/21/11 to Kaffrine, Senegal (Agricultural zone) 3 target vulnerable villages 2011-2012:  Malem Thierin  Dioly Mandah  Fass Thieeken CCAFS Research site of Kaffrine, arid center Senegal, where principle of Co-Producing Climate Services was experimented 4
    • 5. 5 • 3/21/11 Method: Participatory Action Research (PAR) Step 2: Participatory Project Design &Step 1: Evaluating Action Plan ValidationCommunity AdaptationNeeds Identification of gender differentiated vulnerabilities and capacities in the community to confront climate-related shocks Community definition of priority adaptation needs/gaps, above and beyond local capacity to cope ⇒ Across 3 communities, Priority need: Support Community EW>EA, provision of climate services and early warnings
    • 6. 6 • 3/21/11 3:Step EW>EA WorkshopDialogue between Forecasters andVulnerable communities 3-day workshop bringing Step 4: Communication of tailoredtogether national/regional climate suite of seemless forecast productsscientists and farmers/CBOs, to • Production & communication ofunderstand and address downscaled multi-hazard climateinformation needs and weather early warnings for 2-way training and exchange of Kaffrine farmers, with nonknowledge: targeting of women in season 1, 1. Probabilistic nature of climate and pro-active targeting in forecasts: limits & Uncertainty season 2: inherent in climate forecasting • Seasonal outlook 2. Farmers’ climate information gaps, thresholds, packaging • Mid-range weather forecast needs (dekadal • Short-term weather forecasts (72h-48h-24h-3h) • SMS based communication
    • 7. Interaction & 2-way Dialogue 7 • 3/21/11 Key to Co-productionThe shorter the Innovative tools to time range, communicate the more forecasting precise the uncertainty - Didactic Games forecast Credit: Dr. Mariane Diop-Kane, ANACIM⇒ Bringing forecasters and farmers to work together to put climate at the service communities at risk from climate-related risks Credit: Red Cross/PetLab Malem Djoly Fass
    • 8. 8 • 3/21/11 Finding 1: Gender-differential in CC Vulnerability and CapacitiesSignificant gender driver of CC vulnerability: Different roles: Women primarily responsible for family care, cooking and house chores, collecting water, fodder and firewood, & Farming Rainy season hard labor for both men and women With CC, drudgery resulting from harsher farming conditions > dwindling incomes for family care Limited control of means of production (dependence): Men control factors of production (cart, horse/donkeys, government seeds and cash from sales) Hightened exposure to shortfalls of early season cessation (cessation forecast particularly needed) Emaciated Woman during Rainy season 2011 in Malem. Credit: A. Tall
    • 9. 9 • 3/21/11 Finding 1 (cont’d) Snapshot of Gendered Nature of CC Vulnerability and Coping in Dioly village, Kaffrine
    • 10. Gender as Interactive,10 • 3/21/11 Cross-Cutting Intersecting factors place rural women at greater risk from climate- relatedA GENDER TRAP? changesENTRENCHING WOMEN’SVULNERABILITY TO CLIMATECHANGE? 10
    • 11. 11 • 3/21/11Finding 2: Leveraging the power ofICTs to reach the most vulnerable  SMS in local language  Rural radio  Forecast bulletin boards, in strategic village locations  At mosque  At water fountains/boreholes (for women)  Through boundary organizations & community relays (Red cross, WV) Photo: Farmer in Ouelessebougou village, happy beneficiary of Mali’s 30year old Agromet advisory program. Credit: A. Tall
    • 12. 12 • 3/21/11 Finding 3: Place Specificity of Adaptation Needs• Different Cultural norms and socialization from village to villageWomen Focus Group participants in 12Fass Thieken vs. Dioly. Credit: A. Tall
    • 13. Finding 5: Gender blindspot13 • 3/21/11 in NAPAs Senegal’s NAPA, 2006: 84-page document identifying the country’s most urgent and priority needs for adaptation and evaluating key sectors of vulnerability in the face of climate change 13
    • 14. Giving Women an Effective 14 • 3/21/11 Voice in the Design of Climate information Services > Mission Possible• Opening Spaces for iterative dialogue, interaction and Co- production of climate service• PAR > key to success – involving communities (community diaries of local CC impacts) – Capturing local innovation (forecast bulletin boards, SMS language)• Preliminary Results of Kaffrine end project assessment – Increase in access, from handful in 2011 to 100% by 2012 – Demonstrated Usefulness of Soxna Ndao, Dioly village, stating: ‘We women, need information received information, for all products on when the rainy season will stop, as men plant for us later in across timescales the season. Credit: A. Tall – Added value to traditional forecasts
    • 15. Women as agents15 • 3/21/11 of transformation? • To be determined in Phase-II of PAR : – Have women been empowered by sustained access and use of climate services? – Behavioral changes – Will hypothesis be verified: When women are targeted by climate information service programs, impact on the community at large is greater vs. when they are not targeted ? • Need for more Applied Research to make the case for Gender responsive CC National Adaptation Policies
    • 16. 16 • 3/21/11 What next? • Assess Value of targeting women in CS interventions • Keeping equity considerations in mind in design of future climate service projects: – What- Type of information (cessation) – How- Salient communication channels to reach women and underserved groups – When- Alert timings and thresholds 16
    • 17. 17 • 3/21/11 We can serve as Links between Information and Action  EVERYONE HAS A ROLE TO PLAY Courtesy: Meaghan Daly
    • 18. Needed partnerships to put 18 • 3/21/11 climate science at the service of the most vulnerable National Agricultural Research and Extension Service Community-Based National Hydro- Organizations Meteorological Services Focus on vulnerable communities, and needs of the most vulnerableGlobal / Regional Climate Providers Donors and Partners Community Radios
    • 19. 19 • 3/21/11 CCAFS on a Mission> Reaching Rural Women with Climate Services at Scale• Examples surveyed by CCAFS prove that it is today Mission Possible to reach millions of smallholder farmers with salient and downscaled climate information and advisory services relevant to support their decision- making under an uncertain climate.• CCAFS intent to Scale Up this approach in 2013-15 for many other farmers, including rural women, to have access and benefit from available climate information and advisory services.• The time is Right for Climate Services. Photo: Rural Woman, Mozambique, fleeing her home For more information, contact: after flooding. Arame Tall, a.tall@cgiar.org