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Understanding gender and climate change

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This presentation was held during a Gender and Climate Change workshop on 14 May 2014, held at the World Agroforestry Centre. The workshop was organised by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate …

This presentation was held during a Gender and Climate Change workshop on 14 May 2014, held at the World Agroforestry Centre. The workshop was organised by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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  • 1. 1 Understanding Gender and Climate Change Edidah Ampaire, IITA Joash Mango, ICRAF And others from IFPRI CIAT ILRI May 14, 2014
  • 2. 2 Project Background • Study is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) • Little existing research on intra-household differences in climate change effects, adaptation strategies • This study aimed to enhance the understanding of gendered climate change perceptions, impacts, and adaptation and coping strategies within selected CCAFS sites • Better understand how climate change impacts women and men, separately and jointly, in terms of their vulnerabilities, well-being and assets
  • 3. 3 Data pooled The survey included sections on: • Agricultural and livestock decision-making • Awareness and adoption of climate smart agriculture practices • Perceptions of climate changes • Climate shocks and coping • Personal values • Access to information sources
  • 4. Why do a “Gender and Climate Change” Study? • Households do not pool all resources or make decisions as single unit • Men and women have differential levels of access to various household resources • Men and women have different preferences for how household resources are used • Men and women make different decisions on the allocation of resources among household members • As an intra-household survey, this survey targeted male and female decision-makers in the same household • Note that these differences have important implications for both production and consumption decisions
  • 5. Site description Nyando Wote Rakai Climate Climate change/variability; annual r/f 900-1200; droughts, floods increased with negative impacts on agriculture Characterized by high variability in annual and seasonal rainfall that amounts to 520 mm per year Rakai has variable rainfall, high to low (>1400 - <1000); increasing climate variability ; persistent droughts & vulnerable dry land Socio-economic High poverty rates, leads to labor shortages due to poor health and nutrition status majority of them being smallholder farmers Land ownership contentious as few people hold land titles. Farming and Livelihood Mixed rain fed crop- livestock and largely subsistence farming Rain-fed farming systems comprise a blend of crop- livestock systems Rain fed annual and perennial smallholder farming systems
  • 6. Nyando, Kenya Wote, Kenya Rakai, Uganda Agroforestry Terraces/bunds Water harvesting Irrigation Zai/Planting pits Crop residue mulching Composting Manure management Effic. use of fertilizer Improved HYVs Improved STVs No/min tillage Improved grain storage Improved stoves Improved feed management Destocking Cover cropping Tolerant livestock Rangeland management IPM Rates of Awareness of the Different CSA Practices: Kenya and Uganda Blue: Men more aware Pink: Women more aware White: No significant difference
  • 7. Nyando, Kenya Wote, Kenya Rakai, Uganda Agroforestry Terraces/bunds Water harvesting Irrigation Zai/Planting pits Crop residue mulching Composting Manure management Effic. use of fertilizer Improved HYVs Improved STVs No/min tillage Improved grain storage Improved stoves Improved feed management Destocking Cover cropping Tolerant livestock Rangeland management IPM Rates of Adoption (among those aware of practices) Blue: Higher rate of male adoption Pink: Higher rate of female adoption White: No significant difference
  • 8. Who is adapting to climate change? Have made adaptations Men Women Nyando 64% 57% Wote 94% 96% Rakai 83% 76%
  • 9. How are they adapting? Women Men Nyando, Kenya Soil and water Conservation Planting trees on farm Change crop variety Change crop variety Change planting date Change planting date Change crop type Change crop type Water harvesting Soil and water conservation Planting trees on farm Wote, Kenya Change crop type Soil and water conservation Soil and water conservation Change crop variety Change planting date Change crop type Change crop variety Planting trees on farm Planting trees on farm Change planting date Rakai, Uganda Increase land in production Planting trees on farm Planting trees on farm Change crop type Set up food storage facilities Increase land in production Change crop type Change crop variety Soil and water conservation Water harvesting
  • 10. Women Men Nyando, Kenya Not enough money Don't know what to do Don't know what to do Not enough money Not enough information about climate change Don't see the need Not enough labor to implement changes Not enough labor Don't see the need to make changes Not enough information about climate change Think the change might fail Wote, Kenya Don't know what to do Don't know what to do Don't see the need Not enough money Not enough money Need to see it being implemented by neighbors Not enough labor Think the change might fail Rakai, Uganda Don't know what to do Not enough money Not enough money Don't know what to do Don't see the need Not enough labor Not enough labor Not enough information about climate change Land being used by a more productive activity Why are they not adapting?
  • 11. Nyando Wote Rakai Men Women Men Women Men Women Government Extension Workers 42 40 99 98 67 30 NGOs 64 68 68 85 68 31 Community Meetings 63 38 98 97 45 24 Farmer organizations 13 36 10 29 36 12 Agriserve providers 7 16 18 68 40 13 Family members 79 93 99 96 73 52 neighbors 94 82 99 99 96 91 Newspaper 27 6 11 2 34 1 Cell Phones 28 6 2 2 12 6 Farmer Field Days 11 8 41 56 12 6 Do you have access to climate or agricultural advice from the following sources? Red: >20 point differences between men and women Pink: Female Greater Access
  • 12. Most Useful Sources of Agricultural and Climate Information Nyando Men Nyando Women Wote Men Wote Women Rakai Men Rakai Women 1 Radio Radio Government extension Government extension Neighbor Traditional Knowledge 2 Neighbors Family Neighbors Community meeting NGO Radio 3 Community meeting Neighbor Community meetings Radio Governmen t Extension Neighbors 4 Traditional knowledge NGO Radio Farmer field day Own knowledge Family 5 NGO Community meeting Family Agriservice provider Family NGO
  • 13. Observed Climate Shocks in the Past 5 years Nyando Wote Rakai Men WomenMen WomenMen Women Flood 17 42 1 0 2 2 Droughts 64 50 99 99 70 88 Storm 2 12 0 0 21 13 Erratic Rainfall 22 6 9 3 1 2 • Bigger differences in Nyando and Rakai; less in Wote • In Nyando, men report observing more droughts while women observe more floods
  • 14. Nyando Wote Rakai Men Women Men Women Men Women Drought impact 48 43 96 89 72 77 Flood Impact 17 50 0 1 20 21 Impacts of shifts in rainfall patterns 32 35 70 78 78 66 Decline in rainfall 46 16 98 90 70 70 Predicted Impacts of Future Climate Changes
  • 15. Wote Participation in decisions related to: Inputs Weeding Crop managem ent Crop Use Income Use Average Men 76 68 80 61 65 Women 49 80 53 79 73 Difference 27 -12 29 -18 -7 Maize Men 81 57 82 51 31 Women 44 80 49 61 27 Difference 38 -22 33 -10 4 Fodder Men 61 51 65 46 43 Women 30 53 33 53 42 Difference 31 -2 33 -7 1 Mangos Men 85 83 87 67 75 Women 18 47 15 53 56 Difference 68 36 72 14 19 • How complex are agricultural decisions? • Do men and women participate in different types of decisions? • Does it vary across crops? • See some patterns in types of decisions, but depends on crops • Men and women participate in many decisions Yellow box: Women report a higher percentage of participation in decision- making
  • 16. Rakai Participate in decisions related to Inputs Weeding Crop Management Crop use Income average Men 95 95 95 96 94 women 94 98 95 98 93 difference 1 -3 0 -2 1 Maize Men 54 54 41 56 50 women 69 74 18 70 36 difference -15 -20 23 -14 15 Bananas Men 39 57 57 34 38 women 41 82 79 85 47 difference -1 -25 -22 -50 -9 Groundnut Men 36 37 21 42 42 women 71 81 18 75 42 difference -35 -44 3 -33 0 • Different patterns that emerge here • More participation in input decisions • Some categories are roughly equal • Context matters!
  • 17. 18 Key Messages -Once aware, women seem more likely to adopt these CSA practices -Wide variation in access to information -Seems to suggest that both men and women are making adaptations, but mainly farm based and input related -Some patterns in terms of agricultural decisionmaking, but it varies by crop -Participation by men and women in most agricultural decisions

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