Pathways toward scaling up climate services for farmers Arame Tall 2013

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A presentation held at the Third International Conference on Climate Services in Jamaica by climate specialist Arame Tall, based with the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Learn more about our theme on <a>Managing Climate Risks and climate variability</a>

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Pathways toward scaling up climate services for farmers Arame Tall 2013

  1. 1. 3rd International Conference on Climate Services, Dec. 4-6, 2013, Montego Bay (Jamaica) Climate Services for Farmers > Mission Possible Lessons from Africa and South Asia Dr. Arame Tall Climate Services- Scientist, Champion a.tall@cgiar.org
  2. 2. 2 • 3/21/11 Premise: Information is Power 2
  3. 3. 3 • 3/21/11 Rationale: Why do Farmers Need Climate Services? Access to relevant climate information can Empower farmers to anticipate and confront climaterelated risks and opportunities
  4. 4. 4 Why Farmers are Not Getting Relevant Climate Services – On the Ground • 3/21/11 Limited Dialogue with End Users to identify Needs, build Trust ! A Multi-front challenge: We need to work together to overcome these tenacious challenges to Climate Service delivery Inappropriate Communication channels to Get the Message out to farmers Poor Observation network / Limited capacity of NHMS to address needs Limited capacity of end-users to act of received forecasts– Integration of CS into development support programs
  5. 5. Challenges to Scaling up Climate Service for Farmers 5 • 3/21/11 •  Salience: tailoring content, scale, format, lead-time to farm decisionmaking •  Legitimacy: giving farmers an effective voice in design and delivery •  Access: providing timely access to remote rural communities with marginal infrastructure •  Equity: ensuring that women, poor, socially marginalized benefit •  Integration: climate services as part of a larger package of support
  6. 6. 18 Good Practice Cases from Africa to South Asia 6 • 3/21/11 Delivering tailored 5day agro-met advisories for 3+ million farmers in India s Integra -ted Agromet Advisory Service Program Involving farmers through rain gages in Mali s 30-year Agromet advisory program More at: scalingup.iri. columbia.edu Cell-phone based information service delivery in Uganda Grameen Foundation s Community Knowledge Workers Project CYMMIT: Delivering on Farmers Information Needs in the IndoGangetic Plains of India Farmer Seasonal Forecast Training in Wote, Kenya Kaffrine: Putting downscaled climate forecasts into farmers hands Lushoto: Co-producing climate services with farmers
  7. 7. 7 • 3/21/11 PRE-REQUISITE 1: FROM CLIMATE INFORMATION TO CLIMATE SERVICE
  8. 8. 8 • 3/21/11 Courtesy: J. Hansen, CCAFS/IRI
  9. 9. 9 • 3/21/11 Everyonethe National Chain in Building has a role to Play of Linking Knowledge to Action Climate Services Fig. 1: Different stakeholders and roles in national Chain of Climate Service Production, Tailoring and Communication National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) Production*of*downscaled*hydro3 meteorological*forecasts NARES (Partners) Packaging*of*climate*information*>*From* Climate*Information*to*a*Climate*Service* *Production*of*Agro3Met*Advisory! Communicators & Boundary Organizations: - Media – Extension Services – NGOs – CBOs Other community relays Widespread*23way*Communication*of* climate*information*and*advisory*services! National level End-users (rural development planners, policy makers, seed distributors, fertilizer industry, private sector) Final End-users (farmers, pastoralists, communities at risk) Credit:(Arame(Tall,(CCAFS(
  10. 10. Promoting Coordinated Framework for Climate Services 10 • 3/21/11 Global Regional National 10
  11. 11. 11 • 3/21/11 PRE-REQUISITE 2: FROM DISSEMINATION TO 2-WAY COMMUNICATION
  12. 12. Communicating to Reach ‘last mile’ •  Relevant communication channels identified to reach most vulnerable: 12 • 3/21/11 !  SMS in local language !  Rural radio, media professionals !  Forecast bulletin boards in strategic outposts across village !  At village mosque/church !  At water boreholes (women) !  Community relays/boundary organizations (NGOs, CBOs) !  School children (vehicle) Credit: Tall, CCAFS
  13. 13. 13 • 3/21/11 Training Intermediaries to Communicate Climate Services at Scale Photo: As part of a new CCAFS-World Vision collaboration, Dr. Jim Hansen trains World Vision staff on communicating forecast uncertainty to farmers (Same, N. Tanzania). Credit: A. Tall, CCAFS
  14. 14. 14 • 3/21/11 PRE-REQUISITE 3: HEED GENDER AND EQUITY IN DESIGN OF CLIMATE SERVICE
  15. 15. Focusing on Equity in Service Design and Delivery 15 • 3/21/11 •  Identify specific service needs of women and underserved groups (in terms of content, timing and delivery channels) •  Place specificity of needs •  Different social norms from village to village PAR in Kaffrine: Woman FGD identifying climate service needs. Credit: Tall, CCAFS Climate Service Needs of women farmers in Fass (Left) different from those in Dioly (right). Credit: Tall, CCAFS
  16. 16. 16 • 3/21/11 Giving Women an Effective Voice in Design of Climate Services •  Opening Spaces for iterative dialogue, interaction and Coproduction of climate service •  PAR > key to success –  involving communities (community diaries of local CC impacts) –  Capturing local innovation (forecast bulletin boards, SMS language) •  Preliminary Results of Kaffrine gender research end project assessment –  Increase in access, from handful in 2011 to 100% by 2012 –  Demonstrated Usefulness of received information, for all products across timescales –  Added value to traditional forecasts Soxna Ndao, Dioly village, stating: ‘We women, need information on when the rainy season will stop, as men plant for us later in the season. Credit: A. Tall
  17. 17. 17 • 3/21/11 PRE-REQUISITE 4: BUILD FARMER CAPACITY TO USE CLIMATE SERVICES
  18. 18. 18 • 3/21/11 Communicating Uncertainty -  Didactic Games The shorter the time range, the more accurate the forecast Credit: Mariane DiopKane, ANACIM ⇒ (Bringing(together(forecasters(and(farmers(to(put(climate(forecasts( at(the(service(of(communities(at(risk(from(climate=related(risks( Credit:(Red(Cross/ ( PetLab( Malem Djoly Fass
  19. 19. Communicating Uncertainty in Seasonal Climate Forecasts 19 • 3/21/11 > The Pobability Distribution Function Farmers(discussing(what(1mm( of(rain(means…( Credit:(J.(Hansen,(CCAFS ( ( Credit:(Dr.(Ousmane(Ndiaye,(ANACIM Ousmane(Ndiaye,(ANACIM (
  20. 20. ….To Wote, Eastern Kenya: FarmerTrainings 20 • 3/21/11 Credit:(J.(Hansen,(IRI/CCAFS( KPC(Rao,(ICRISAT((
  21. 21. 21 • 3/21/11 PRE-REQUISITE 5: DESIGN, MONITOR AND EVALUATE SERVICE TO ENSURE ITS RELEVANCE
  22. 22. Developing M&E Framework to Evaluate Climate Services for Farmers 22 • 3/21/11 Goal: Develop M&E protocol to identify farmer need for climate services and measure added-value of climate services for farmer communities, with guidance on: -  Baseline collection -  Monitoring, re-assessment -  End project final impact assessment •  Locally-Relevant •  Gender responsive 3*Objectives*of*Assessment: 1.To inform design of new climate services and projects;" 2.To identify current gaps, and improve project effective and service delivery for farmers;! 3.To assess impact of provided services on farmers, and demonstrate project impact with a dollar value (towards outcome reporting).!
  23. 23. Proposed M&E Framework to Evaluate Climate Services for Farmers 23 • 3/21/11 The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.
  24. 24. Designing Tailored Forecast products for Farmers 24 • 3/21/11 Based on identified user needs, tailoring: •  In space: Geographic Downscaling •  In time: Seemless forecast products across timescales: –  Seasonal > Monthly > Dekadal > 72h > 48h > 3h > nowcasting –  Historical Data Trends Analysis –  Key to building trust and empowering farmers to monitor risks as season unfolds •  In Content (hazards, info needed) •  In Lead time (alert thresholds) •  In message format, language & delivery channel WEATHER HOURS DAYS WEEKS MONTHS Decision Making is local. Blended Station and Satellite data is one way forward to downscale climate forecasts, and enable climate forecasts to serve local decision-making. Courtesy: J. Hansen, CCAFS/IRI CLIMATE YEARS DECADES …
  25. 25. 25 • 3/21/11 CCAFS OBJECTIVE: 10M farmers by 2016 equipped with tailored climate services for improved management of climate risks http://dmu.icrisat.ac.in/CCAFS_CIS_Home.aspx
  26. 26. 26 • 3/21/11 CCAFS Strategy to Scale Up Climate Services for Farmers 1.  Identify Good practice 2.  Upscale Climate Services to millions of farmers –  Promoting National Frameworks for Climate Services –  Brokering strong partnerships between NHMSs, Agr Research and Extension to produce tailored agro-met advisories –  Leveraging new ICTs, media professionals NGOs and boundary organisations for effective 2-way communication 3.  Build evidence base on livelihood outcomes for farmers - making the case for Climate Services
  27. 27. Scaling up Climate Services for millions of Farmers > Mission Possible 27 • 3/21/11 •  •  •  •  Operational Climate Services for Farmers is a multi-front challenge Examples surveyed by CCAFS prove however that it is Mission Possible today to reach millions of farmers with salient and downscaled climate information and advisory services relevant to support their decisionmaking under an uncertain climate. It is time to Scale Up this approach for many other farmers to have access and benefit from available climate information and advisory services. The time is Right for Climate Services. For more information, contact: Arame Tall, a.tall@cgiar.org Photo: Women Farmers in Amtrar, Himachal Pradesh (India), discussing how they benefit from agromet advisories. Credit: A. Tall, CCAFS

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