South Asian Training on Gender, Climate Change, and Agriculture
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South Asian Training on Gender, Climate Change, and Agriculture

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by Katharine Vincent and Tracy Cull, of Kulima Integrated Development Solutions. ...

by Katharine Vincent and Tracy Cull, of Kulima Integrated Development Solutions.

Created for a CCAFS Training of Trainers (ToT) on gender, climate change, agriculture, and food security in New Delhi, India, 25-26 November 2011.

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  • We will be covering each part of the manual in turn. Grey are topics that we will be training you on, in order that you can deliver the CEWs. Green are the explicit topics of the CEWs.Lot to cover so please do ask questions. There will be time to reflect tonight and revisit questions tomorrow.
  • Next slide is the bad slide – so make a note here about starting…
  • Remind that they won’t have to design a course from scratch here – but if they ever do have to – Appendix A covers that.
  • Water example – women’s empowerment is required for gender equality (but it doesn’t have to take away from what men have)
  • So men go out to work – encouraging women to go out to work might create equality (as they both do the same) – but in reality it creates an additional burden for women as they still have responsibilities in the home. So gender equity would be recognising the economic value and importance of the reproductive role.
  • Men do the heavy work – and the technology work (e.g. irrigation pump). Women do the threshing and “precision” work
  • Reproductive role: Childbearing/rearing responsibilities, and domestic tasks done by women, required to guarantee the maintenance and reproduction of the labour force. It includes not only biological reproduction but also the care and maintenance of the work force (male partner and working children) and the future work force (infants and school-going children). Productive role: Work done by both men and women for pay in cash or kind. It includes both market production with an exchange-value, and subsistence/home production with actual use-value, and also potential exchange-value. For women in agricultural production, this includes work as independent farmers, peasant wives and wage workers. Community managing role: Activities undertaken primarily by women at the community level, as an extension of their reproductive role, to ensure the provision and maintenance of scarce resources of collective consumption, such as water, health care and education. This is voluntary unpaid work, undertaken in 'free' time. Community politics role: Activities undertaken primarily by men at the community level, organising at the formal political level, often within the framework of national politics. This is usually paid work, either directly or indirectly, through status or power.
  • Point out that the use of pink for women and blue for men is a social construction of gender!
  • Conclude this section by highlighting that it is therefore important to take a gendered approach to adaptation – following gender equity, this might involve different activities for men and women, but they should aim for gender equality in outcomes (i.e. neither men nor women should benefit differentially relative to the other gender).
  • Reminder that women have been chosen as the target of the workshop because they are more vulnerable to climate change, both due to exposure (reliance on natural resources) and social constructions of gender which means they have poorer access to resources and decision-making to enable them to respond to climate change.This will give an overview – then we’ll jump into the 4 modules on which you will be training the women
  • HolisticlinksA change in one part has effects elsewhere
  • We’re using this as an example
  • Main objective is the interconnectivity of the system – if you change one part, it will have implications elsewhere.
  • Reinforce systems approach – change one aspect of the system, it will have knock-on consequences
  • Part of session 3 to train - effects of a changed climate on humans
  • We’re going to teach you more of the science than you will need to teach the women – when working with them, the emphasise will on their own experiences of past climate variability and change – but you will need to teach (in a basic sense) what is likely to happen in the future. So we won’t do the activity with them – but explain how to do it.
  • But this is still part of session 3 in the CEW – effects of a changed climate on humans
  • Predominantly rice-wheat and riceGreen revolution importantAgriculture also affected by land degradation from overpopulation and poor resource stewardship, fragmentation of ownership. Production has increased – but not enough.Rainfed farming dependent on the monsoon.
  • Idea here is to bring the impacts down to people’s lives. What will the changes in temperature, rainfall and extremes mean for their lives and livelihoods. Facilitated group discussion.
  • (15 minutes)We will do this with trainers like they will do it with participants….so brainstorm any changes they themselves have done, or have observed others doing, and make a list on the left hand side of the paper
  • House example – coping is rebuilding a house on the floodplain (where it was before). Adaptation is rebuilding it on stilts.
  • (10 minutes)Write answers on the right hand side of the paper
  • Rural women are responsible less for mitigation than for adaptation – hence the focus is on adaptation. Many strategies that are adaptation are also mitigation, particularly with regard to agriculture (good soil management
  • There are advantages to working together – sharing information, mutual support etc. Here you can facilitate a discussion amongst participants asking them how they can work together to bring about changes. There may already be groups etc in operation that they can work through. It is also a way of disseminating information to others. Depending on your group composition for your CEW, you may have a large number of legislators. They have a responsibility to disseminate information to other community members. At the same time, as politicians, they may be able to allocate more local funds to support adaptation or lobby for more adaptive local institutions or structures
  • Adaptation is often supported externally – and if this doesn’t take a gender sensitive approach, the adaptations may inadvertently support men more than women, reinforcing gendered vulnerability. Fill in the table on p72 in the group
  • Unstructured and semi-structured interviews. We will be using set questions – but with the idea that they are open-ended and there is flexibility to pick up upon any unusual emerging findings.
  • To emphasise the idea of not assuming knowledge, not asking leading questions, using language appropriate to the audience.

South Asian Training on Gender, Climate Change, and Agriculture South Asian Training on Gender, Climate Change, and Agriculture Presentation Transcript

  • Gender, ClimateChange, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers Katharine Vincent and Tracy Cull Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Overview of CourseCourse Manual partIntroduction and training skills 1Gender and climate change 2Capacity Enhancement Workshops 3Intro to Environmental Systems 4Impact of Humans on the Environment 5Climate Change 6Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture 7and Food SecurityAdapting to Climate Change 8Evaluation 9 Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Structure of the manual Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Why?• CCAFS – CGIAR/ESSP partnership to bring together strategic research in agricultural science, development research, climate science, and earth system science, to overcome the threats that a changing climate poses to food security, rural livelihoods, and the environment• Why South Asia/IGP? – “breadbasket” at risk from climate change• Why a focus on women? – Important in agriculture, typically marginalised from decision-making Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Objectives for the TOTAt the end of this training of trainers, trainers will:• Be aware of the social constructions of gender and how this determines how men and women experience, and can respond to, climate change• Know what the projected climate change is in South Asia in general and the Indo-Gangetic Plains region in particular• Be able to plan and deliver a training course to rural female legislators and women farmers which enables them to understand climate change and empowers them to understand behavioural changes and low cost technology practices that can help them to adapt• Have the skills to undertake a longer-term evaluation of the impact of the training. Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Climate Food security Adaptation resiliencecoping Climate change Gender equality gender mitigation Gender equity Greenhouse gas vulnerability Uncertainty Extreme weather event Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Farmers Research with farmers it’s still in progress but will be made better over time http://farmersworld.com/ Currently this contains 3 pages: • Intro with information on what farming actuvities are underway • Resources (articles and reports) – this includes newspaper articles, cuttings, reports, newspapers • Members from around the continent with various areas of expertise like implementation, scoping studies, some also have banking experience, experience with governments Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of TrainersSlide 7/7 New Delhi, November 2011
  • TRAINING SKILLSGender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Exercise: Reflect on training courses that you have attendedin the past. For those that went well, why did they go well?What makes them so memorable? Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Good training practices• Introductions – Relax and energise participants• Beginning – Give overview, ground rules, assess knowledge/backgrounds of participants• During the workshop – Manage expectations, manage time, use a variety of communication methods• Conclusion – Summary and evaluation Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Attitude/behaviour as a trainer• Stay relaxed and calm;• Be a good listener - do not panic when the group in silent; wait patiently for them to think about what they want to say;• Do not interrupt people;• Do not make judgements of people’s responses (for example, saying that ‘this is good, and that is bad’) or humiliate anyone;• Do not let arguments dominate the discussion; encourage participants to re-focus on the main topic;• Be aware of language barriers; let people talk in the language in which they are most comfortable (and ask someone else to translate if necessary). If necessary, visual aids and body language to help overcome language barriers;• Have eye contact, stand up and move around, speak slowly, use your voice (intonation);• Make your training as interactive as possible - involve and engage participants. Ask questions and invite participants to tell their stories;• Use humour if natural for you, and smile;• Address concerns, questions, issues as raised by participants, while sticking to the main messages you want to get across Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • GENDER AND CLIMATE CHANGE Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Definitions• Sex – Biological differences between men and women• Gender – socially constructed roles, responsibilities and opportunities associated with being a man or a woman, as well as the hidden power structures that govern the relationships between them.• Inequality – Results not from biological differences, but from learnt roles Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Evidence for women’s subordination relative to men• Approximately 70% of the global poor (those who live on less than $1 a day) are women.• Women work two-thirds of the world’s working hours, yet receive only 10% of the world income.• Women own only 1% of the world’s property• Globally, only 8% of cabinet members are women• 75% of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women.Source: UNDP et al 2009, 14 in UNDP, 2010 Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Gender equality vs. gender equity• Gender equality – Equal participation of women and men in decision-making, equal ability to exercise their human rights, equal access to (and control of) resources and the benefits of development, equal access to employment (CCAFS and FAO, 2011)• Gender equity – “fairness and impartiality in the treatment of women and men in terms of rights, benefits, obligations and opportunities. By creating social relations in which neither of the sexes suffers discrimination, gender equity aims at improving gender relations and gender roles, and achieving gender equality. The essence of equity is not identical treatment - treatment may be equal or different, but should always be considered equivalent in terms of rights, benefits, obligations and opportunities” (FAO, 2011a). Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Exercise: Discussing gender roles and their social construction Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Gender roles• Are socially defined• Determine social and economic activities• Reflect biological differences• Vary according to regions and cultures• Change over timeSource: UNDP et al (2009, 14 in UNDP, 2010) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Men’s and women’s multiple roles• Reproductive role• Productive role• Community managing role• Community politics role Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Gendered roles in agricultureWomen’s roles Men’s rolesProducing staple crops (wheat, rice) Handling cash crops and commercial agricultureSowing/planting Preparing lands for sowingWeeding; applying fertilizers and pesticides Irrigating cropsHarvesting, thrashing Transporting produce to marketMilking livestock (cows, goats) Owning, managing, and trading large livestock like cattleManaging small livestock (e.g., family poultry) Cutting, hauling, and selling timber from forestsMaintaining the household: raising children; Capturing fish in coastal and deep-seagrowing and preparing the family’s food; collecting watersfuel wood and drinking waterGenerating income via: processing produce forsale; selling vegetables from home gardens orforest products Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Women’s vulnerability to climate change• Limited access to resources• Dependence on natural resources and the gender division of labour• Lack of education and access to information• Limited mobility• Limited roles in decision-making• Lower capacity to cope with disasters Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Case study: Women as leaders, decision-makers and full participants: Action Aid’s tsunami response programme in Nicobar and the Andaman Islands.The 2004 Southeast/South Asian tsunami killed more women than men. The reason for thisis underlying gender norms. Due to their traditional child-rearing roles, women typicallyspend their lives at home. When the tsunami hit, they put the safety of their childrenbefore themselves. Many reported having their clothes ripped off by the debris, and choseto stay within the house rather than run outside naked. Women also traditionally couldn’tswim, unlike the men. During the relief effort, their reduced role in decision-makingrelative to men meant that they were often excluded from the distribution process, andthus unable to access aid.In a subsequent project from 2005-07, Action Aid undertook a participatory vulnerabilityanalysis with women in Nicobar and the Andaman Islands. Through this exercise ofidentifying vulnerability, women were able to share experiences and form participatorygroups. These groups were then supported by Action Aid in skills needed to reducevulnerability, such as learning to swim and fish. Collective action has also raised their stakesin decision-making processes, putting them on a more equal footing with men.Source: UNISDR (2008) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • WOMEN’S CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT WORKSHOPS (CEW) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Objectives for the CEWBy the end of the capacity enhancement workshop, participants will:• Be aware of environmental systems, including the atmosphere and hydrological system• Have knowledge of the mechanisms driving the greenhouse effect• Be able to recognise the effects of humans on environmental systems• Be able to define climate change and its causes• Be aware of the likely projected changes in climate in South Asia with regard to temperature and rainfall patterns, and its implications for core livelihood activities• Have knowledge of a range of locally-appropriate, low-technology or behavioural adaptation strategies and mechanisms that they can employ to reduce adverse impacts from the projected changes in climate (including climate-smart agriculture) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Structure of CEWs• 2 plans provided – Full day (9am-5pm) – Shorter day (10am-3pm)• Common elements – Introduction and expectations – Wrap up and evaluation – Interactive training sessions• Flexibility is KEY! Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • 4 sessions (shorter course skips the first)Session Manual partsGeneral environmental education Introduction to environmental systems (part 4)Impact of humans on the Impacts of humans on theenvironment environment (part 5)Effects of a changed environment on Climate change (part 6); impacts ofhumans climate change on agriculture and food security (part 7)What you can do to adapt to a Adapting to climate change (part 8)change environment Not included in the short day CEW Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • SESSION 1 - GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Introduction to Environmental Systems PART 4 in the Manual Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • ObjectivesBy the end of this session, trainers will be able to:• Identify and explain the different elements of the hydrological cycle• Explain how these different elements fit together to form a continuous cycleAt the end of the session, participants will:• be aware of environmental systems, including the atmosphere and hydrological system Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Environmental systems Source: Moss et al, 2010 - Nature Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Demonstration: Hydrological cycle Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • SESSION 2 - IMPACT OF HUMANS ON THE ENVIRONMENT Impact of humans on the environment PART 5 in the Manual Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • ObjectivesBy the end of this session, trainers will be able to:• Identify the types of human activity that affect the functioning of environmental cycles, with particular reference to deforestation and the hydrological cycle• Have knowledge of the greenhouse effect, and the enhanced greenhouse effect• Identify the causes of climate changeAt the end of this session, participants will:• Have knowledge of the mechanisms driving the greenhouse effect• Be able to recognise the effects of humans on environmental systems• Be able to define climate change and its causes Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Deforestation• Cutting down of trees• Why? – Population pressure – Need for fuelwood – Need for building materials Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Demonstration: Effect of deforestation on the hydrological cycle Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Greenhouse EffectGender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Enhanced Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse Human sources (pollution)gasCarbon Burning fossil fuels (industry, transport, domesticdioxide (CO2) use) and deforestationMethane CowsOzone IndustryNitrous oxide Fertilisers(NOx)Chlorofluoro- Refrigeration systemscarbons Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • SESSION 3 - EFFECTS OF A CHANGED ENVIRONMENT ON HUMANS Climate change PART 6 in the Manual Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • ObjectivesBy the end of this session, trainers will:• Be able to provide evidence that the climate is changing• Be able to explain future projected changes, and how these projections are derived• Be familiar with projected changes in climate in South Asia and the Indo-Gangetic PlainsBy the end of this session, participants will:• Be aware of the likely projected changes in climate in South Asia with regard to temperature and rainfall patterns, and its implications for core livelihood activities Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Overview of activity: Looking for evidence for a changing climate Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Changing climate is not new….for evidence for rising airtemperatures, rising sea surface temperatures and sea level rise, see pages 52-54 in the manual Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • How will climate change in the future? And how do we know? Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • How do we know? GCMs• Global Climate Models (GCMs) – Atmospheric – Oceanic – Coupled atmosphere-ocean• Various ones exist (e.g. CSIRO Mk 3, HadCM3, Max Planck)• Include characterisation of processes run together which attempt to simulate reality• Limitations of models Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • How do we know? Scenarios• A coherent, internally consistent and plausible description of a possible future state of the world.• IPCC SRES scenarios – A1 (economic, global) – A2 (economic, regional) – B1 (environment, global) – B2 (environment, regional)• Each of these scenarios has an associated emissions pathway, describing likely concentrations of gases in the atmosphere to model future climate Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Temperature• Mean annual temperature increase of 3.3°C for South Asia (Christensen et al, 2007) – Range of warming estimates under different emission scenarios extends from 2.7°C to 4.7°C• High-lying regions of the Himalayas can expect greater warming (mean increase of 3.8°C with a range of 2.6°C to 6.1°C projected for Tibet) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Anticipated change in mean annual temperature by 2030 (scenario A1B)Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Projected mean annual temperature in 2030Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Rainfall• Greater uncertainty exists for estimates of rainfall changes as a result of climate change• Some evidence for a slight increase in precipitation for the Indian subcontinent by the end of this century (Christensen et al, 2007)• Some indications that rainfall will become more variable – Increase in inter-annual rainfall variability means an increase in the number of very dry and very wet years (Baettig et al, 2007) – Changes in the distribution of rainfall within a year will be characterised by an increase in the number of heavy rainfall days, but a decrease in overall number of days receiving rain• Some evidence for a change in seasonality• Projected increases in extreme rainfall will be characterised by increases in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Other• The Indian monsoon is expected to intensify with climate change• The timing of the monsoons may become more variable under climate change• Increase in hot extremes, as well as heat waves expected• More extreme rainfall events – increase in both frequency and intensity• Increase in mean sea-level of 0.18 to 0.59 m projected by 2100, relative to 2000 (Christensen et al, 2007). Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • SESSION 3 - EFFECTS OF A CHANGED ENVIRONMENT ON HUMANS Climate change impacts on agriculture and food security PART 7 in the Manual Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Farming systems in South Asia Farming Systems 1. Rice 2. Coastal artisanal fishing 3. Rice-wheat 4. Highland mixed 5. Rainfed mixed 6. Dry rainfed 7. Pastoral 8. Sparse (arid) 9. Sparse (mountain) 10. Irrigated area in rainfed farming system Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Food securityAvailability Adequate food is producedStability Availability through time (e.g. through the year) Food is available – this does not have to be throughAccess production, but can be through affordable and functioning markets Food can be effectively consumed, e.g. water is availableUtilisation to cook, a person is healthy enough to absorb nutrients Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Effects of climate change on agriculture • Climate change may already be contributing to decreasing productivity in the IGP (Ladha et al., 2003; Pathak et al., 2003) • Projected increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is beneficial to crops: Increase to 550 ppm increases yields of crops such as wheat and rice by 10-20% (Aggarwal, 2009) • Despite this crop yields may decline due to increasing temperatures and extreme events. A 1oC increase in temperature may reduce yields of some crops by 0-7%. Much higher losses at higher temperatures (Aggarwal, 2009);Maize (-16%); sorghum (-11%): Knox et al (2011) • Rice yields estimated to decrease by 10% for every 1°C temperature increase (Peng et al, 2004) • Higher temperatures and evapotranspiration will increase seasonal rainfall variability; increased droughts, floods, and heat events will increase production variability • Productivity of most crops to remain unaffected/ marginally decrease by 2020 but decrease by 10-40% by 2100 (Aggarwal, 2009) • Climate change will also impact on livestock- less milk, greater stress on animals (Aggarwal, 2009) • Increasing sea and river water temperatures are likely to affect fish breeding, migration, and harvests (Aggarwal, 2009) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Effects of climate change on marine ecosystems• Projected sea-level rise (SLR) will severely impact coastal ecosystems, infrastructure and human settlements – More than 35 million people in Bangladesh will be at risk of flooding by 2050 (Government of Bangladesh, 2007). – SLR in major Indian cities (Mumbai, Kolkata, Kochi) will be at risk – SLR of 1m by 2050 in Sri Lanka could submerge significant proportions of land and severely impact the rail transport network – SLR is a threat to the very existence of low-lying small island states, such as the Maldives• Salt-water intrusion and declining river runoff will increase the habitat for brackish water fisheries• Coastal inundation, especially in the heavily populated mega deltas will have severe impacts on economies and people, as well as ecosystems such as mangroves, wetlands and coral reefs Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Effects of climate change on water resources• Initial increase in water (to 2040) due to glacial melt, followed by less water (to 2100) due to retreat of glaciers.• Reduced availability of freshwater, combined with rapidly-growing populations in close proximity to water means a reduction in freshwater resources, growing water stress and reduced water quality• Glacial melting will increase the number and severity of floods, and related impacts such as slope destabilisation and a decrease in river flows as glaciers recede Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Effect of climate change on disasters• The probability of climate-related disasters will rise with changes in precipitation patterns and temperature increase.• Droughts are projected to be more intense and prolonged in the arid and semiarid areas of India and Bangladesh, while landslides and glacial lake outburst floods will be more frequent in the mountain regions of Bhutan and Nepal (Asian Development Bank, undated; World Bank, 2009). Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Overview of activity: Defining potential impacts of a changing climate on people’s lives Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • SESSION 4 – WHAT YOU CAN DO TOADAPT TO A CHANGED ENVIRONMENT Adapting to climate change PART 8 in the Manual Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • ObjectivesBy the end of this session, trainers will be able to:• Identify responses they have already made to respond to a changing climate• Determine whether those responses help cope or adapt• Be aware of a wider range of potential adaptation strategies they can employ to respond to a changing climateBy the end of this session, participants will:• have knowledge of a range of locally-appropriate, low- technology or behavioural adaptation strategies and mechanisms that they can employ to reduce adverse impacts from the projected changes in climate (including climate-smart agriculture) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Exercise: Responses to past climate (part one) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Coping and adaptation• Coping – short-term response that facilitates immediate survival, but does not reduce vulnerability.• Adaptation – longer-term response that also reduces vulnerability to repeat exposure to the same hazard. Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Exercise: Are those responses to past climate examples of coping or adaptation? (Responses to past climate part two) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Adaptation – Agriculture (crops)• Crop diversification• Planting different crops (as appropriate to the climate)• Planting early maturing crops• Changing planting dates• Cultivating terraces/baira• Watering late in the day (to reduce evapo-transpiration)• Livelihood diversification Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Adaptation – Agriculture (livestock)• Introduce mixed-livestock farming systems• Grow fodder crops to ensure feed availability• Improving rangeland management Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Adaptation - Agroforestry• Hedges, windbreaks, shelterbelts, live fences• Nitrogen-fixing trees, bushes, fodder trees Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Adaptation – Soil Management• Minimum/no tillage• Rotating with legumes• Intercropping with legumes• Efficient application of manure• Mulching Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Adaptation – Water Management• Water storage, e.g. water pans• Dams, pits, retaining ridges• Cover irrigation channels to reduce evaporation loss• Rainwater harvesting Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Adaptation – Fisheries and Aquaculture• Saline-resistant species• Increased feeding efficiency• Low-energy, fuel-efficient fishing Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Adaptation – Human Settlements and Disasters• Building on stilts• More secure structures (cross beams for high winds)• Secure harvest storage facilities – Conserving seed by mixing with ash – High ground facilities for animals Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Mitigation – Energy and Settlements• Keep the lid on the pot when boiling water• Replant seedlings when cutting down fuel wood• Insulating the dwelling to reduce wastage from heating Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Demonstration of exercise: Encouraging collective action. Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Exercise: Gender differences in selected adaptation options Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Climate Food security Adaptation resiliencecoping Climate change Gender equality gender mitigation Gender equity Greenhouse gas vulnerability Uncertainty Extreme weather event Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • EVALUATION(PART 9 IN THE MANUAL) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Why evaluate your CEW?• To get feedback on the training course content, the arrangements and structure of the course and to find out whether participants found the course useful or not (to make adjustments for the future)• To determine whether participants have learnt something from the course, as well as whether or not they have been able to turn the information they learnt at the course into knowledge (i.e. they have been able to apply the concepts taught) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • How to evaluate your CEW• Initial expectations• Feedback on the course can be done at the time of the CEW, and can be structured in the form of questions everyone answers• Feedback on what participants learnt must be done some time after the CEW, and requires a more reflexive and qualitative approach (because there may have been changes that we cannot predict) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Evaluation at the end of the CEW• If participants can read and write, then can fill in the questionnaires themselves• If not, you will need to facilitate a discussion where you get an answer to each question from each participant (in this circumstance fewer questions can be asked – they are highlighted in the manual)• Any other ideas for evaluation in less-than- ideal circumstances? Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Longer-term evaluation – 3 and 6 months• To determine how participants have used the information – either through sharing with others or making changes in their own lives• Visit in their own homes (so they can demonstrate)• More open-ended and qualitative (cannot be prescriptive about what participants might say)• Complete template (for easy recording of data) Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Principles of qualitative research• “the purpose of interviewing is to find out what is in and on someone else’s mind. We interview people to find out from them those things we cannot directly observe” (M.Q. Patton, 1980).• Hard work for interviewer – Must steer the dialogue to meet aims – Must be responsive to what the interviewee says – Need to be aware of bias Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Ethical considerations• With a longitudinal approach, cannot be anonymous, but you can assure participants of the confidentiality of their data• Keep names (for comparability) – when you provide back to CCAFS you can give proxies, e.g. person A, person B Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • How you ask the questions is importantWho has witnessed the manifestations of Who has noticed that rainfall patternsclimate change? are changing? Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Role Play Exercise: Completing the evaluation after 3 or 6 monthsDivide into pairs. One person will play the role of a workshop participant who has undergone training. The other will playthe role of the person performing the evaluation, having the opportunity to ask the questions and record answers accordingly. Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Analysing results• Coding – Way of analysing qualitative data so that themes appear• Use coloured pens/highlighters to mark similar themes when they re-appear Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Exercise: Coding Using the examples of data recorded in the previousexercise, we will demonstrate and discuss coding as a group. In keeping with the nature of qualitative research, it often creates much discussion as there is more subjectivity involved in devising codes than for quantitative data. Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011
  • Contact detailskatharine@kulima.com, tracy@kulima.comKulima Integrated Development SolutionsPostnet Suite H79Private Bag x9118Pietermaritzburg3200South Africa+27 33 343 3066 Gender, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security Training of Trainers New Delhi, November 2011