Participatory development of adaptation and mitigation technologies and practices in Africa


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The climate-smart village : a model developed by CCAFS program to improve the adaptive capacity of communities
Presented by Dr Jules Bayala, World Agroforestry Centre at Africa Agriculture Science Week 6, 15 July 2013, Accra, Ghana.

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Participatory development of adaptation and mitigation technologies and practices in Africa

  1. 1. Participatory development of adaptation and mitigation technologies and practices in East and West Africa Presenter: Bayala J. (ICRAF) FARA Science week CCAFS side Event Accra 15 July 2013
  2. 2. Objectives of the PAR •  To test and validate a scalable climate-smart model for agricultural development that integrates a range of innovative agricultural risk management strategies •  To enable key actors (farmers, developers and managers of agricultural carbon, and policy makers) to develop cost-effective options for agricultural mitigation that support local sustainable development, especially related to food security and climate change adaptation •  To build African project managers capacity for institutional analysis and design for agricultural carbon projects •  To enable rigorous tracking of institutional changes and impacts over time.
  3. 3. •  Climate-smart agriculture includes proven practical techniques - such as mulching, intercropping, conservation agriculture, crop rotation, integrated crop-livestock management, agroforestry, improved grazing, and improved water management - but also innovative practices such as better weather forecasting, early warning systems and risk insurance. •  Climate-smart agriculture is about getting existing technologies off the shelf and into the hands of farmers and developing new technologies such as drought or flood tolerant crops to meet the demands of the changing climate. •  It is also about creating an enabling policy environment for adaptation. Climate-smart agriculture technologies and practices
  4. 4. Climate variability Climate change Rains start late or earlier Drought, floods, pest and diseases Human pressure Production needs to increase by 70% to feed 9 billion people Poor crop, less food and less income Decrease in vegetation cover Land and soil degradation Climate forecast Climate analogs Water harvesting - Crop varieties – Species transfer - zero grazing – on-farm trees Exit strategy: NGOs, extension PM&E:changeinbehavior Conduciveenvironment(policyandmarket) Global problem analysis
  5. 5. From participatory planning: • Iden%fy  major  climate  risks,  constraints,   opportuni%es  and  resources;   • Map  vulnerability  of  various  groups;   • Define  &  develop  partnerships  needed   (technical  support  units,  Village  local   commiBees…)  to  achieve  the  common   defined  vision;   • Iden%fy  technological  op%ons  for  on-­‐farm   tes%ng  and  demonstra%on.   Participatory action research in West Africa
  6. 6. ….to ground testing of climate-smart agriculture innovations with communities •  Combina%ons  of  minimum  %llage-­‐crop   rota%ons-­‐organic  and  inorganic  fer%lizers   (micro-­‐dosing);     •  Zaï,  half-­‐moons,  stone  bunds  -­‐  assisted   natural  tree  regenera%on;   •  Tree  plan%ng  for  woodlots  and  fruits;   •  Intercropping  sesame/cowpea/  sorghum/ Hibiscus/Okra   •  Jatropha  curcas  produc%on  in  associa%on   with  cereal  crops…….  
  7. 7. …to capacity & partnership development for up- scaling climate-smart village models •  Train  researchers  on  approaches,   methods,  and  tools  needed  for  ac%on   research;   •  Train  technical  support  units  in  sites  to   insure  sound  implementa%on,  monitoring   and  repor%ng  of  the  PAR  results;   •  Mobilize  na%onal  plaSorms  (scien%sts  &   policy  makers)  for  linking  na%onal  priority   needs  with  sub-­‐na%onal  level  experiences   and  specific  enabling  condi%ons.    
  8. 8. Activities   Burkina  Faso     Ghana     Mali     Weather  forecast   Climate   information   delivery     Climate   information   delivery     Climate   information   delivery     Baseline  studies   (including  socio-­‐ economic)   Baseline  carbon   stock  evaluation   for  all   technologies   tested     Baseline  carbon   stock  evaluation  for   all  technologies   tested     Baseline  carbon   stock  evaluation   for  all   technologies   tested     Water  harvesting   Zaï-­‐Assisted   natural   regeneration     Minimum  tillage-­‐ Rotation-­‐ISFM     Water   conservation  and   microdose     Land  and   vegetation   restoration   Vegetation   cover   regeneration   through  tree   planting     Tree  species  for   wood  production   and  fruit           Introducing   Moringa   oleifera     Off  season   gardening         Variety  testing   for  adaptation   Improved   varieties  of   Maize     Maize  varieties   testing           Sesame   varieties  testing     Testing  sweet   sorghum  genotypes   from  ICRISAT     Testing  of  millet   varieties       Cowpea   varieties  testing     Cowpea  varieties   testing         Mitigation   options  testing   (including  GHGs   monitoring)       Design  sustainable   Jatropha   production  systems     Develop   sustainable   Jatropha   production   systems     Examples of field tests conducted with farmers
  9. 9. Activities   Burkina  Faso     Ghana     Mali     Capacity  building   1  student  from   professional   school     1  MSc  student  KUK     1  student  of    UPB,   Burkina  Faso           Participatory  video   filming               A  climate  change   adaptation   committee  formed   to  supervise  the   implementation  of   activities     Training  of   farmers  on  SWC   techniques     P.  M&E   National  team   trained  by  IUCN   on  the  tools  for   PM&E  and   applied  them     Ghana  team  was   trained  by  IUCN  on   the  tools  for  PM&E     Mali  to  be  trained   by  IUCN  on  the   tools  for  PM&E     Information   dissemination   Farmers’  field   days     Farmers’  field  days     Farmers’  field   days       Partnership   INERA,  TreeAid,   BIBIR,  IUCN,   Agrhymet,  local   authorities     SARI,  MoFA,   Langmaal  Center,   Prolinova,  IUCN,   Agrhymet,  local   authorities     IER,  AMEDD,   IUCN,  Agrhymet,   local  authorities     Change  in   behaviour   Change  in   behaviour               Examples of field tests conducted with farmers
  10. 10. •  Contributes to one of CCAFS objectives: Identify and test innovations in partnership with rural communities that enable them to better manage climate-related risk and build more resilient livelihoods •  The project aimed to address climate change through participatory testing of improved varieties “drought tolerant” bean varieties with farmers in selected sites in Hoima and Rakai district, Uganda –  Identify varieties adapted to specific and wide climatic scenarios –  Understand trade offs of different traits under varying socio- economic circumstances Participatory evaluation of drought tolerant bean varieties in Uganda
  11. 11. Roles of different stakeholders in the project CIAT/NARO-NaCRRI •  Provide seed for the trails •  Train in crop management •  Guide famers in trail layout and planting •  Monitoring and coordinate the trail with different stakeholders •  Avail simple implements and inputs for the trails (e.g., rain gauge, paper bags, plot labels and any other input deemed necessary for the success of the trail) Farmer Groups •  Directly implement the project •  Provide and prepare the land for the trails •  Conduct the planting, and general crop and trail management •  Keep records and any activity done and any observations seen on the trails •  Maintain a day to day record book on the trails •  Make a report on the trial and performance of the individual varieties Local government (LC chairperson(s) and councilors —  Mobilization of farmers —  Monitor the trails —  Give advise to famers groups —  Provide any assistance as the sub- county budget may allow Community development officers and technocrats (extension workers, NGOs) —  Provide technical advise on crop production —  Harmonize groups to work together —  Monitor the activities —  Mobilize farmers to engage in the project —  Link the project with the different stakeholders —  Assessment of the trials and make a report
  12. 12. Identifying pro-poor mitigation options for smallholder agriculture in the developing world: a multi-criteria and across-scales assessment Develop  a  low-­‐cost  protocol  to  quan2fy  greenhouse  gas   emissions  and  to  iden2fy  mi2ga2on  op2ons  for   smallholders  at  whole-­‐farm  and  landscape  levels   The  goal  
  13. 13. Capacity  building   Landscape  analysis   and  targe2ng   Landscape   implementa2on   Mul2-­‐dimensional  evalua2on  of   mi2ga2on  op2ons   Scalable  and  social  acceptable     mi2ga2on  op2ons   System-­‐level  es2ma2on  of   mi2ga2on  poten2al     Set-­‐up  of  state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art   laboratory  facili2es   Training  of  laboratory   and  field  staff   Phase  III:   Development  of  systems-­‐level   mi2ga2on  op2ons   Phase  I:    Targe2ng,  priority  seFng  and  infrastructure   Phase  II:    Data  acquisi2on   Phase  IV:   Implementa2on  with   development  partners   Produc2vity   assessment   GHG     measurements   Profitability   evalua2on   Social  acceptability   assessment   Joint   scien2fic  &   stakeholder   evalua2on  
  14. 14. Step  5.  Intepreta2on  and   upscaling   30 Oct 4 Nov 9 Nov 14 Nov 19 Nov 24 Nov 29 Nov 0 25 50 75 100 250 500 N2 Oflux[µgNm -2 h -1 ] 2012 0 25 50 75 100 250 500 0 25 50 75 100 250 500 Cropland Grassland individual chambers gas pooling Forest Temporal  variability  of  N2O   fluxes   at   three   sites   differing   in   land   use   at   Maseno,  Kenya.     Synthesis  of  GHG  measurements:  informa%on  useful  to  derive  emission  factors,   empirical  models,  calibra%ng  and  valida%ng  of  detailed  models     Upscaling:  using  the  targe%ng  approach  (assigning  emissions  to  landscape  elements)   and/or  of  GIS  coupled  biogeochemical  models  
  15. 15. What is new? •  New agriculture responsive to: food security, adapting to CC & CC mitigation •  Integrate the use of climate information and climate risk management at community level •  Research on processes about change in behaviour •  Looking at a set of innovations rather than a single technology performance •  Looking beyond the program lifetime: self- reproduction
  16. 16. Contributors •  Bayala J., Ky-Dembele C., Kalinganire A. (ICRAF) •  Zougmoré R., Moussa A.(CCAFS-ICRISAT) •  Mukankusi C.M., Nkalubo S., Katungi E., Luyima G. (CIAT-NACRRI) •  Rufino M., Rosenstock T., Wollenberg L., Butterbach- Bahl K. (IITA) •  Bationo B.A. (INERA-Burkina Faso) •  Buah S. (SARI-Ghana) •  Traoré K. (IER-Mali) •  Tougiani A. (INRAN-Niger) •  Badiane Y.N. (ISRA-Senegal)
  17. 17. Thank you very much