Implications of Government Policies in South
Asian Countries on Climate Change Adaptation,
Mitigation and Resilience in Ag...
Outline
Background
 National level policies and programs
 Impact indicators and approach






Mitigation, adaptation...
I
Background

International Food Policy Research Institute
Global Hunger Index: Country performance by severity

Alarming or extremely alarming levels of hunger in 29 countries
Inte...
Concept of climate smart agriculture (Source: Aggarwal 2010)

Nitrogen
smart
Policy
smart

Knowledge

Water
smart



Cli...
II
National level policies and programs

International Food Policy Research Institute
Broad national policy initiatives for climate change
and sustainable agriculture in South Asia

National Action Plan for C...
National Action Plan on Climate Change:
India and Pakistan


8 Missions have been constituted













Natio...
Common features of climate change related
policies in South Asia







Unlike global climate policy, which does not f...
Priority “adaptation” focus in agriculture


Strengthening food security programs




Diversifying crops and introducin...
Core agriculture policies in South Asian
countries
Improved seeds, fertilizer, irrigation expansion,
watershed development...
III
Impact indicators and approaches

International Food Policy Research Institute
Impact indicators of past agricultural policies


Mitigation




Adaptation




Change in number of people able to se...
IV
Impact of government policies and
programs

International Food Policy Research Institute
Changes in GHG emissions due to policies and
technologies
Food grain area, m ha

200

150

165
127
127

123

178
122

100
...
An illustration: benefits of micro-irrigation
Item

20%

40%

Water saving, M ha m
- Current area (3.87 ha)
- Potential ar...
Impact of policies on climate change mitigation,
adaptation, resilience and sustainability in agriculture
Mitigation

Adap...
V
Way forward

International Food Policy Research Institute
Way forward


Improve water management policies









Fertilizer policy






Change canal management system
...
Policy challenges
Policy paralysis
& uncertainty

Appeasing
policies
Weak governance

Weak capacity
Powerful
bureaucracy
I...
V
Conclusions

International Food Policy Research Institute
Conclusion
Policies made both positive and negative impacts
 Water is a major issue of concern






Water made signif...
Policies, technologies and
institutions need attention
for a win-win solution
Thank you

International Food Policy Researc...
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Impact of government policies,programs on climate change adaptation, mitigation, and resilience in agriculture in South Asia

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Presentation by PK Joshi, International Food Policy Research Institute, at the CCAFS Workshop on Institutions and Policies to Scale out Climate Smart Agriculture held between 2-5 December 2013, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

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Impact of government policies,programs on climate change adaptation, mitigation, and resilience in agriculture in South Asia

  1. 1. Implications of Government Policies in South Asian Countries on Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation and Resilience in Agriculture N K Tyagi, Pramod K Aggarwal, P K Joshi and Divya Pandey International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) NASC Complex, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 India E-mail: p.joshi@cgiar.org
  2. 2. Outline Background  National level policies and programs  Impact indicators and approach    Mitigation, adaptation, resilience and sustainability Impact of government policies and programs  Climate change adaptation, mitigation and resilience Way forward  Conclusions  International Food Policy Research Institute
  3. 3. I Background International Food Policy Research Institute
  4. 4. Global Hunger Index: Country performance by severity Alarming or extremely alarming levels of hunger in 29 countries International Food Policy Research Institute
  5. 5. Concept of climate smart agriculture (Source: Aggarwal 2010)  Nitrogen smart Policy smart Knowledge Water smart  Climate Smart Energy smart smart  Weather smart Carbon smart International Food Policy Research Institute Climate smart interventions (FAO)  Adapting/mitigating climate change  Ensure reducing the risk arising due to climate change  Augmenting farm income. Triple wins (World Bank)  Higher yields, more carbon sequestration, and greater resilience to heat and drought Feasible interventions  Resource endowments  Capacity indicators
  6. 6. II National level policies and programs International Food Policy Research Institute
  7. 7. Broad national policy initiatives for climate change and sustainable agriculture in South Asia National Action Plan for Climate Change  National Environment Policy  National Agricultural Policy  National Water Policy  National Disaster Management Policy  National Forest Policy  National Livestock Policy  International Food Policy Research Institute
  8. 8. National Action Plan on Climate Change: India and Pakistan  8 Missions have been constituted          National Solar Mission National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency National Mission for Sustainable Habitat National Water Mission National Mission for Sustainability of Himalaya Eco-system National Mission for the Green India National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture National Mission for Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change Pakistan’s Climate Change Policy- 2013  Focus towards adaptation efforts and makes agriculture more resilient and sustainable. International Food Policy Research Institute
  9. 9. Common features of climate change related policies in South Asia     Unlike global climate policy, which does not focus on agriculture, South Asian countries have emphasized policies for adapting to climate change on agriculture.  In the absence of legislation, national action plans (NAPs) are currently the most common instrument for adaptation policies The NAPs of all the South Asian countries specially mention the need to address the concerns of the farming community and rural poor as one of the guiding principles of climate policy. Subsidies have been a mechanism for promoting adaptation in economic development programs. While policy statements are often elaborate, mechanisms for putting them into practice are often missing.  This is particularly true for funding adaptation and mitigation programs. International Food Policy Research Institute
  10. 10. Priority “adaptation” focus in agriculture  Strengthening food security programs   Diversifying crops and introducing stress tolerant commodities Improving water management  Drinking and agriculture Improving land and land use management  Enhancing coastal zone management  Building capacity and strengthening institutions  Raising public awareness  International Food Policy Research Institute
  11. 11. Core agriculture policies in South Asian countries Improved seeds, fertilizer, irrigation expansion, watershed development, provision of insurance and weather forecast  Subsidies more pronounced (except Sri Lanka)  Groundwater development is largely private    Electricity for pumping is highly subsidized Micro financing to reduce vulnerability to climate change in Bangladesh  Proshika and Grameen International Food Policy Research Institute
  12. 12. III Impact indicators and approaches International Food Policy Research Institute
  13. 13. Impact indicators of past agricultural policies  Mitigation   Adaptation   Change in number of people able to secure food grains between 1990 and 2010 Resilience   Change in GHG emission between 1990 and 2010 Change in variance of food production between 1990/95 and 2005/2010 Sustainability  Ratio of water withdrawal and renewable water International Food Policy Research Institute
  14. 14. IV Impact of government policies and programs International Food Policy Research Institute
  15. 15. Changes in GHG emissions due to policies and technologies Food grain area, m ha 200 150 165 127 127 123 178 122 100  0 0 1990 Policies 2000 2010 Area change  200 262 240 180 180 176  69 64 100 0 Policies 2000 Base 1990 2010 Emission change International Food Policy Research Institute 1990-2000: -60.53 Mt CO2e 1990-2010: -100.64 MtCO2e Change in emission   0 1990  193 1.42 t/ha in 1990 to 1.73 t/ha in 2010 Change in emissions  Emissions, MtCO2e 151 mt in 1990 to 212 mt in 2010 Food grain yields  Base 1990 300 Food grain production  56 42 50  1990-2000: -33% 1990-2010: -56%
  16. 16. An illustration: benefits of micro-irrigation Item 20% 40% Water saving, M ha m - Current area (3.87 ha) - Potential area (42 m ha) 0.49 6.51 1.47 13.2 Food production, m t - Current area (3.87 ha) - Potential area (42 m ha) 2.52 25.2 4.64 50.4 Food availability, kg/capita-year - Current area (3.87 ha) - Potential area (42 m ha) 2.08 22.57 4.16 45.15 Reduction in GHG emission, MtCO2e - Current area (3.87 ha) - Potential area (42 m ha) 3.70 40.20 7.61 80.40 International Food Policy Research Institute
  17. 17. Impact of policies on climate change mitigation, adaptation, resilience and sustainability in agriculture Mitigation Adaptation Resilience Sustai’lity Excellent (-47.82) Fair (9.1) High Low Fair (- 3.70) Fair (2.08) High Fair (GWAR: 0.95) - Potential Excellent (- 80.40) Excellent (45.15) High Good (GWAR: 0.80) GW-energy Fair (- 10.29) High Very low (GWAR: > 1) High Low (N:P:K) (MtCO2e) Irrigation Micro-irri - Current Fertilizer Very poor (+ 36.2) (% increase Kg/capita-1) Fair (4.50) (Variance in production) GWAR: Groundwater Abstraction Ratio (Ratio of groundwater withdrawal to groundwater availability) International Food Policy Research Institute
  18. 18. V Way forward International Food Policy Research Institute
  19. 19. Way forward  Improve water management policies      Fertilizer policy     Change canal management system Rationalize canal water pricing Promote adoption of water smart technologies Revise groundwater regulation Rationalize fertilizer pricing and subsidies Promote integrated nutrient management Policies to promote balance nutrient use Energy policy   Electricity pricing Promote energy efficient devices (solar or micro-irrigation) International Food Policy Research Institute
  20. 20. Policy challenges Policy paralysis & uncertainty Appeasing policies Weak governance Weak capacity Powerful bureaucracy International Food Policy Research Institute • Political uncertainty • High cost that obstruct reforms • Policy gaps • Policy analysis and execution • Controls, regulations and delays
  21. 21. V Conclusions International Food Policy Research Institute
  22. 22. Conclusion Policies made both positive and negative impacts  Water is a major issue of concern    Water made significant contribution in South Asia   Adaptation, mitigation, resilience and sustainability Water policies are being messed-up   Drought or flood or fall /rise in water table Needs serious attention to correct for improving efficiency Need to enhance capacity of different stakeholders  Policy analysis, formulation and implementation International Food Policy Research Institute
  23. 23. Policies, technologies and institutions need attention for a win-win solution Thank you International Food Policy Research Institute
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