“Key questions for a gender-focused climate change research program” Jacqueline Ashby Senior Advisor, Gender and Research CGIAR ConsortiumArtist: Ashley Cecil; image on Flickr by Piotr Fajfer Oxfam International
CGIAR Consortium Gender Strategy (Dec. 2011)Objective• To improve the relevance of the CGIARs research to poor women as well as men (reduced poverty and hunger, improved health and environmental resilience) in all the geographical areas where the work is implemented and targeted by end of 2012.• By 2015 progress towards these outcomes will be measurable.
CGIAR Consortium Gender StrategyObjective Deliverables• To improve the relevance • All CRPs have an explicit of the CGIARs research to gener strategy that is poor women as well as implemented within 6 men (reduced poverty and months of their inception hunger, improved health • Research outputs in all and environmental CRPs bring demonstrable resilience) in all the and measurable benefits geographical areas where to women farmers in the work is implemented target areas within 4 and targeted by end of years following inception 2012. of the CRP.• By 2015 progress towards • By 2014 Staff training these outcomes will be and strategic partnerships measurable. ensure all CRPs have sufficient gender expertise.
CCAFS’ Gender Strategy (Feb. 2012) Central, strategic question “Which climate- smart agricultural practices and interventions are most likely to benefit women in particular, where, how and why?”
Topics • The “gender gap” • What questions to ask about gender? • When in the research process to ask these questions? • Strategies and tools for seeking answersMali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the NigerRiver (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) In most regions of the world, one out of five farms is headed by a women Women comprise about 40% of people working on farms in low- income countriesMali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the NigerRiver (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) Inequalities between women and men that: • hold back agricultural productivity (yield gaps of 20-25%) • perpetuate poverty and unsustainable resource use • make women more vulnerable to climate- change impacts on agriculture • are obstacles to CGIAR impactMali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the NigerRiver (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) Pervasive inequalities between women and men in: • Assets for agriculture --land, water, trees, fisheries, livestock, especially insecure property rights • Labor markets • Access to services- financial, advisory, business development • Knowledge and skills • Technology • Organization • Supportive institutions andMali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the Niger policyRiver (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
Framework :how the gender gapaffects development outcomes. Women’s Agricultural Empowerment Context: Ecological, Social, Economic, Political factors, etc. Shocks Consumption Livelihood Assets Strategies Full Incomes Well-being Savings/ Investment Legend: Women Joint Men
The Women’s Empowerment Index (WEAI) Measures women’s control over (1) decisions about farming and agricultural production (2) power over resources like land and livestock (3) control over spending and income (4) leadership in the community (5) time use. • Parity of control within the household • Developed by USAID, IFPRI & OPHI (Oxford)
Climate-smart interventions can: • Improve gender equity • Benefit poor women as well as poor men • “Do no harm”- avoid making inequities worse • Widen the gender gap by privileging menPhoto P. Casier (CGIAR).
Risks of ignoring the gender gap • Women don’t buy into proposed adaptation strategies if technologies are inappropriate (eg. more labor intensive) • Women don’t access or use climate information • Women oppose or cannot invest in mitigation practicesPhoto P. Casier (CGIAR).
Framing relevant questions • Mind the gap! – “must ask” questions that detect basic gender differences • Approach gender as one aspect of social stratification and differentiation
CCAFS’ strategic gender question: • “Which climate-smart agricultural practices and interventions are most likely to benefit women in particular, where, how and why?” > Climate smartness depends on how men and women users’ make tradeoffs among short-term and long-term gains
Mind the gap!Between men and women • Inequalities mean tradeoffs between short-term gains (food security or income) and long- term adaptation and mitigation may be different for women than for men • Costs of adoption may be different for men and women
Mind the gap!Between men and women Key question How do perceptions of risk and of tradeoffs between long and short term gain differ for women versus men ?
“Must ask” questions for discerning gender effects on agriculture: comparing men and women. • Who owns or controls the assets? • Who does the work? • Who makes the decisions? • Who captures what share of the benefits? • Who is able to participate?
Mind the gap!Within households • Households do not have a unified set of objectives or a single decision- maker • Adoption decisions involve bargaining among competing interests within the household
“Must ask”questions for discerning gender effects on agriculture: men and women within households. • Who owns or controls the assets? • Who does the work? • Who makes the decisions? • Who captures what share of the benefits? • Who is able to participate?
Mind the gap!Within Communities • There is no such thing as “the community” • Rural communities are deeply stratified • Women in different social strata do not have the same interests
Social Stratification • Gender is just one facet of social stratification in rural populations • i.e. differences between the “haves” and the “have-nots”
Social stratification of rural men and women• Landless laborers• Semi-landless• “Landed poor” (who lack capital)• Semi-commercial small producers or traders• Commercially viable small producers or traders in local markets• Industrial-scale or export-oriented producer groups
“Must ask”questions for discerning gender effects on agriculture:men and women within different social strata. • Who owns or controls the assets? • Who does the work? • Who makes the decisions? • Who captures what share of the benefits (consumption, investment, wellbeing)? • Who is able to participate?
Key question reframed How do perceptions of risk and of tradeoffs between long and short term gain differ between men and women in different social strata ?Photo
Questions posed through the research cycle • Unpack the reframed key question • Define sub- questions to ask progressively through the research cycle
Gender in the research cycle (not pipeline) Planning Evaluation Discovery Testing and development
1. Improve targeting• Gender differences require us to seek the gender and socially- disaggregated information needed to characterize beneficiaries of research more accurately• What are our intended beneficiary groups (men and women in which social strata of the rural population)?
Defining CCAFS’ intended beneficiary groups will be fundamental to achieving impact for climate-smart agricultural interventions:• Shotgun approach = poorly defined beneficiary groups “small farmers” “women” “communities”• Leads to a weak, “generic” theory of change, confounded effects and interventions with confusing social outcomes• Why some men and women adopt new practices and others do not remains opaque – Farm size? Assets? Empowerment?
Defining CCAFS’ intended beneficiary groups will be fundamental to achieving impact for climate-smart agricultural interventions:Beneficiary groups that are differentiated socially and gender-wise provide clear “recommendation domains”• Interventions can be tailored to suit a given group and tested with them• Probabilities of successful impact increase• Easier to interpret success and failure• Approach commonly used in the health and education sectors
2.Understand constraints• Planning requires information on how gender and other social differences affect resilience as well as exposure and sensitivity to threats• How do gender differences influence the vulnerability and empowerment of different intended beneficiary groups to climate-change in agriculture?
Case – Tanzania village studies• The increasing unpredictability of the rainfall season has led to more people having to use oxen ploughs.• Ploughing land using oxen is much faster than by hand, and this speed allows maximum use of the shortened, often intermittent rainy period for crop production.• The poorest households can rarely afford to plough using oxen, and the wealthier owners prepare their own fields first. Poorer women struggle with increases in demand for their labor and increased costs for hiring oxen ploughsNelson & Stathers (2009)
3.Identify decision-making criteria and scenarios• Discovery research needs information about how men and women in different social beneficiary groups perceive risks and the payoff to different climate-smart options• How do gender differences influence the kinds of incentives people in different beneficiary groups face and the tradeoffs they are prpared to make?
Case –Tanzania village studies• Rainy season is now much shorter.• Farmers in two villages studied adapted by growing more drought-tolerant crops, faster-maturing sorghum varieties, sesame and sunflower have been introduced• Grain is typically sold by men, and women are less likely than men to control the cash that is received.• Switches in crops grown in response to drought has led to increased marketing of traditional food crops, sorghum and maize, which are grown by women and increases their workloads• Women do not benefit from the profits.• Increased sale of groundnuts, bambara nuts, and cowpeas traditionally sold by women is providing women with more access to, and control of, income.• The introduction of sesame and sunflower increased income, but control of this cash is not always shared and these crops have led to more weeding work for women.Nelson & Stathers (2009)
4. Understand innovation strategies• Development and testing need information on how gender and social difference affect actual responses to interventions• How may gender differences influence the innovation strategies to reach intended beneficiary groups?
5. Evaluation- micro level (field site)• How have different dimensions of the gender gap changed?• Use the checklist of “must-have” questions about gender differences• CCAFS Gender manual and training• Many methods and tools are available
5. Evaluation- macro-level • What changes have occurred in women’s empowerment ? ( an intermediate outcome) • Have changes occurred in the distribution of assets, income, investment, consumption and wellbeing ? (using the framework for gender effects) Useful tool: The Women’s Empowerment Index
Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index Survey Instrument
WEAI measures empowerment in: • Individuals • Groups • Areas • e.g. in pilot areas in Bangladesh shows 31.9 percent of women are empowered
Sources of low empowerment: • In the Bangladesh sample areas lack of control over resources, weak leadership, low influence in the community and lack of control over income are the most important contributors to low empowermentWEAI Survey pilot areas in Bangladesh
Generating data • Mind the gap! Filter all proposed interventions through the basic set of questions about gender differences • Improve the gender and agriculture data collection and information system (CRP2 Policies)
Generating data • Focus effort in sentinel sites where a combined investment in gathering information on gender can be efficient
Generating data • Consider large scale, policy- oriented experiments to pilot interventions with beneficiary groups that are differentiated socially and gender-wise from the start