Transcript of "CCAFS Science Meeting Item 05 Vladimir Smakhtin - Water storage"
WATER STORAGE FOR CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENT VLADIMIR SMAKHTIN International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka Third Annual CCAFS Science Workshop Copenhagen, Denmark, 1 May 2012
WATER SCARCITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE1/3 of the world’s population live for basins that have to deal with water scarcity Water in a food-secure world
MANAGING VARIABILITY• Climate Change impacts, in the water sector, manifest themselves through increasing variability• The best way to adapt for Tomorrow is to improve our ability to deal with water resources variability - Today• Managing Variability in river basins is largely about storing as much water as possible, in as environmentally and socially acceptable way as possible Water for a food-secure world
WATER STORAGE CONTINUUM Water for a food-secure world
RE-THINKING LARGE STORAGEEthiopia GDP vs Rain Storage per capita Water for a food-secure world
RE-THINKING LARGE STORAGEDams can be constructed and operated in ways thatoptimize benefits for all, including ripariancommunities and environment• Incorporate livelihoods’ options into large reservoir planning and operation• Quantify and implement the required environmental releases Water for a food-secure world
EVALUATING STORAGE OPTIONSBasin scale analyses Site level analysesEvaluation of climate change Understanding storage at the localimpacts on storage at basin scale (economic, socio-political aspects)(Hydro and WR Models) Evaluation metrics to assist in planning and management of storage Water for a food-secure world
MAPPING THE NEED FOR STORAGE Livestock storage need Based on Poor rural population density, Livestock density, amount of rainfall, variability of rainfall Water for a food-secure world
FOCUSING ON GROUNDWATER Water for a food-secure world
GROUNDWATER AS ADAPTATION OPTION –India Groundwater use in Asia District-wise stage of GW development (%) India USA China Bang., PakW. Europe VN, SL Source: CGWB, 2004 Water for a food-secure world
GROUNDWATER AS ADAPTATION OPTION –India Managed Aquifer Recharge vs other storage options Measurable criteria Small Large Managed Surface Dams Aquifers Storage Water where needed 3 2 5 Water when needed 1 2 5 Level of water control 1 2 5 Non-beneficial losses –e.g. -4 -2 -1 evaporation Protection against a single 1 2 5 annual drought Protection against -1 1 4 successive droughts Ease of recovery during 5 4 3 monsoon Other Water for a food-secure world
STORING FLOODSCurrent Situation – Dry Season Water for a food-secure world
STORING FLOODSCurrent Situation – Wet Season Water for a food-secure world
STORING FLOODSPossible Future – Wet Season Water for a food-secure world
STORING FLOODSSubsurface SolutionWater for a food-secure world
STORING FLOODSChao Phraya River Basin, Thailand Harvest Floods Do Not Harvest Water for a food-secure world
STORING FLOODS Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand• 5700 MCM/year - harvestable – around 15% of mean annual river flow• About 200 km2 dedicated area to Managed Aquifer Recharge• Additional 270,000 ha can be irrigated• $200 M+ /year income to smallholder farmers• No precedents so far: detailed technical and institutional studies needed• Analyze this: if only 15% of India total flow is harvested similarly, it could increase its national water supply by 285 km3 – half of India’s total current water withdrawal Water for a food-secure world
THANK YOU • Paul Pavelic (IWMI, India) • Lisa-Maria Rebelo (IWMI-Laos) • Matthew McCartney (IWMI-Ethiopia) • Tushaar Shah (IWMI, India) • Aditi Mukherji (IWMI, India) • Nishadi Eriyagama (IWMI, Sri Lanka) • Prathapar Sanmugam (IWMI, India) IWMI CLIMATE CHANGE WEB SITE :www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Topics/Climate_Change/default.aspx 18 Water for a food-secure world
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