Challenges and Opportunities for
Supporting Smallholder Farmers
through Climate Services – At Scale
James Hansen, Arame Ta...
What is CCAFS?

•  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR)
and global change (Future Earth) research co...
What is CCAFS?

•  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR)
and global change (Future Earth) research co...
What is CCAFS?

•  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR)
and global change (Future Earth) research co...
What is CCAFS?

•  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR)
and global change (Future Earth) research co...
The What and Why of Climate
Services
Message 1: Climate services can make
a contribution to climate-resilient
development ...
The cost of climate variability

•  Climate risk contributes to chronic

poverty, vulnerability, food insecurity

•  Downs...
The cost of climate variability

•  Climate risk contributes to chronic

poverty, vulnerability, food insecurity

•  Downs...
Examples

•  Adjusting farm management
•  Community-level DRR (flood, storms)
•  Characterize risks for agricultural techn...
From to Weather to Climate:
Seamless Early Warning > Early Action

•  Depends on time horizon of decision
•  Tillage	
  

...
From to Weather to Climate:
Seamless Early Warning > Early Action

•  Depends on time horizon of decision
•  Generalizatio...
Investing in Climate Services

Message 2: The right investment, leveraging
other efforts, can bring relevant climate
servi...
What other “soft investments”
will be needed?

• 

Salience: tailoring content, scale, format, lead-time to farm
decision-...
What else is needed?
Institutional arrangements

•  Limitations of supply-driven climate services

NMS
	
  
(climate)
	
  ...
What else is needed?
Institutional arrangements

•  Limitations of supply-driven climate services
•  Expand the boundary t...
What else is needed?
Institutional arrangements

•  Limitations of supply-driven climate services
•  Expand the boundary t...
CCAFS climate services experience

Message 3: CCAFS work to bring
climate services to smallholder
agriculture is an availa...
Piloting at Climate
Smart Villages

•  Learning laboratory
•  Improved information design
•  Workshop process
•  Evidence ...
Learning from national
agrometeorology programs

19
Tackling gender and social equity

•  Women disadvantaged

when scaling up climate
services. Answering:

•  Why?
•  How to...
Training for agricultural
extension, intermediaries

21
Evaluating impact

•  M&E protocol to measure added-value of

climate services projects to farmer communities

•  Good pra...
Climate information that
is useful to farmers

•  Historic + monitoring +
prediction

•  Scale problems
•  Challenges that...
Climate information that
is useful to farmers

STATION	
  

•  ENACTS (Enhancing National
Climate Services):

•  Started i...
25
26
27
28
29
30
Enables NMS to customize, generate and
disseminate locally relevant climate information
without over-taxing limited human ...
How to reach millions of farmers?

•  Address climate information supply, communication, use
• 

bottlenecks in parallel
I...
How to reach millions of farmers?
World Vision-Tanzania

• 

Serves ~1 M farmers +
pastoralists in Tanzania

• 

Addressin...
How to reach millions of farmers?
World Vision-Tanzania

• 

Serves ~1 M farmers +
pastoralists in Tanzania

• 

Addressin...
What CCAFS can bring you?

•  “Go-to place” for good practices, tools, methods,
lessons to inform investments and guide de...
Reaching Millions of Farmers with
Climate Services: Mission Possible

•  The time is right for climate services.
•  CCAFS ...
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Challenges and opportunities for supporting smallholder farmers with climate services, by Jim Hansen and Arame Tall, presentation at World Bank

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James Hansen and Arame Tall of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security research theme on Climate Risk Management, presented at the World Bank on the challenges and opportunities for supporting smallholder farmers with climate services on a large scale. Learn more about our work on climate services for farmers: http://bit.ly/KUV7Fa

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Challenges and opportunities for supporting smallholder farmers with climate services, by Jim Hansen and Arame Tall, presentation at World Bank

  1. 1. Challenges and Opportunities for Supporting Smallholder Farmers through Climate Services – At Scale James Hansen, Arame Tall World Bank, 23 January 2014 1
  2. 2. What is CCAFS? •  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR) and global change (Future Earth) research communities 2
  3. 3. What is CCAFS? •  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR) and global change (Future Earth) research communities •  World’s largest research program addressing the challenge of climate change and food security Ø  Mechanism for organizing, funding climate-related work across CGIAR Ø  Involves all 15 CGIAR Centers Ø  Outcome-focused 3
  4. 4. What is CCAFS? •  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR) and global change (Future Earth) research communities •  World’s largest research program addressing the challenge of climate change and food security •  5 target regions across the developing world •  Organized around 4 Themes: •  Adaptation to progressive change •  Adaptation through managing climate risk •  Pro-poor climate change mitigation •  Integration for decision-making 4
  5. 5. What is CCAFS? •  Strategic partnership of international agriculture (CGIAR) and global change (Future Earth) research communities •  World’s largest research program addressing the challenge of climate change and food security •  5 target regions across the developing world •  Organized around 4 Themes: •  Adaptation to progressive change •  Adaptation through managing climate risk •  Pro-poor climate change mitigation •  Integration for decision-making 5
  6. 6. The What and Why of Climate Services Message 1: Climate services can make a contribution to climate-resilient development investment. 6
  7. 7. The cost of climate variability •  Climate risk contributes to chronic poverty, vulnerability, food insecurity •  Downside risk: shocks •  Opportunity cost: uncertainty •  Affects farmers, markets, the food system, FORFEITED OPPORTUNITY HARDSHIP CRISIS Probability density the “relief trap” Climatic outcome (e.g. production, income) 7
  8. 8. The cost of climate variability •  Climate risk contributes to chronic poverty, vulnerability, food insecurity •  Downside risk: shocks •  Opportunity cost: uncertainty •  Affects farmers, markets, the food system, the “relief trap” •  Climate variability is increasing •  Several opportunities to help agriculture adapt are… •  Dependent on information •  Constrained by information gaps 8
  9. 9. Examples •  Adjusting farm management •  Community-level DRR (flood, storms) •  Characterize risks for agricultural technology •  Index-based insurance to protect assets, increase access to credit and inputs •  Government agricultural planning and budgeting •  Improve safety nets and food security interventions •  Understand climate change vs. natural variability vs. non-climatic changes to inform long-term planning 9
  10. 10. From to Weather to Climate: Seamless Early Warning > Early Action •  Depends on time horizon of decision •  Tillage   •  Land  alloca.on   •  Sowing   •  Crop  selec.on   •  Irriga.on   •  Crop  protec.on   •  Household  labor   alloca.on,  seasonal   migra.on   •  Harvest   •  Changing  farming  or   livelihood  system   •  Technology  selec.on   •  Major  capital   investment   •  Migra.on   •  Family  succession   •  Financing  for  inputs   •  Contract  farming   WEATHER HOURS DAYS WEEKS CLIMATE MONTHS YEARS DECADES … 10
  11. 11. From to Weather to Climate: Seamless Early Warning > Early Action •  Depends on time horizon of decision •  Generalizations about increasing lead time: •  Decisions more context- and farmer-specific •  Information becomes more uncertain, more complex •  Therefore the scope of services needed increases •  Climate services more than an extension of weather services WEATHER HOURS DAYS WEEKS CLIMATE MONTHS YEARS DECADES … 11
  12. 12. Investing in Climate Services Message 2: The right investment, leveraging other efforts, can bring relevant climate services to smallholder farmers – at scale 12
  13. 13. What other “soft investments” will be needed? •  Salience: tailoring content, scale, format, lead-time to farm decision-making •  •  Legitimacy: giving farmers an effective voice in design and delivery •  •  Access: providing timely access to remote rural communities with marginal infrastructure Equity: ensuring that women, poor, socially marginalized benefit Integration: climate services as part of a larger package of support 13
  14. 14. What else is needed? Institutional arrangements •  Limitations of supply-driven climate services NMS   (climate)   INFORMATION   User   (farmer)   CLIMATE SERVICE 14
  15. 15. What else is needed? Institutional arrangements •  Limitations of supply-driven climate services •  Expand the boundary to agricultural research and development organizations NMS   (climate)   PARTNERSHIP NARES   (agriculture)   VALUE-ADDED INFORMATION User   (farmer)   CLIMATE SERVICE 15
  16. 16. What else is needed? Institutional arrangements •  Limitations of supply-driven climate services •  Expand the boundary to agricultural research and development organizations •  Expand the boundaries to give farmers effective voice Co-­‐owner   (farmer)   NMS   (climate)   PARTNERSHIP NARES   (agriculture)   CLIMATE SERVICE 16
  17. 17. CCAFS climate services experience Message 3: CCAFS work to bring climate services to smallholder agriculture is an available resource. 17
  18. 18. Piloting at Climate Smart Villages •  Learning laboratory •  Improved information design •  Workshop process •  Evidence of what works •  Demand for scaling up 18
  19. 19. Learning from national agrometeorology programs 19
  20. 20. Tackling gender and social equity •  Women disadvantaged when scaling up climate services. Answering: •  Why? •  How to overcome? •  Gender challenges incorporated into training for intermediaries •  Climate services a proxy for “climate-smart” services for farmers 20
  21. 21. Training for agricultural extension, intermediaries 21
  22. 22. Evaluating impact •  M&E protocol to measure added-value of climate services projects to farmer communities •  Good practice guidance: •  Baseline collection •  Ongoing assessment for learning •  End of project impact assessment •  Locally-relevant tool •  Gender responsive Objectives  of  Assessment: 1.  Inform design of new climate services." 2.  Identify current gaps in effective climate service delivery for farmers." 3.  Quantify farmer benefit from investment 22
  23. 23. Climate information that is useful to farmers •  Historic + monitoring + prediction •  Scale problems •  Challenges that developing country NMS face: •  Sparse historic observations •  Data policy, incentives •  Human capacity ? •  Bringing climate science to farmer needs 23
  24. 24. Climate information that is useful to farmers STATION   •  ENACTS (Enhancing National Climate Services): •  Started in Ethiopia (IRI, U. BLENDED   Reading, NMA, CCAFS) •  Satellite + station, 10 km grid, 31 year complete record •  Data Library platform to build “maproom” products from data •  Owned, implemented by NMS SATELLITE   •  Generating information products useful for farmers 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Enables NMS to customize, generate and disseminate locally relevant climate information without over-taxing limited human resources. Transforming how African NMS do business. 31
  32. 32. How to reach millions of farmers? •  Address climate information supply, communication, use •  bottlenecks in parallel Improving information supply •  Low-hanging fruit for farmer-relevant climate information (e.g., •  ENACTS) Caution about investing in observing infrastructure alone •  Two-fold path to communication capacity: •  Equip organizations that already reach farmers with other services (e.g., agricultural extension, development NGOs, …) •  ICT and media – particularly for simpler, shorter-lead information •  Institutional coordination mechanisms •  Leverage broader climate services community 32
  33. 33. How to reach millions of farmers? World Vision-Tanzania •  Serves ~1 M farmers + pastoralists in Tanzania •  Addressing key bottlenecks: •  Capacity of TMA to provide farmer-relevant information •  World Vision human and ICT infrastructure •  Climate communication training for WV and extension 33
  34. 34. How to reach millions of farmers? World Vision-Tanzania •  Serves ~1 M farmers + pastoralists in Tanzania •  Addressing key bottlenecks: •  Capacity of TMA to provide farmer-relevant information •  WV human and ICT infrastructure •  Climate communication training for WV and extension GFCS in Tanzania, Malawi •  •  UN global process National Framework process to engage across government 34
  35. 35. What CCAFS can bring you? •  “Go-to place” for good practices, tools, methods, lessons to inform investments and guide design •  Connecting climate services to agricultural development •  Reaching “the last mile” •  Partner agricultural research with centers of excellence on climate science and services •  UN Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) •  Climate Services Partnership (CSP) •  Regional climate centers •  CCAFS Theme 2 hosted by IRI •  … 35
  36. 36. Reaching Millions of Farmers with Climate Services: Mission Possible •  The time is right for climate services. •  CCAFS aims to support partners to scale up relevant climate services for millions of farmers •  New CCAFS Flagship 2: Climate Services and Climate- Informed Safety Nets expands collaboration opportunity http://ccafs.cgiar.org/call-concept-notes-ccafs-flagships#.UqsFVvZByKc For  more  informa+on,  contact:   Jim  Hansen,  CCAFS  Flagship  2  Leader   jhansen@iri.columbia.edu   Arame  Tall,  Climate  Services  Coordinator   a.tall@cgiar.org   Women  Farmers  in  Amtrar,  Himachal  Pradesh  (India),   36 benefi.ng  from  agromet  advisories.    A.  Tall,  CCAFS  

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