IFPRI examined the factors that helped reduce child malnutrition by 15 percent in the developing world between 1970 and 1995, using panel data from a number of countries. The evidence shows that increases in women's education accounted for 43 percent of the total reduction in child malnutrition, by far the largest contribution. Improvements in women's status accounted for another 12 percent. Improvements in food availability came in a distant second to women's education, contributing 26 percent to the rate of reduction.
Men may migrate for work while women may spend more time collecting fuel and water, for example.
But there are great opportunities (where the ‘gender gap’ is starting to narrow, e.g. in places like Kenya and Tanz!) Increasingly, rural people are using cellphones to access market and other information that helps them adapt to a changing environment. Women own fewer cellphones than men do, however, and in places like Ethiopia, few households own them, period. In Kenya, however, almost of half of the female-headed hh’s surveyed in CCAFS’s baseline survey had cellphones. Further research is pursuing issues surrounding use of cellphones to make improved seasonal weather forecasts useful and used, by both women and men.
Climate analogues are places that are already experiencing your future predicted climate (they are based on rainfall and temperature model predictions for your place). Re: Climate-smart agricultural practices (changes in soil, land, water mgment practices that are both adaptive and mitigative): Farmers across the CCAFS sites in 12 countries and 3 regions are changing crops, varieties, animal breeds, and timing of farming activities and planting trees on farms, but very few are taking up the kinds of soil, land, water conservation and management practices that will be needed in the face of a changing climate! Actions that improve incentives for women to take these up are needed!!!
Fact on disasters fromIUCN/WEDO 2007Statement on ag productivity backed by a number of studies cited in the FAO “gender gap” SOFA 2011
What else to emphasize here???
Gender food security forests - presentation
Gender, foodsecurity, forests and climatechange
Women are not foresters or farmers – they are both, and moreAveragetime in a Sleep24 hourday – Leisure – social networkingsouthernZimbabwe Domestic work Woodlands Dryland crops Vegetable garden
Women managelivestock, crops and wild resources
Women as integratorsLivelihood strategies involvemultiple activities - choosingwhat to grow, raise, gather, orsell is never a decision made inisolation of other options
As an aside Therefore, Forestry cannot be decoupled from Agriculture REDD+ recognises “agriculture as a driver of deforestation” but has not thought through how to integrate forestry and agriculture to enhance livelihoods
Women‟s education and status are key to child nutrition The first 1000 days of a child‟s life are the most important in terms of their life-long health, well-being and performance Countries‟ successes in improving child nutrition are more strongly correlated with women‟s education and status (>50%) than with making food more available (36%)
Gender roles are linked to climate adaptation and mitigationGlobally, men and women tend to perform differentjobs/tasksClimate change will alter what they can do, exposingmen and women to different risks and opportunitiesMen and women have different access toresources, including physical (e.g markets), social(e.g. networks), financial (e.g. credit), natural (e.g.land, water)In times of change, they will have different optionsand „safety nets‟ for coping with change
Differing sets of knowledge and skillsMen may know which seeds to plant when theonset of rains is delayed; women may be able tojudge which tree species fare better in droughts
Yet, women often not as connected to theformal networks and information providers 80 % of households with access to cell phones 70 60 50 40 Male-headed 30 Female-headed 20 10 0 Kenya Tanzania Uganda Ethiopia
Recent findings regarding weather advisories• Daily weather forecasts are reaching both men and women, through radio for men and women in some places; through church and groups for women in most – but with limited use• Seasonal weather forecasts are rare, and the current format is problematic for smallholders to understand and use Source: CCAFS-FAO Gender-CC study in Bangladesh, Uganda and Ghana
Challenges for climate-smart livelihoods• Learning visits to „climate analogue‟ sites is desirable but problematic for women for various reasons• „Climate smart practices are being taken up, but only the easiest ones, and largely not by womenSource: CCAFS-FAO Gender-CC study inBangladesh, Uganda and Ghana
Yet women are marginalized from ownership and decisions In sub-Saharan Africa women produce 80% of the food but own less than 10% of land Participation in decision making and politics, and access to decision makers is not always equal for men and women
Women are poorly represented inagricultural, forestry, meteorological and policy professions (e.g. two recent CC meetings) Meeting 1 overall Meeting 2 overall attendance (n=250) attendance (n=188) Women Women Men Men Meeting 1 plenary Meeting 2 plenary presenters (n=13) presenters (n=7) Women Women Men Men
What this means in the context of climate changeGreater vulnerability of women:• More extreme weather events: women and children are 14 times more likely to die than men during disasters• Water scarcity will increase women‟s labourGender-specific abilities to act:• Women determine family nutritional security• Agricultural productivity increases radically when women have equal access to inputs
Women as the key to family food security and child nutritionThere is lots of evidence that interventions aimed atwomen lead to enhanced child nutrition and foodsecurity at the household level
Actions to empower women in dealing with climate change Understand women‟s priorities when selecting crop varieties, farming practices and natural resource mgmt for adaptation interventions Strengthen women‟s resource tenure (also to improve performance of REDD+ and access to carbon markets) Link early warning systems to nutrition programmes Invest in capacity of women professionals in agriculture, forestry & climate change
Incorporating gender into local and community-level actionsUse participatory approaches to involve all membersof the community in planning and improveunderstanding of local gender roles and differingvulnerabilitiesDraw on local knowledge, which is linked to men‟sand women‟s gender-differentiated roles; enhancelocal capacity to adaptTailor science-based climate prediction informationto different groups‟ needs to make it more useful andused by smallholders (co-creation of new knowledge)
Climate Change and Key Gender Research Questions1. How do the different types of climate change impacts, such as more frequent droughts and flooding, differently affect men and women?2. In what ways do men and women adapt to climate variability and extreme events?3. How do men‟s and women‟s roles complement each other when coping with changing climate conditions?4. How may gender roles change when climate conditions change?