0
UNU-EHSUNU-EHS
Ensuring Food Security and Building
Climate Resilience in Africa: the Role
of Climate-Smart Agriculture
Pro...
UNU-EHS
2
Food Security and Africa
http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/176894/icode/
UNU-EHS
3
Key Messages on Food Security in Africa
 "Development efforts should support small holder
farmers and empower r...
UNU-EHS
4
Food insecurity—a recurring
challenge
 High prevalence of hunger & malnutrition - 28 of the 35
countries that n...
UNU-EHS
5
Africa’s Climatic Zones
Source: WMO/UNEP 2001
UNU-EHS
Makindu
29-Aug
8-Sep
18-Sep
28-Sep
8-Okt
18-Okt
28-Okt
7-Nov
17-Nov
27-Nov
7-Dez
17-Dez
27-Dez
6-Jan
16-Jan
26-Jan...
UNU-EHSUNU-EHS© CETRAD Database 2012; Authors
Characteristic High Rainfall Variability
Water is a key issue
UNU-EHS
8IPCC 2014 SPM: 8
UNU-EHS
9
Adaptation and Mitigation in
Agriculture – a close Link
 Key issues:
 African agriculture exposed to climate c...
UNU-EHS
10
Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)
 Agriculture that sustainably increases
productivity, resilience (adaptation),...
UNU-EHS
11
Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)
 Three main pillars:
1. sustainably increasing agricultural productivity
and i...
UNU-EHS
12
Climate-Smart
Agriculture
http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
UNU-EHS
13
CSA Example: Farmer Managed
Natural Regeneration in Niger
 Mid-1980s, development partners supported Niger’s
f...
UNU-EHS
14
Pictures by Ifejika Speranza 2012
Pictures by Ifejika Speranza 2012
2008: ca. 200 million trees on 5 million he...
UNU-EHS
15
CSA Example: Farmer Managed
Natural Regeneration in Niger
 Contributes to food security - improved fodder, red...
UNU-EHS
16
Success factors & insights: Farmer
Managed Natural Regeneration in Niger
 Simplicity of the practices
 Adapta...
UNU-EHS
17
Climate-Smart
Agriculture
http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
UNU-EHS
18
CSA Example: Participatory Forest
Management in Tanzania
 Late 1990s, Tanzanian government reformed forest
pol...
UNU-EHS
19
Conditions: Participatory Forest
Management in Tanzania
 PFM reduces deforestation & forest degradation since
...
UNU-EHS
20
Lessons learnt from PFM
 Granting legal right a strong incentive to win
communities' commitment for sustainabl...
UNU-EHS
21
Challenges to PFM in Tanzania &
Ethiopia
 Slow procedures, bureaucracy, & sometimes resistance for PFM by
gove...
UNU-EHS
22
Climate-Smart
Agriculture
http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
UNU-EHS
23
Biogas: A sustainable source of
energy and manure
 The Africa Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP) - a
public-p...
UNU-EHS
24
Biogas: A sustainable source of
energy and manure
 Energy used for cooking & lightning in rural households
 B...
UNU-EHS
25
Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project
 2010, the Kenya Agricultural Carbon (KAC) project became the first
soil car...
UNU-EHS
26
Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project
 Project donors: the Swedish foundation - Vi Planterar Träd, the
Swedish Int...
UNU-EHS
27
Lessons: Kenya Agricultural Carbon
Project
 “Get the priorities right” – focus project design on smallholder
f...
UNU-EHS
28
 “Because of the high level of uncertainty associated
with this method and the impermanence of greenhouse
gas ...
UNU-EHS
29
Climate-Smart
Agriculture
http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
UNU-EHS
30
Farmer Conservation Agriculture Practices
- Contributions to economic buffer capacity
3
Ifejika Speranza 2012
N...
UNU-EHS
31
Farmer Conservation Agriculture
Practices
- Contributions to social buffer capacity
3
Ifejika Speranza 2012
N=41
UNU-EHS
32
Farmer Conservation Agriculture Practices
- Contributions to ecological buffer capacity
3
Ifejika Speranza 2012...
UNU-EHS
33
Kaczan et al 2013: 46
UNU-EHS
34
Conclusions and Outlook
 Land-users already implement CSA practices
that build resilience & increase food secu...
UNU-EHS
35
Thank you for your attention!
ifejika.speranza@uni-bonn.de
UNU-EHS
36
References I
MDG Report 2013: Assessing progress in Africa toward the Millenium Development Goals. Food
Securit...
UNU-EHS
37
References II
Cooper, P. J.M., S. Cappiello, S. J. Vermeulen, B. M. Campbell, R. Zougmoré and J. Kinyangi. 2013...
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Ensuring Food Security and Building Climate Resilience in Africa: the Role of Climate-Smart Agriculture

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Presentation by Prof. Dr. Chinwe IFEJIKA SPERANZA. Presented during a pre - SBSTA meeting on CSA Alliance: Building Climate Change Resilience in Africa held on 30th May 2014 in Bonn, Germany http://ccafs.cgiar.org/csa-alliance-building-climate-change-resilience-africa#.U42GUihCCTs

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  1. 1. UNU-EHSUNU-EHS Ensuring Food Security and Building Climate Resilience in Africa: the Role of Climate-Smart Agriculture Prof. Dr. Chinwe IFEJIKA SPERANZA Department of Geography, University of Bonn / United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security CSA Alliance: Building Climate Change Resilience in Africa Gunnewig Hotel Bristol, Bonn, Germany Friday May 30, 2014
  2. 2. UNU-EHS 2 Food Security and Africa http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/176894/icode/
  3. 3. UNU-EHS 3 Key Messages on Food Security in Africa  "Development efforts should support small holder farmers and empower rural women“ Joint statements FAO, IFAD, WFP at the Fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD V) in Yokohama; http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/176894/icode/  Large-Scale Farming equally important
  4. 4. UNU-EHS 4 Food insecurity—a recurring challenge  High prevalence of hunger & malnutrition - 28 of the 35 countries that need external food assistance are in Africa  2012: Southern, East, Central and West Africa’s Global Hunger Index (20.7) second only to Southern Asia’s (22.5).  Value of Africa’s food production ($174 per capita) below the global average ($241 per capita)  Value of Africa’s food production lowest worldwide. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Millennium%20Developme nt%20Goals%20(MDGs)%20Report%202013%20-%20Executive%20Summary.pdf p.8
  5. 5. UNU-EHS 5 Africa’s Climatic Zones Source: WMO/UNEP 2001
  6. 6. UNU-EHS Makindu 29-Aug 8-Sep 18-Sep 28-Sep 8-Okt 18-Okt 28-Okt 7-Nov 17-Nov 27-Nov 7-Dez 17-Dez 27-Dez 6-Jan 16-Jan 26-Jan 5-Feb 15-Feb 25-Feb 7-Mrz 17-Mrz 27-Mrz 6-Apr 16-Apr 26-Apr 6-Mai 16-Mai 26-Mai 5-Jun 15-Jun 25-Jun 5-Jul 15-Jul 25-Jul 4-Aug 14-Aug 24-Aug 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 SR-Onset, duration and cessation LR-Onset, duration and cessation No onsets/failed onsets Onset, duration and cessation of seasonal rains at Makindu (1961-2003) Characteristic High Rainfall Variability Short Rains Long Rains 6 Climate change  additional spectrum of different climatic risks Source: Rainfall data Makindu 1961-2003, Ifejika Speranza 2006
  7. 7. UNU-EHSUNU-EHS© CETRAD Database 2012; Authors Characteristic High Rainfall Variability Water is a key issue
  8. 8. UNU-EHS 8IPCC 2014 SPM: 8
  9. 9. UNU-EHS 9 Adaptation and Mitigation in Agriculture – a close Link  Key issues:  African agriculture exposed to climate change impacts  African agriculture holds potentials for mitigation  Synergies: Many agricultural land management strategies can simultaneously increase food production and sequester carbon  Trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation in agriculture should be avoided
  10. 10. UNU-EHS 10 Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)  Agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes greenhouse gases (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals (FAO 2010).  Agriculture has to address simultaneously three intertwined challenges: ensuring food security through increased productivity and income, adapting to climate change and contributing to climate change mitigation.
  11. 11. UNU-EHS 11 Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)  Three main pillars: 1. sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; 2. adapting and building resilience to climate change; 3. reducing and/or removing greenhouse gases emissions, where possible (FAO 2010)
  12. 12. UNU-EHS 12 Climate-Smart Agriculture http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
  13. 13. UNU-EHS 13 CSA Example: Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration in Niger  Mid-1980s, development partners supported Niger’s farmers in their long established practices of woodland management.  Innovation: to encourage expansion of the practice into cropping areas, as well as protecting trees germinating naturally, creating a whole-landscape management approach (Haglund et al. 2011; CCAFS 2013). Pictures by Ifejika Speranza 2012
  14. 14. UNU-EHS 14 Pictures by Ifejika Speranza 2012 Pictures by Ifejika Speranza 2012 2008: ca. 200 million trees on 5 million hectares, attributable to farming practices rather than to decadal climatic trends (Hagelund et al 2011)
  15. 15. UNU-EHS 15 CSA Example: Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration in Niger  Contributes to food security - improved fodder, reduce loss of fertile topsoil & raises incomes.  Aggregated value of farmer-managed natural regeneration ca. US$56 ha-1 year-1, a net annual value: US$280 million  Benefits for about 2.5 million people  Greenhouse gas mitigation benefits not yet measured (Haglund et al. 2011; CCAFS 2013)
  16. 16. UNU-EHS 16 Success factors & insights: Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration in Niger  Simplicity of the practices  Adaptation to climatic variability - diversification of local livelihoods – seasonal migration to Nigeria  Government of Niger decision to transfer tenure rights over trees from government to landholders  Why is such innovation not occurring in Northern Nigeria? What roles do tenure rights play in land management in Northern Nigeria?  What other factors are at play?
  17. 17. UNU-EHS 17 Climate-Smart Agriculture http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
  18. 18. UNU-EHS 18 CSA Example: Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania  Late 1990s, Tanzanian government reformed forest policies to promote community participation in forest management as a way to protect natural forests against degradation & enhance the benefits derived from participatory forest management (PFM) for farming communities near the forests.  Forest Policy 1998 & Forest Act of 2002, provided a legal basis for communities to own and manage forest resources on village lands and within government forest reserves. (Pfliegner 2010, CCAFS 2013)
  19. 19. UNU-EHS 19 Conditions: Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania  PFM reduces deforestation & forest degradation since agricultural expansion is the major driver of forest cover loss.  Enables livelihood diversification - building adaptive capacity  2008: 1,800 villages with over 7,000 participating households across 60 or more districts, - rehabilitation & preservation of nearly 4.0 million hectares of forests.  Agreements between the district councils & the local village councils - co-management and a benefit sharing mechanisms where the villages retain a portion of the monies from fees paid in respect of the local bye-laws  2011 - 2016, Tanzania plans to invest ca. 40 million dollars in commercialization & enhancing the productivity of forests. (Pfliegner 2010, CCAFS 2013)
  20. 20. UNU-EHS 20 Lessons learnt from PFM  Granting legal right a strong incentive to win communities' commitment for sustainable forest management.  Context specific - PFM implementation has no blue prints  Livelihood diversification  Key issues: - Inclusiveness of Forest Management Institute & working with local institutions (Lemenih & Bekele 2008).
  21. 21. UNU-EHS 21 Challenges to PFM in Tanzania & Ethiopia  Slow procedures, bureaucracy, & sometimes resistance for PFM by government staff, particularly at the beginning  Scepticism & shying away of locals from collaboration with outsiders due to past bad experiences with government  Lack of capacity in government for planning & implementing PFM  Lack of commitment in institutionalization of PFM in the government system  Unclear legal status of local institutes  High illiteracy & innumeracy among the locals delayed PFM progress  High staff turn over in some project areas  Climatic anomalies in some areas (Lemenih M. and Bekele M. 2008)
  22. 22. UNU-EHS 22 Climate-Smart Agriculture http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
  23. 23. UNU-EHS 23 Biogas: A sustainable source of energy and manure  The Africa Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP) - a public-private partnership  Biogas digesters convert animal dung & human waste to combustible gas & bio-slurry.  ABPP started in 2009 in six African countries – Senegal, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burkina Faso and Ethiopia  Aims - to improve the living conditions of rural households – to introduce more than 70,000 domestic biogas digesters by the end of 2013. (Farmworth 2013)
  24. 24. UNU-EHS 24 Biogas: A sustainable source of energy and manure  Energy used for cooking & lightning in rural households  Biogas digesters can help to curb deforestation & reduce charcoal production  Saves time and reduces women’s workload  More time for other activities & for income generating activities (Farmworth 2013)http://africabiogas.org/
  25. 25. UNU-EHS 25 Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project  2010, the Kenya Agricultural Carbon (KAC) project became the first soil carbon project in African to sign an Emissions Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA) with the World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund.  Kisumu and Kitale districts of Western Kenya (Woelcke 2012).  Implemented by Vi Agroforestry, a Swedish NGO  Piloting the ‘Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Land Management’ (SALM) methodology under the Voluntary Carbon Standard (Shames et al. 2012): improved crop, soil, and water management practices as well as agroforestry innovations, restoration and rehabilitation of degraded land, and improved livestock management (Lager 2011).
  26. 26. UNU-EHS 26 Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project  Project donors: the Swedish foundation - Vi Planterar Träd, the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), & the World Bank BioCarbon Fund as credit buyer (Shames et al. 2012).  5,000 farmers in 800 farmer groups adopted the SALM methodology (Lager 2011).
  27. 27. UNU-EHS 27 Lessons: Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project  “Get the priorities right” – focus project design on smallholder farmers’ interests; first come increased crop yields and food security, then carbon sequestration.  “Monitor transaction costs” – cost-effective and user-friendly measurement, reporting, & verification.  “Carefully select project developer” – strong extension systems, innovativeness, interest to learn, & technical & financial capacity.  “Technical assistance & capacity building are key to project success” – providing smallholder farmers access to carbon revenues requires special technical expertise.  “Focus on areas with high agricultural potential” – carbon sequestration potential is higher in areas with high biomass growth. (Woelcke 2012)
  28. 28. UNU-EHS 28  “Because of the high level of uncertainty associated with this method and the impermanence of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions [through soil carbon sequestration], the project will discount 60% of the carbon claimed to be sequestered …indeed, according to our analysis of project cost and benefit estimates, the carbon payments are negligible in the Kenya Project: at most a little over $1 per farmer per year for 20 years.” (Suppan & Sharma 2011)  Though carbon payments are small, SALM contributes to food security & increases resilience to climatic risks. Challenges: Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project
  29. 29. UNU-EHS 29 Climate-Smart Agriculture http://www.fao.org/climatechange/28968-0740493a283ed601591be6d925a3383bb.pdf
  30. 30. UNU-EHS 30 Farmer Conservation Agriculture Practices - Contributions to economic buffer capacity 3 Ifejika Speranza 2012 N=41
  31. 31. UNU-EHS 31 Farmer Conservation Agriculture Practices - Contributions to social buffer capacity 3 Ifejika Speranza 2012 N=41
  32. 32. UNU-EHS 32 Farmer Conservation Agriculture Practices - Contributions to ecological buffer capacity 3 Ifejika Speranza 2012 N=41
  33. 33. UNU-EHS 33 Kaczan et al 2013: 46
  34. 34. UNU-EHS 34 Conclusions and Outlook  Land-users already implement CSA practices that build resilience & increase food security  Adoption rates of many practices lower than expected given the potential benefits and resources spent on promotion – why?  Need to measure greenhouse mitigation benefits  Potentials for technology transfer  Enabling institutional arrangements critical
  35. 35. UNU-EHS 35 Thank you for your attention! ifejika.speranza@uni-bonn.de
  36. 36. UNU-EHS 36 References I MDG Report 2013: Assessing progress in Africa toward the Millenium Development Goals. Food Security in Africa.: Issues, challenges and lessons. http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/MDG/english/MDG%20Regional%20Reports/Africa/MD G%20report%202013%20summary_EN.pdf Somma, A. 2008. The 10 percent that could change Africa. IFPRI. Forum, October. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute. http://www.nepad- caadp.net/pdf/CAADP_Forum_Reprint1.pdf Benin, S., and Yu, B. 2013. Complying the Maputo Declaration Target: Trends in public agricultural expenditures and implications for pursuit of optimal allocation of public agricultural spending. ReSAKSS Annual Trends and Outlook Report 2012. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). http://www.resakss.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/ReSAKSS_AW_ATOR_2012_FINAL.pdf Haglund E., Ndjeunga J., Snook L., Pasternak D. 2011. Dry land tree management for improved household livelihoods: Farmer managed natural regeneration in Niger. Journal of Environmental Management. Volume 92, Issue 7, July 2011, Pages 1696–1705. CCAFS (2013) Working Paper no. 50. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security Pfliegner, Kerstin (2010) The Impacts of Joint Forest Management on Forest Condition, Livelihoods and Governance: Case studies from Morogoro Region in Tanzania. Doctoral thesis, University of East Anglia.
  37. 37. UNU-EHS 37 References II Cooper, P. J.M., S. Cappiello, S. J. Vermeulen, B. M. Campbell, R. Zougmoré and J. Kinyangi. 2013. Large-scale implementation of adaptation and mitigation actions in agriculture. CCAFS Working Paper no. 50. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org Lemenih M. and Bekele M. 2008. PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT BEST PRACTICES, LESSON LEARNT AND CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED. The Ethiopian and Tanzanian Experiences. FARM-Africa/SOS-Sahel. http://theredddesk.org/sites/default/files/resources/pdf/PFM%20lessons%2C%20challenges%20and%20best%20practices.pdf Farnworth C, Kristjanson P, Rijke E. 2013. ‘Climate smart’ agriculture and beyond. In: Farnworth C, Fones Sundell M, Nzioki A, Shivutse V, Davis M. Transforming gender relations in agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish International Agricultural Network Initiative, Stockholm Environment Institute and SIDA. Shames S., Wekesa A., Wachiye E. (2012): Case Study: Western Kenya Smallholder Agriculture Carbon Finance Project: Vi Agroforestry. Institutional innovations in African smallholder carbon projects. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Woelcke (2012): More Than Just Hot Air: Carbon Market Access and Climate-Smart Agriculture for Smallholder Farmers. SMARTLESSONS, JANUARY 2012. International Finance Corporation. David Kaczan, Aslihan Arslan, Leslie Lipper (2013) Climate-Smart Agriculture? A review of current practice of agroforestry and conservation agriculture in Malawi and Zambia .
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