Expert Workshop on NAMAs:National mitigation planning and implementation in agriculture 16-17 July 2012 FAO, Rome Christina Seeberg-Elverfeldt and Lini Wollenberg
FAOMitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Programme at FAO • Launched January 2010 • Outcome: Developing countries are contributing to climate change mitigation in agriculture by moving towards climate smart agricultural practices • Knowledge generation • Synergies and Trade-offs • Pilot Projects • Support to UNFCCC and Capacity Development • Monitoring and Assessment of GHG Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture
CCAFSClimate Change Agriculture and Food Security ResearchProgram of the CGIAR (CCAFS)• Adaptation, risk management, mitigation and integrated decision making themes• Partnership of the CGIAR (15 centers) and Earth Systems Science Program• Regional focus: E and W, Africa, S. Asia, SE Asia, Lat Am, 30 benchmark sites
Proposed workshop outcomes• Information for a review of NAMA experiences• Steps and decision trees for planning and implementing NAMAs• Enhanced knowledge on tools and resources• Action steps for effective NAMA planning• Research and capacity development needs
Workshop Purpose: Support the development of national mitigation planning to advance climate smart agricultureObjectivesAdvance understanding and practice on• The nature and role of NAMAs: how can national and subnational policy best advance climate smart agriculture?• Planning NAMAs: identifying, assessing and prioritizing options• Implementing NAMAs: what is needed to secure investments and finance, policies, technical support & MRV?
Countries represented• Kenya• Colombia• Costa Rica• Brazil• Ecuador• Vietnam• Mongolia• Indonesia- Agriculture and environment ministries+ Resource people and experiences in diverse countries
Agricultural mitigation basics CH4 & N20~ 1/3 of global emissions emissions - 10-14%from agriculture, forests &land use change (AFOLU) Net Deforestation - 17%
Many policy avenues for achieving mitigationInternational processes (UNFCCC, NAMAs)Nationally driven, including subnational - Climate change policies - Agricultural and environment policies - Rural development - Finance policies
Why National Mitigation Policy for Agriculture?Mitigation as agricultural best practice• Productive and resilient agriculture with mitigation as co-benefit• Increased efficienciesMeet targets• Meet national emissions reductions targets• Non Annex 1 committed to “substantially deviate “ from baselines -2020 in selected regions (including LA), 2050 all regionsVehicle for coordination• Align national agricultural policy and investment• NAMAS can help operationalize mitigation action plans• NAMAS can help access to Green Climate Fund and climate finance (USD 97 billion of climate finance globally in 2010 , 56% from private sector)
NAMAs: One toolNationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (Bali Action Plan 2007)No formal definition “Any kind of action by government that reduces GHG emissions” (Situmeang et al, 2012) - Main vehicle for mitigation in developing countries - Broad scope: policies to technical interventionsNAMAs are only one tool for mitigation planning; use here as shorthand.
Example of mitigation policy framework Governance and processes Sectoral and aggregated Technical Planning Development input Design and ReportingBAU and mitigation Options and priorities implementation potentials Stakeholder involvement Situmeang et al. 2012
Screening criteria and priority settingScreen forAlignment with nationalpriorities• Social and economic development goals• Emissions targetsData availability and qualityPolitical and social feasibilityReplicability Situmeang et al. 2012
Example of steps For internal decision making: GHG reduction, cost , etc. For government commitment and identifying donor interest For finance discussions, with agreement about delivery and implementation (Tilberg et al 2011)
NAMA submissions44 NAMA submissions: – 18 Agriculture (LA:1 ; AF: 12; AS: 3, Middle East: 1, Europe: 1), – 29 Forestry (Europe: 2; AF: 17; LA: 5; AS:4; Middle East: 1) Agriculture actions Countries Count Agroforestry Ethiopia, Gabon, Mongolia, Sierra Leone 4 Compost Chad, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Sierra Leone 4 Nitrogen fixation Brazil, Central African Republic, Congo 3 Biofuels Brazil, Ghana, Sierra Leone 3 Extension Central African Republic, Chad, Madagascar 3 Seed programs Central African Republic, Chad, Madagascar 3 Irrigation practices Congo, Jordan, Tunisia 3 No-till or min till Brazil, Ghana 2 Methane recovery Jordan, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2 Soil carbon Ethiopia, Eritrea 2 Organic fertilizers Chad, Ghana 2 Renewable energy/ agriculture waste Sierra Leone, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2 incineration Spot/zero burning Ghana 1
Considerations for agricultural NAMAs• Potential to upscale climate-smart agriculture• How to estimate mitigation potentials, emission reductions & conduct MRV: data requirements• Institutional requirements• Tools, resources & planning required within national climate policy processes
Questions• Input to a review of NAMA experiences => What are your experiences on NAMA developments?• Decision trees for planning and implementing NAMAs => Which steps are required for planning NAMAs?• Enhanced knowledge on tools and resources => Which tools/resources are needed and already available?• Ways forward for effective NAMA planning and implementation => What actions are required at country/international level to advance agriculture NAMA planning and implementation?
Questions (cont.)• Identification of research and capacity development => Where do we need more research and capacity building for countries to plan mitigation policies and actions?
Why agriculture and climate change mitigation?- Agricultural mitigation probably necessary to stay < 2° C- 20GT/year target- But, agricultural emissions currently 5.5-6 GT/year and likely to almost double to 8-10GT/yr
Mitigation strategies in agricultureReduce emissions - per area and yield• Reduce CH4 and N20• Avoid increased future emissions (e.g. anticipated increases in fertilizer use)C Storage –timing, C life• Increase carbon storage• Protect existing carbon- avoid land conversionLifecycle• Reduce or replace fossil fuels• Shift consumption?
Three funding sources for NAMAs• Unilateral (“domestically supported”, “voluntary”)NAMAs• Internationally supported NAMAs• Credited NAMAs Situmeang et al. 2012
NAMA finance options• Unilateral (“domestically supported”, “voluntary”)NAMAS• Internationally supported NAMAS• Credited NAMAS Situmeang et al. 2012
Examples of criteria for analysing supportedNAMAs for negotiation with donor Center for Clean Air Policy