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Patti Kristjanson, leader of the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security theme on Linking Knowledge with Action, presented CCAFS' Intermediate Development Outcome on gender at …

Patti Kristjanson, leader of the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security theme on Linking Knowledge with Action, presented CCAFS' Intermediate Development Outcome on gender at an International Fund for Agricultural Development East and Southern Africa regional Knowledge Management and Capacity Building Forum, 16-18 October 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya.

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  • 1. CCAFS: The gender outcome challenge Patti Kristjanson Linking Knowledge with Action Research Theme Leader October, 2013
  • 2. CCAFS’s Gender Outcome CCAFS’s gender Intermediate Development Outcome (IDO) is based on diverse research results showing that when communities increase the equity and participation of groups vulnerable to exclusion from the development process, particularly women, overall food security, poverty and health improve
  • 3. CCAFS Gender Theory of Change Assumptions: – Women as a group are vulnerable to climate change – Women are powerful agents of change, and often have unrealized solutions for adaptation and mitigation – Gender norms do change, and can change quickly; this is key part of the ‘transformative change’ we support – Targeting women and other vulnerable groups in agricultural development increases the likelihood of achieving not just our gender IDO, but the others also – In fact, gender norms must be addressed in order to achieve the outcomes CCAFS is seeking
  • 4. CCAFS Big Outcomes Flagships (What?) Climate-smart practices Climate info services & Climateinformed safety nets Low Emissions Agricultural Development Policies and Institutions for resilient food systems Partnerships and strategies to achieve outcomes (how & with whom?) Inclusive local forward planning (e.g. using climate analogues) Action research with NGO’s taking gender transformative actions (e.g. CARE, PROLINNOVA) Equitable partic. research with met services and NARES Co-strategy development with food aid community (e.g. WFP) Learning re: inst’s with local partners (PES and LED strategies) Strategic partnerships (e.g. FAO) & comms efforts re: LED/mitigation by & for women Learning alliances/platforms Agricultural business ‘hubs’ Policy champions & capacity in foresight analyses Strengthening reg/nat’l farmers orgs voice in CCAFS policies Outcome Pathway (Overarching) Gender dissag. data & analyses, gend er-cc tools & local partner capacity strengthening, innovative approaches participatory video, TV, Radio Mobiles, integr . tools, open access K sharing, Foresight/scen arios analyses co-devel. with PPP’s Increased access to and control over productive assets, inputs , information, food and markets; strengthened participation in decisionmaking processes Gender Outcome (IDO) Empowerment of women and marginalised groups
  • 5. Research implications • Conducting research on whether increased levels of access, control and participation leads to improved climate change adaptation and mitigation is not the priority! We already know that it does. • We need hypothesis-driven research focused on how best to increase the equity and participation of vulnerable groups in a changing climate so as to achieve widespread smallholder adaptation and mitigation that positively influences overall food security, poverty, health and natural resources.
  • 6. Our strategies are the key Overall Strategy: – In order to achieve the greatest impact, we need to take what we’ve learned from documentation and diagnostic research, and use it to formulate research aimed at informing, catalyzing and targeting adaptation and mitigation solutions to women and other vulnerable groups – When we identify and ‘co-create’ successful options and climate change solutions together with partners with a will and proven capacity for gender and social differentiation, we will achieve scale
  • 7. Changing the way we do business in CCAFS Traditional research question: How can we increase maize production in drought prone areas? – Outputs: Improved drought-tolerant maize variety(ies), best management practices, training, technology transfer, distribution Building on this, we can ask: How can we target these outputs to vulnerable groups so we achieve the greatest impact? • Management: What practices are best suited for supporting women who produce this variety? • Training: What training and extension packages are most effective for women producing this variety? • Technology transfer: How can our research partners, especially NARS, best target their outputs to women? • Distribution: What products through which distribution networks, are best suited to the needs of women?
  • 8. New business model research question But, we are then still being largely ‘Supply-Driven’ If we start by working with vulnerable groups (with local partners), we ask different questions: • What are your capacities, needs and demands? (e.g. what seed characteristics meet your adaptation and mitigation needs?) – here, we are testing new crowdsourcing approaches • What strategies, tools and approaches will help us better meet those needs?
  • 9. What is needed in order to follow the new business model? • Very diverse research teams (many institutions; farmers, practitioners as researchers too!) • A systems focus within a geographic area (this could be local, national, regional, global) • The right local partners (K users), with whom you identify the research questions, partnership engagement, capacity strengthening, communication and M&E-related strategies for achieving joint outcomes
  • 10. So what are we already doing? e.g. genderfocused strategies in East Africa • Participatory Action Research in our sites with women’s & mixed groups from around 10 villages working together under new umbrella institutions (e.g. FOKO in Nyando) • Partnering with NGO’s and programs applying gendersensitive approaches: (e.g. CARE, World Neighbours, Vi Agroforestry, IFAD, IDRC, USAID, etc.) • Including local gender experts (e.g. Universities, NARS) • Targeting commodities desired/controlled by women: bees, goats, sheep, poultry, beans, horticulture, agrofo restry
  • 11. Gender-focused strategies in EA, Cont’d • Evaluation of varieties disaggregated by gender • Household & intra-hh gender-disaggregated tools & data analyses • Qualitative gender-focused participatory approaches • Gender strategies for farmer-to-farmer exchanges, participatory farmer videos • Mobile phone- based agricultural services tested with female and male farmers • Farm reality TV show (‘shamba shape-up’) targeting EA women, men and youths and highlighting climate resilient agricultural and NRM practices
  • 12. Focus of CCAFS gender-related research (many CG centers) There are 5 main areas this research has been focusing on: • roles in decision-making • climate perceptions • risk and vulnerability • adaptation and adoption • access to technology and information Goal in 2014: overall synthesis of the findings of all these studies
  • 13. Participatory gender CC approaches • FAO/CCAFS jointly developed participatory gender tools that were implemented in CCAFS sites in Uganda, Ghana and Bangladesh • CCAFS Gender & Social Learning expert has been refining and testing these methods and materials to be more useful to our development partners
  • 14. Capacity Strengthening • Training of gender partners (plus AWARD trainers) from all 5 regions and joint action planning, in Oct at ICRAF in Nairobi • ICRAF – recent gender methods training in SE Asia • CIFOR – manual on incorporating gender in proposals • ILRI – ‘Closing the gender gap in agriculture: A trainer’s manual’ ‘Closing the gender gap in agriculture... could increase yields on farms by 20–30% which... could raise total agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5–4% which... could reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12–17%.’ State of Food and Agriculture (FAO 2011)
  • 15. CCAFS Gender-related Resources www.ccafs.cgiar.org/gender