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Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change
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Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Change

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Presentation from CCAFS Science Workshop, Bonn, 11th June 2011

Presentation from CCAFS Science Workshop, Bonn, 11th June 2011

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  • The report complements (and avoids overlapping with) other components of the Progress report. The Finance report and the HR and Admin report are packaged into one report but presented separately.The report is not restricted to Jan-Dec 2009.
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    • 1. Call for a Transformational Process in the face of Climate Changein Sub Saharan Agriculture<br />Alain L. ANGE<br />Technical Adviser<br />Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa<br />
    • 2. Vulnerability – Adaptation - Development<br />Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects including variability and extreme events.<br /><ul><li>Adaptation=Internally organized ]</li></ul> + Externally driven ] Transition<br />Organization provides for development<br /> Lack of organization leads to dependence<br />Three components for an organized Transitionin agriculture under the stress of Climate Change:<br /><ul><li>From Vulnerability to Resilience
    • 3. From Adaptation to Adaptation and Mitigation
    • 4. From piece meal Adaptation to Transformational Process</li></li></ul><li>Food production could not face demand for food<br />Huge change happened in production to consumption systems<br />The cropped area doubled, production per capita dropped, imports soared<br />
    • 5. 1b - Farmers did better within their context<br />
    • 6. 1c - Very little change in average farm size<br />
    • 7. Lessons from changes in food production systems<br /><ul><li>The average farmer has increased the crop output by ~ 15% in the last 30 years, without increasing the cropped area per farm, without inputs;
    • 8. The first signals of climate change happened in the Mid Seventies;
    • 9. Domestic production could not match increasing food demand;
    • 10. Average people’ s income from industrial export crops decreased;
    • 11. Land degradation affected 1/3 of the cropped area.</li></ul>The actual vulnerability of farmers should be evaluated within the considerable shifts that happened in production systems and income sources and expenditures within the growing scarcity of natural resource.<br />
    • 12. Poverty is a major limiting factor to change<br />Annual economic growth has not been enough in at least 30 countries for reducing poverty.<br />Investment is the most powerful method for adaptation.<br />Poverty is the most limiting factor for addressing adaptation to climate change as it jeopardizes investments.<br />Risks are maintaining many rural people into poverty.<br />Coherent policies are required for harnessing risks and valuing opportunities in order to reduce poverty:<br /><ul><li>Social security nets; insurances; food for work schemes
    • 13. Land use planning giving access to harnessed resources
    • 14. Production chains development, credit, fair market access
    • 15. Institutional development and regulations</li></li></ul><li>What will happen in next 30 years<br />Food availability per capita should increase by 30% while food import per capita should decrease;<br />The average production by every agricultural people should increase by 90% for maintaining food imports at present level;<br />Degraded land should be restored; land degradation controlled.<br />
    • 16. Necessary deployment of farming and adaptation<br /><ul><li>Intensified, enlarged, diversified farming systems
    • 17. Increasing farm size (motorization and animal draught ) within land use plans;
    • 18. Increasing labour productivity through mechanization and system approach;
    • 19. Increasing land productivity through new breeds, inputs use, water management;
    • 20. Increasing resilience / sustainability through biodiversity, diversification and conservation farming combined with financial systems
    • 21. Intensification and risks sharing through effective production chains
    • 22. Agricultural progress articulated with participatory/ decentralized land use planning, backed by public investment for infrastructures</li></ul>Adaptation to climate change is inserted into a steady process of agricultural development and fuelled by combined Public and Private Investment reducing poverty, backed by institutional progress.<br />
    • 23. Practically facing climate change in a rapidly expanding agriculture<br />10 domains for action through partnerships<br />Generating and sharing accurate information<br />Provide resilience to accrued temperatures<br />Provide resilience to the vagaries of rains<br />Harness water flows in excess in the watersheds<br />Support diversification and intensification of agricultural production systems<br />Settle development tools and capital growth mechanisms and secure those through insurances and buffer financial systems; <br />Develop social safety nets for the vulnerable<br />Secure food availability through resilient food systems and security stocks<br />Secure people, crops and livestock from emerging diseases, pest outbreaks and epidemics<br />Provide capacity to decentralized participatory innovation systems while reinforcing capacity for centralized invention systems fuelling innovation<br />
    • 24. Generating and sharing accurate information<br />System wise information should support the promotion of local transformation processes by the stakeholders:<br /><ul><li>Meteorological and climatic national information
    • 25. Locally collected meteorological information + decision models
    • 26. Inputs and outputs markets information
    • 27. Information on food security stocks and insurance systems
    • 28. Information on access to land, on systems and infrastructures harnessing natural resources
    • 29. Information about available cultivars and animal breeds
    • 30. Information on production chains and related access </li></ul>▬►Partners = meteorological services, research, extension, NGOs, private sector, medias, local governments<br />
    • 31. Provide resilience to accrued temperature<br />Forecasted temperature changes are not marginal for agriculture: each [degree x day] that maize spends above 30°C depress yields by 1% if crops have enough water and by 1.7% if crops face drought.<br />Resilience will be provided through restructuring the land use<br />Crops are sheltered by trees as done in oasis farming;<br />Regular sets of lines of trees break hot winds;<br />Tree plantations allow for mechanized farming;<br />Trees plantation contribute to water harvesting and erosion control within restructured land use;<br />Agro-forestry maintains soil fertility and composes resilient multi-storey cropping systems;<br />Planted trees support new production chains and employment.<br />Crop selection is oriented towards resistance to temperature.<br />▬►Partners = Farmers’ organizations, forestry services, local governments, research and extension, NGOs, wood industry<br />
    • 32. Provide resilience to the vagaries of rains<br />-> There are uncertainties about changes in the rainfall pattern.<br />-> However, the vagaries of rainfall will increase.<br />-> Water demand from crops will increase with temperature.<br /><ul><li>Cropping systems organized to face increased risks of water shortage (shorter crop cycles, photoperiodic cultivars, multi- cropping – multi storey systems);
    • 33. Water harvesting developed to tap excessive rains for in situ storage (conservation farming)
    • 34. Land shaping for harvesting run-off water and storage in local tanks and reservoirs for local irrigation;
    • 35. Complementary irrigation for facing drought spells and promotion of drip irrigation wherever possible.</li></ul>▬►Partners = local farmers’ associations, local government, Ministry of Agriculture, water service, private sector, research, extension, NGOs<br />
    • 36. Harness water flows in the watersheds<br />Revisit the hydrology of the lowlands for organizing protecting dykes, expansion of floods and water harvesting;<br />Connect water harvesting on slopes with water management for irrigation in lowlands<br />Promote the development of trees in watersheds for regulating water flows in lowlands<br />Expand irrigated areas, while promoting water saving technologies<br />Develop local institutions for water harvesting and use<br />▬►Partnership = Government, watershed agencies, local government farmers’ organizations, research, extension, NGOs, private sector.<br />
    • 37. <ul><li>Organize land use planning for facilitating increase in farm size while protecting natural resources;
    • 38. Support mechanization and motorization of small scale farming through adequate financing mechanisms;
    • 39. Organize inputs access with necessary financing systems;
    • 40. Link intensification with improved access to water;
    • 41. Organize harvest storage systems;
    • 42. Support the development of production chains contributing to the promotion of farming in relation to diversification.</li></ul>▬►Partners = Ministry of agriculture, farmers’ organization, banking sector, processing – marketing sector, R & D<br />Support diversification and intensification of agricultural production systems<br />
    • 43. Secure development tools and capital growth through insurances and buffer financial systems<br />-> Insurances save farmers’ investments and secure credit systems, thus easing contributions from private sector.<br />-> Insurance and credit systems should be buffered through public funding in case of disasters.<br />Develop insurance systems and buffer those through public disaster management schemes;<br />Connect credit and insurances to reduce premiums;<br />Involve farmers’ unions in the management.<br />Involve all stakeholders in production chains in securing farming against climatic risks<br />▬►Partners = Government, banks, insurances, farmers’ unions, private sector, research, extension, CSOs, NGOs.<br />
    • 44. Develop safety nets for the vulnerable<br />Develop social safety nets so that poor people would be given access to development programs and insurances;<br />Partly finance safety nets through innovative management of commons at community level for mitigation of CC;<br />Mobilize jobless people in local infrastructure development;<br />Promote educated youth for managing financial services, security stocks, safety nets and for advisory services;<br />Develop targeted jobs at community level for promoting ecological services;<br />▬► Promote capacity of local governments<br />
    • 45. Secure food availability through resilient food systems and security stocks<br />Develop security food stocks that would buffer for shortages and surplus at local level;<br />Connect those stocks with national food security stocks;<br />Organize food for work for contribution to infrastructures<br />Connect those local stocks with the warrantage system;<br />Organize connection between credit, insurance and security stocks in order to alleviate poverty.<br />Promote regional trade for securing access to food<br />▬►Partners = Government and local government; banks and insurances, farmers’ organizations, CSOs and NGOs, private sector, research, extension.<br />
    • 46. Secure people, crops and livestock from emerging diseases - pest outbreaks - epidemics<br />Climate Change is already and will further cause shifts in the geographic distribution of pests and diseases.<br /><ul><li>Promotion of alert systems;
    • 47. Development of sanitary barrier and containment systems
    • 48. Development of vaccinations
    • 49. Development of phyto-sanitary intervention programs
    • 50. Design of health protection programs and quick intervention
    • 51. Training all professionals concerned and informing the public</li></ul>▬► Partners = Government, sanitary, veterinarian and phyto sanitary services, farmers’ organizations, research, CSOs, NGOs, Private sector, extension<br />
    • 52. Provide capacity to decentralized innovation and reinforce centralized innovation<br />-> At local level, solutions would be better developed for developing land use planning, intensification, infrastructures and land development, for processing and marketing, mobilizing indigenous knowledge and science.<br />-> Major technical and organizational innovations, in particular for finance, social nets and medium to large scale infrastructure set up will be generated from government with local contributions.<br /><ul><li>Local capacity to be developed through innovation platforms associating all concerned stakeholders for a decentralized action plan.
    • 53. National capacity to be improved through institutional development for:
    • 54. Support to information systems servicing the public
    • 55. Support to land use planning and land greening
    • 56. Support to water harvesting and water management
    • 57. Support to farm development and intensification
    • 58. Development of financial and insurance systems
    • 59. Development of food security stocks, social safety nets
    • 60. Face pests outbreaks, merging diseases and epidemics</li></li></ul><li>In Conclusion<br />Farmers’ organizations have a key role to play:<br /><ul><li> in organizing and controlling the development of institutions, in the design of methods and regulations for adapting to climate change;
    • 61. in improved land use planning, investment in land and water;
    • 62. in the intensification process, in market development and production chain development;
    • 63. in the development of buffer stocks, insurances and credit.</li></ul>The government should organize and fund for greening the land, harnessing water, developing key infrastructures and safety nets and provide accurate policies and institutional development.<br />The private sector should develop fair production chains.<br />
    • 64. Thank you<br />aange@fara-africa.org<br />www.fara-africa.org<br />25<br />

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