CCAFS is rising to this challenge with a program of integrated research and policy work, across agriculture and food systems
Challenge Program then CGIAR Research ProgramTheme Leaders spread across CG system and the global change community in advanced research institutesNew way of working – deliberately networked
Livestock 82% Land use change 14%, total, fertilizer .0%, burning (Ch4 and N20) 2%500 m resolution HIGH uncertainty likely four East African countries account for 70% of the total emission from the nine countries, dominated by the emissions from land use change and livestock in Ethiopia – total emissions that we report here are comparable to those reported by each country in their National Communications, though as expected our estimates are higher reflecting likely increases in agriculture production since the time of their reports (Table 11). However, the estimates for different gases vary, for example the nitrous oxide emissions reported in the National Communications for the focal countries and year (< 11,000 t CO2e/yr for Kenya to about 6 million t CO2e/yr for Ethiopia) bear no resemblance to the estimates we obtained in Table 11.
CCAFS: An Overview National Policy Workshop, Addis Ababa
CCAFS: An OverviewNational Policy Workshop, Addis Ababa 4July 2011
thepartnershipCGIAR +Earth System Science Partnership(ESSP).
CCAFSobjectives 1. Identify and develop pro-poor adaptation, risk management and mitigation practices, technologies and policies for agriculture and food systems. 2. Support agricultural issues in climate change policies, and of climate issues inagricultural policies, at all levels.
Climate variability and change ImprovedTechnologies, practices, policies environmentaland capacity enhancement: benefits1. Adaptation to progressive climate Improvedchange livelihoods2. Adaptation through managingclimate risk Improved 3. Pro-poor climate change food security mitigation 4. Integration for decision making Enhanced adaptive capacity in agricultural, NRM & food systems
Place-based field and policy work Indo-Gangetic Plains:West Africa: Parts ofSenegal, Mali, Bur India, Bangladeskina East Africa: h, NepalFaso, Ghana, and Tanzania, Ugan Regional programNiger da, Kenya, and leader: Ethiopia Pramod AggarwalRegional programleader: Regional programRobert Zougmoré leader: James Kinyangi
Total annual GHG emissions 1,000 t CO2e, from land-use change, livestock, nitrogen fertilizer consumption and fires in grazing lands (Winrock Study: Brown et al 2011) Land-Use Nitrogen Grazing Area Tota Region Country Livestock Total Change Fertilizer Burned from NEast Africa Ethiopia 7,339 41,966 339 1,254 50,897 32,7 Kenya 1,812 11,988 323 232 14,356 12,0 Tanzania 1,833 13,935 42 1,736 17,546 28,0 Uganda 1,112 6,204 18 524 7,858 5,7 Subtotal 12,097 74,093 722 3,745 90,657 78,6West Africa Burkina Faso 273 8,779 18 306 9,377 4,5 Ghana 1,664 1,865 55 491 4,076 4,6 Mali 440 9,270 64 241 10,015 7,0 Niger 31 10,405 14 9 10,460 6,2 Senegal 369 3,364 84 249 4,066 4,5 Subtotal 2,778 33,683 235 1,297 37,993 26,9 Grand Total 14,874 107,776 957 5,043 128,649 105,
Mapped distribution of increases incropland area for East Africa 2001 - 2006 Brown et al, 2011
Area of grazing lands burned 2001- 2007 Brown et al, 2011 Burned area data from http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/burnt_areas_L3JRC/GlobalBurntAr eas2000-2007.php
Opportunities to reduce emissions or increase sequestration in Ethiopia Management option Mitigation Potential Actions required Livestock High Technical options? Soil C sequestration Moderate Incentives? Monitoring? Reduced burning Moderate Technical options? Fertilizer Low to date Future efficiencies, sustainable intensification?
Other research in East AfricaGHG quantification- Livestock system inventory methods (ILRI)- Simple and cost effective MRV- Regional capacity building
Improving benefits from carbon market projects involving farmers7 projects In collaboration with Ecoagriculture, ICRAF:•Humbo Reforestation Project, World Vision, Ethiopia•Vi Agroforestry, CARE, TIST, Kenya•Ecotrust, NFA, Uganda• Cocoa Carbon Initiative, GhanaLessons - Real benefits from yields, not payments ($2/yr) - Need to decrease costs and risks - Pre-existing institutions, upfront finance critical - Monitoring livelihoods not a priority