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Articulating Africa-Wide Policy Issues for Adaptation and Mitigation


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Lindiwe Majele Sibanda, FANRPAN. 4 May 2010.

Lindiwe Majele Sibanda, FANRPAN. 4 May 2010.

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  • 1. Articulating Africa-Wide Policy Issues for Adaptation and Mitigation CCAFS Launch Conference: Building Food Security in the face of Climate Change Lindiwe  Majele  Sibanda  (PhD)   Nairobi,  Kenya  4  May  2010
  • 2. Outline  Saving  the  Planet  or  a  Win  -­‐  Win  Treaty?   •  Global  Climate  Change  Scenario   •  Clash  of  the  Titans  Climate  Change  and    Africa     •  Status  of  Smallholder  Farmers     •  Climate  Change  Impacts  What  is  Africa  Doing?   •  CAADP     •  The  African  Climate  Posi>on  -­‐  Road  to  Copenhagen     •  Priori>es  for  Africa  -­‐  Adapta>on  and  Mi>ga>on   •  Model  for  Engagement
  • 3. Growing  Challenges  •  1.7  billion  more  people  to  feed  •  Ra>o  of  arable  land  to  popula>on  declining  by   40-­‐55%    •  Growing  water  scarcity  •  Climate  change
  • 4. Saving  the  Planet  or  a  Win  -­‐  Win  Treaty   Clash  of  the  Titans     Least  Developed  Countries!!!   America  +  Europe   G77  +  China,  India,  Brazil   When  the  bull  elephants  fight  –  AFRICA    suffers
  • 5. Climate  Change  and  Sustainable  Development  in  Africa  Africa  contributes  only  about  3.8%  of  total  GHGs  Yet   African   countries   are   among   the   most   vulnerable   to   climate   change,  because  of  the  following  factors:   •  High  poverty  levels   •  Heavy  reliance  on  climate-­‐sensi>ve  sectors  (e.g.  rain-­‐fed  agriculture,   mining,  oil  &  gas,  fisheries,  forests,  tourism,  etc.)   •  Poor  economic  and  social  infrastructure   •  Exis>ng  stresses  on  health  and  well  being  (e.g.,  HIV/AIDS,  Malaria,   illiteracy)   •  Conflicts     •  Low  adap>ve  capacity  (limited  human,  ins>tu>onal,  technological   and  financial  capaci>es)
  • 6. Climate  Change  in  Africa  •  Africa      _    0.5C  warmer  now  than  100  years  ago   x•  Temperatures  have  risen  much  higher  ,  parts  of     Kenya    have  become  3.5°C  hoaer  in  the  past  20   years   (Oxfam,  the  New  Economics  FoundaOon  and  the  Working  Group  on  Climate  Change  and  Development)  •  Agriculture  contributes  over  20%  GDP    •  Climate  change  nega>ve  impact  on  agriculture  -­‐   up  to  2%  by  2010   6
  • 7. Why  Africa’s  Climate  Change  Burden  is  Greater  •   300  million  people  –  35%  of  Africans  live  in  extreme  poverty    •   250  million  people  –  30%  directly  affected  by  deser>fica>on  and  drought  •   Africa  is  the  least  polluter  -­‐  (3.8%)  of  the  GHG  concentra>ons  in  the  atmosphere   7
  • 8. COMESA:  2003  Crop  Yields(MT/ha)  COMESA  vs.  Global  Crop      COMESA      Global  Maize    1.39        4.47  Rice      1.12        3.84  Wheat    1.38        2.66  Sorghum    0.67        1.30  Cassava    8.18                    10.76  Beans    0.60        0.70  Bananas    4.69                    15.25
  • 9. What  is  Africa  Doing?  •   AFRICAN  UNION-­‐CAADP  •   Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  Ini>a>ve  • FARMING  FIRST   9
  • 10. The  Comprehensive  Africa  Agriculture  Development  Programme  (CAADP)  •   Endorsed  by  the  AU  Assembly  –  July  2003  •   Goal      “to  help  African  countries  reach  a  higher  path  of   economic  growth  through  agriculture-­‐led   development,  which  eliminates  hunger,  reduces   poverty  &  food  insecurity  &  enables  expansion  of   exports.”   10
  • 11. What  is  Africa  Doing?   Comprehensive  Africa  Agriculture  Development  Plan   CAADP  Areas  of  IntervenOon  Pillar  1   Extending  the  area  under  sustainable  land   management  and  reliable  water  control   systems  Pillar  2   Improvement  of  rural  infrastructure  and   enhanced  market  access  Pillar  3   Increased  food  availability  and  nutriOon  Pillar  4       Improving  agricultural  research  and  technology   disseminaOon  and  adopOon
  • 12. His  Excellency  Ngwazi  Dr.  Bingu  wa  Mutharika     “MALAWI  SHALL  NEVER  GO  BEGGING  FOR  FOOD  AGAIN”     2004   “IN  5  YEARS  NO  AFRICAN  CHILD  SHOULD  DIE  OF  HUNGER  AND  MALNUTRITION”     January  2010
  • 13. Bringing  PerspecOves  Together  CAADP  addresses  the  climate  challenge  by:  •  enhancing  biodiversity  through  sustainable  agriculture  and  agroforestry  •  safeguarding  the  produc>vity  of  farms  through  SLWM  But,  recognizing  climate  change,  both  local  and  global,  as  a  threat  to   these  objecOves,  by  •  using  these  same  approaches  as  adapta>on  strategies  to  climate   change.  And,  recognizing  the  role  that  carbon  plays  in  land  use,  as  well  as  in  the   global  climate  regime,  by  •   linking  mi>ga>on  strategies,  especially  carbon  sequestra>on,  to  these   goals.
  • 14. The  Africa  Bio-­Carbon  Initiative  •  An  iniOaOve  of  COMESA,  EAC  and  SADC  –  NOW  AFRICAWIDE  •  Launched  in  Poznan  in  December  2008    •  Endorsed    African  Heads  of  States-­‐  Libya  2009   –  Nobel  Laureate  Wangari  Maathai     –  Honourable  Rejoice  MabudaKasi,  Deputy  Minister  of  Environmental   Affairs,  South  Africa,     –  Mr  Agus  Purnomo  from  Indonesias  NaSonal  Council  on  Climate   Change   –  Honourable  Ligia  de  Doens,  Minister  of  Environment  for  Panama   –  Honourable  Ambassador  Blake  of    AnSgua  and  Barbuda   –  Brent  Swallow  from  the  World  Agroforestry  Centre  (ICRAF)     –  Alexander  Mueller  from  the  Food  and  Agriculture  OrganisaSon  (FAO)     14
  • 15. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve    Vision  •  To  reduce  climate  change  impacts  and  enhance  community  resilience    •  Enhance  access  to  rural  energy  and  empower  rural  popula>ons,    •  Increased  agricultural  produc>vity  and  improved  food  security    PURPOSE  A  post-­‐2012  climate  change  framework  that:  •  Acknowledges  Africas  food  security  efforts      •  Rewards  i  climate  change  mi>ga>on  in  agriculture,  forestry  and  other  land-­‐uses    •  Promotes  adapta>on    CALL  •  To  call  for  release  of  funding  for  research  and  the  development    ac>vi>es  to  enhance   learning  and  ensure  that  sustainable  agriculture/forestry/land  use  ac>vi>es  are  rewarded   and  eligible  for  funding  in  the  interna>onal  post-­‐2012  framework.   15
  • 16. The  Africa  Climate  Change  Focus   IniOaOve  •  IntegraOon  –  Climate  Change  considera>ons  must  be  integrated  into  policies,   sectoral  planning  and  implementa>on  at  local,  na>onal  and  regional  levels  •  Disaster  reducOon  and  risk  management  –  beaer  diagnosis  of  vulnerabili>es   and  strengthen  local  leadership  and  response  •  Building  economic  and  social  resilience  •  Reflects  African  reali>es  and  priori>es  -­‐  poverty  reduc>on  and  community   benefits    •  Reduced  emissions  for  deforestaOon  and  forest  degradaOon  (REDD)  •  Agriculture,  Forest  and  Other  Land  Use  (AFOLU)  •  Land  Use,  Land  Use  Change  and  Forestry  (LULUCF)
  • 17. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve  Principles  •  Africa  reaffirms  its  commitment  to  climate  change  mi>ga>on  and  adapta>on  •  Ini>a>ve  advanced  and  driven  by  African  leadership    •  Reflects  African  reali>es  and  priori>es  -­‐  poverty  reduc>on  and  community   benefits    •  Builds  on  exis>ng  African  ins>tu>ons  and  frameworks  (e.g.  NEPAD  -­‐  CAADP,  )    •  Seeks  to  Establish  stronger  linkages  between    food  security,  climate  change  and   global  environmental  conven>ons  •  Avoids  duplica>on  and  leverages  on  global  partnerships  for  evidence  to   support  policy  processes   17
  • 18. Addressing  Climate  Change  –  To  Do  •  ADAPTATION  is  happening    today!  •   NAPAS-­‐  African  countries  ac>vely  preparing  these  and   need  support  •  MITIGATION  –focus  on  opportuni>es!   •  Recognize  that  total  CO2  emissions  are  low,  but  per  capita  emissions   are  high  if  land-­‐use  changes  are  taken  into  account   •  Focus  on  mi>ga>on  op>ons  which  reduce  land  degrada>on  and     vulnerabili>es   •  13  African  countries  have  prepared  NAMAs   18
  • 19. NAPAS-­‐Country  X  •  Sensi>za>on  of  popula>on  on  effec>ve  water    use  •  Dis>lling  exis>ng  water  dams  and  construc>on  of  new  ones  •  Expansion  of  food  subsidies  in  rural  areas  •  Conserva>on  and  protec>on  of  the  country’s  water  towers  •  Encourage  water  harves>ng  in  urban  and  rural  areas  •  Enhanced  food  relief  supply  to  the  vulnerable  •  Increased  use  of  insec>cide  treated  materials
  • 20. NAPAS-­‐Country  Y  •  Sensi>za>on  of  popula>on  on  effec>ve  water    use  •  Replacement  of  household  goat  herds  with  sheep  herds  to  reduce  pressure  on   fragile  rangelands  •  Introduc>on  of  drought-­‐resistant  seed  varie>es  and  increased  fish  and  poultry   produc>on  •  Introduc>on  of  new  water  harves>ng/spreading  techniques    •  Rehabilita>on  of  exis>ng  dams  as  well  as  improvements  in  water  basin   infrastructure  for  increased  water  storage  capacity    •  Improvement  of  access  to  groundwater  supplies  by  humans  and  animals   though  installa>on  of  water  pumps
  • 21. Africa’s  Strategy  –  “REDD  –  AFOLU  CoaliOon”  •   Africa  promotes  REDD  +-­‐  the  reduc>on  of  greenhouse  gas  emissions  by  forest  sources   – REDD  provides  a  unique  opportunity  for  forest  naSons  to  be   rewarded  for  forest  protecSon  and  stewardship   – REDD++  is  a  welcome  opportunity  •   Africa  promotes  AFOLU  -­‐  carbon  sequestra>on  through  agriculture,  forestry  and  land  use     21
  • 22. Climate  Change  in  Africa   Status  of  African  Farmers  •  Land  owned  –  maximum  2  acres  •  Main  Crops  –  Staples  (Corn)  •  Livestock-­‐mul>ple  use  low  returns  •  Yield  Maize  100kg/ha  •  Fer>lizer  used:  0.2  of     recommended/desired  levels  •  Use  of  recycled  seeds  •  Agricultural  implements     owned  -­‐  hand  hoe  •  Policy  engagements  Nil
  • 23. Puing  Farming  First  -­‐  Key  Principles
  • 24. PrioriOse  Research  ImperaOves    meet  the  challenges  of  the  future  •  Conduct  research  on  food  systems,  soil  fer>lity,  water  availability,  crop  losses  ,   livestock  systems  -­‐-­‐-­‐  climate  change  •  Improving  produc>vity  through  responsible  science  and  technology  •  Increase  public  and  private  investment  in  R&D  •  Promote  farmer-­‐centered  research  •  Establish  public-­‐private  partnerships
  • 25. Safeguard  Natural  Resources      Improve  land  management  pracOces  •  Conserva>on  >llage    •  Watershed  management  •  Wildlife  habitat  and  biodiversity  protec>on  •  Create  incen>ves  for  ecosystem  services
  • 26. Actors  in  the  food  systems   CGIAR, Earth System Science Partnership,Global Research Partnerships CCAFS FARA:CORAF, NASRO, ASARECA, CARDESA, NARES, African Researchers UNIVERSITIES Agro-Inputs, Processing, Private Sector Packaging, Trade and Marketing Farmer organisations Evidence based, predictable policiesNGOs, Media and Advocacy orgs Rallying point for advocacy
  • 27. Food System ACTIVITIES Producing food: natural resources, inputs, markets, … Processing & packaging food: raw materials, standards, storage requirement, … Distributing & retailing food: transport, marketing, advertising, … Consuming food: acquisition, preparation, customs, … Food System OUTCOMES Contributing to: Social Welfare Food Security, i.e. stability over time Environmental•  Income for: Welfare•  Employment •  Ecosystem•  Wealth FOOD FOOD stocks & flows UTILISATION ACCESS•  Social capital •  Ecosystem•  Political capital • Nutritional Value • Affordability services•  Human capital • Social Value • Allocation •  Access to natural • Food Safety • Preference capital FOOD AVAILABILITY • Production • Distribution • Exchange
  • 28.  MulO  –  Stakeholder  Policy  Engagements   NATIONAL LEVEL REGIONAL LEVEL Policy Ongoing Research Advisory •  Coordination of multi-country studies Studies Process •  Synthesis of research evidence National Into Agenda for Policy engagements Policy Emerging Issues and Dialogues Agenda for •  Networking, sharing of information, regional andFANR Policies Tracking (Periodic) Policy global representation Engagement Africa Region Across all AU-RECs (Representatives from all FANR Stakeholder Groups) (CGIAR, Earth System Science Partnership, •  Farmers’ Organisations CCAFS •  Governments •  Private Sector All Stakeholder Groups) •  Researchers •  Development Partners • Media • NGOs –
  • 29. Facing  up  to  the  Climate  Change  Challenge-­‐  Partnerships  •  Iden>fy  and  develop    regional  and  country  programmes  capacity  to  generate   and  administer  an  adequate  base  of  knowledge  base  to  address  climate   change  challenge  for  sustainable  development  •  Focus  on  climate-­‐related  ac>vi>es:   •  Policy   research   and   analysis:   control   of   ac>vi>es   responsible   for   emissions,   par>cipatory  adapta>on  cost  assessment     •  Consensus   building   at   community   and   na>onal   level:   alterna>ve   grassroots   climate  change  adapta>on  strategies   •  Holding  local  corpora>ons  to  account  (responsibility  &liability  )   •  Capacity  strengthening,  technical  advice  and  assistance   •  Communica>on  and  outreach  and  movement  building   •  Knowledge  management  and  peer  learning     •  Linking  agriculture  and  climate  scien>sts
  • 30. The  New  Economy-­‐  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve   Model  for  DistribuOng  New  Money    •   Scale  up  of  community  managed  environment  programmes,  e.g.  CAMPFIRE  –communal  areas  management  program  for  indigenous  resources  • Scale  up  role  of  CSOs-­‐  watch  dog  role  (give  evidence  and  voice  to  Farmers,  media,  women)  •   Smallholder  farmers  act  as  environmental  custodians  -­‐  creates  jobs  -­‐  local  people  are  trained  and  become  involved  as  environmental  educators,  etc    •   Benefits  from  carbon  finance  cement  community  collec>ve  responsibility  :  -­‐  incenSve  for  people  to  conserve  environment,  -­‐  generates  funds  for  community  projects  infrastructure  and  new  market  opportuniSes
  • 31. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve   Road  to  Copenhagen  –visible  impact  •  23-­‐27  February  2009,  New  York,  USA        Intergovernmental  Preparatory  MeeOng  (IPM)  of  the  Seventeenth  Session  of  the   United  NaOons  Commission  on  Sustainable  Development  (CSD-­‐17)    -­‐  Discussed  policy  opSons  and  possible  acSons  to  enable  the  implementaSon  of   measures  and  policies  on  agriculture,  rural  development,  land,  drought,  deserSficaSon   in  Africa    •  14-­‐16  April  2009  Durban,  South  Africa        SACAU  Policy  Conference    -­‐  Developed  clear  strategy  on  climate  change  and  agriculture  in  Southern  Africa  •  6-­‐8  April,  Kadoma,  Zimbabwe        COMESA  Zimbabwe  Climate  Change  Roundtable    -­‐  Developed  a  consensus  on  the  Africa  climate  change  posiSon  •  4  –  6  April  2009,  Lusaka,  Zambia        Regional  ConservaOon  Agriculture  Tour    -­‐  ConservaSon  agriculture’s  role  in  miSgaSon  and  adaptaSon  to  Climate  Change   promoted
  • 32. Climate  Change  and  Africa   Status  of  African  Farmers  •  Small  scale  producers  responsible  for   over  80%  of  staple  food  crops  •  Women    -­‐  main  food  producers  in   sub-­‐Saharan  Africa  accoun>ng  for:   a)  70%  of  the  agricultural  labour   force     b)  80%  of  food  produc>on     -­‐  64%  of  People  Living  With   HIV  and  AIDS  are  in  sub   Saharan  Africa  (SSA)   -­‐  75%  of  all  Women  LHWA   are  in  SSA
  • 33. Wanjiku’s  Dream  –Secure  Livelihood   Land  Owned  -­‐1  hectare   Crops-­‐  Staples  &  high  values  crops   Yield  Maize  3t/ha   High  quality  seeds     Fer>lizer  used:  0.7  of  recommended  levels      Agricultural  Implements  hires  a  tractor,    Owns  2  cows,  5  goats
  • 34. Farmer  of  the  Future-­‐ICT  Friendly
  • 35. The  Africa  Bio-­‐Carbon  IniOaOve   Lessons  for  Barcelona  •  Align  research  agenda  with  global  climate  calendar  •  Include  CSOs  in  main  na>onal  nego>a>ng  delega>ons  and  form   coali>ons  •  Highlight    where  Agriculture  can  be  included  &  reinforced  in   nego>a>ng  text  •  Ensure  integra>on  of  African  media  in  COP15  delega>ons  to   amplify  African  voice  and  hold  governments  accountable  •  Support  nego>a>ng  teams  pre-­‐  and  during  nego>a>ons    •  Evidence  for  collec>ve  engagements  in  side  mee>ng  at  COP16
  • 36. What  Needs  To  Be  Done-­‐  What  Needs  To  Be  Done  in  2010-­‐       •  LULUCF  inventory  of  emissions  and  rules  explicitly  include   agriculture   •  Agriculture  and  food  security  are  part  of  ac>ons  in  implemen>ng   the  Copenhagen  Accord   •  Coherent  mi>ga>on  plans  with  adapta>on  plans  and  poverty   reduc>on  strategies  -­‐  key  for  agriculture  which  is  osen  a  priority   sector  in  both  NAMAs  and  NAPAs   •  Use  of  best  prac>ce  lessons  from  agriculture  programmes  to   inform  global  and  na>onal  policies   •  Regional  and  na>onal  ini>a>ves,  such  as  CAADP  are  supported  to   integrate  climate  change  into  their  policies  and  plans
  • 37. ConclusionAgriculture  is  the  back-­‐bone  of  Africa’s  livelihoods.     A  climate  change  deal  must  include  Agriculture,   Forestry  and  Other  Land  Uses  (AFOLU)   COP  16  -­‐NO  Agriculture  is     NO  GLOBAL  DEAL   To  endorse-­‐  Visit