Learning Event No. 4, Session 1: Lopes. ARDD2012 Rio
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Presentation by Mauricio Lopes, Executive Director, Research Development, Embrapa, at the 2012 Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) in Rio de Janiero, Learning Event No. 4, Session 1: How can ...

Presentation by Mauricio Lopes, Executive Director, Research Development, Embrapa, at the 2012 Agriculture and Rural Development Day (ARDD) in Rio de Janiero, Learning Event No. 4, Session 1: How can developing countries advance towards a more sustainable agriculture? A concrete experience on development of a science-based Tropical Agriculture in Brazil.

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Learning Event No. 4, Session 1: Lopes. ARDD2012 Rio Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Objectives Illustrate, through the Brazilian experience, that developing countries can reach food security while promoting more sustainable ways to access and use their natural resource base; Describe the Brazilian experience of combining public policies, institutional and human development and a science-based strategy to promote agricultural innovation.2010 by Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply.
  • 2. Challenges to Agricultural Development in BrazilTropical Forest Before the 1970´s Brazil was Semi- Semi-Arid not a food secure country. • Low agricultural production and low yields; • Production concentrated in the South and Savannah Southeast Regions; • Constant food supply crisis and rural poverty; • Lack of specific knowledge in Tropical Agriculture; • Lack of adequate agricultural development policies; • Brazil known as coffee and sugar producer.
  • 3. Evolution of Agriculture in Brazil Agricultural Expansion in Brazil From the 1960´s to the 1990´s
  • 4. The Country Developed a Diverse Agrifood System Area/ main crops m ha 1- Flooded rice 0.95 2- Soybean 3.30 Corn 1.30 Wheat 0.60 3- Soybean 3.20 Corn 2.40 Wheat 0.90 4- Soybean 1.20 9 Pasture 11.00 10 11 5- Sugarcane Coffee 2.50 0.30 Citrus 0.70 13 6- Coffee 1.00 8 7- Soybean 1.80 7 Corn 0.80 Cotton 0.10 6 12 Dry beans 0.20 4 5 Pasture 9.00 8- Soybean 3.30 3 Cotton 0.50 Corn 0.40 Pasture 12.00 2 9- Pasture 10.00 10- Tropical fruits 0.07 1 11- Sugarcane 0.90 12- Coffee 0.60 13- Drybeans 0.70 Soybean 0.90
  • 5. Rising Agricultural Productivity Yield increases (1975 to 2009): from 60% to over 200% Rice ARROZ Onions CEBOLA Coffee CAFÉ (em grão) Beef cattle300 330 250 130250 280 120 200200 230 110150 150 180 100100 130 100 90 Slaughter rate = 25 % 50 80 50 80 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001Fonte: IBGE Fonte: IBGE Fonte: IBGE Beans FEIJÃO Tomatoes TOMATE Soybeans SOJA Dairy cattle170 300 190 200150 250 170 170130 150 200 130110 140 150 110 90 110 90 70 100 Milk / head = 70 % 70 80 50 50 50 1975=100 50 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1975 1980 1985 1995Fonte: IBGE Fonte: IBGE Fonte: IBGE Corn Milho Potatoes BATATA Oranges LARANJA Poultry250 300 190 1970 2009 250200 170 Days to slaughter 50 39 200 150150 150 130 Weight kg 1.8 2.2100 100 110 Food conversion (wtwt) 1.4 1.7 50 50 90 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005Fonte: IBGE Fonte : IBGE Fonte: IBGE
  • 6. Brazil Became a Food Secure Country Source: Martha Jr., data from Dieese (2010)
  • 7. Brazil Became an Important Food Exporter 2009 Ranking: Brazilian Production and ExportsAround 79% of the Brazilian food production is consumed domestically and 21% is shipped to over 180 foreign markets Source: MAPA, 2010
  • 8. Brazilian Agriculture: Food, Feed, Fiber and Fuel Brazil Developed a Clean Energy Matrix Other renewable sources 3,8% Uranium Coal 1,4% Natural Gas 4,8% 8,8%Wood and other Petroleum and biomass derivatives 10,1% 37,9% Sugarcane 18,1% Hydroelectricity 15,2% Source: BEN (2010). Elaboration: UNICA
  • 9. Agriculture Supporting Development Brazilian Agricultural Exports (US$ billions) – From 2001 to 2011Source: MAPA, 2012 - with data from Secex* Expected
  • 10. How was it possible?Increase agricultural modernization and food production capacity in record time
  • 11. Evolution of Agriculture in BrazilKey Drivers for Development of an Advanced Tropical Agriculture in Brazil
  • 12. Key Drivers of Agricultural Innovation in Brazil Agricultural Expansion in BrazilGovernment commitment and public policies (macro/agro); From the 1960´s to the 1990´sDevelopment of science-based tropical agriculture;Availability of basic infrastructure;Large extension of arable land and adequate climatic conditions;Landscape suitable for mechanization;Availability of mineral resources (limestone and phosphate);Entrepreneurship of our farmers.
  • 13. Changes in Relative Rate of Assistance - RRA Brazil, China, Ghana, and Indonesia The RRA is a ratio of the nominal assistance to agriculture to the nominal assistance to non-agricultural sectors. If both are equally assisted, the RRA is zero. By 1996, Brazil had removed the negative barriers to agricultural development and was supporting agriculture at least equal to other sectors.Source: The World Bank
  • 14. From Traditional to Science-based Agriculture Creation of a Comprehensive Agricultural Research & TT System17 State Ag Research Centers The Brazilian Agricultural Research CorporationLarge network of experimental stations 47 Embrapa Centers Dedicated to Technology Development Federal Network of Professional Education Private Sector Brazil has also an active and growing private sector, which supplies technologies and technical assistance mainly in farm inputs 70 Agricultural Universities and food processing > 100 Agro Technical High Schools
  • 15. Institutional Building and Strengthening The country has built one of the largest ag research systems in the world State-of-the-art infrastructure + strong training and capacity buildingEmbrapa Soybean Center Source: Embrapa Soybean
  • 16. From Traditional to Science-based AgricultureContributions of Embrapa and Partners Advanced Production Systems Agroindustry Environment Regional Development
  • 17. From Traditional to Science-based Agriculture A Comprehensive Portfolio Cultivar Evaluation NetworksInbred Lines Traceability and CertificationVarieties Forecasting and Future AnalysisHybrids Biological Security NetworksGermplasm Gene and Biological FunctionBioinsecticides System´ System´s AutomationOGMs Monitoring – IPMAgricultural Machinery Monitoring – Environmental QualityEquipaments Monitoring – Food ChainsKits for diagnostics OGMs & BiosafetyVaccines Crop Management Systems Germplasm Exchange Crop Adaptation Processes Quarentine Analysis Food Processing Methodology Information Networks Plant & Animal Transformation Franchising Gene Prospection Methodology Quality Control Integrated Pest Management Consultancy Fingerprinting Training Agroecological Zoning Business Incubation Traceability & Certification
  • 18. Evolution of Agriculture in Brazil Moving Towards Sustainability
  • 19. Moving Towards SustainabilityChanges in Grain Production and Area - 1991 to 2010* Source: MAPA, 2010
  • 20. Moving Towards SustainabilityIncreasing agricultural modernization and food production capacity with great emphasis to environmental protection Source: http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/geo5/GEO5_report_full_en.pdf
  • 21. Moving Towards SustainabilityBrazil has one of the largest area of protected land in the world Source: http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/geo5/GEO5_report_full_en.pdf
  • 22. Sustainable Expansion of Agriculture in Brazil Use of advanced geo-technologies, zoning and management on territory basisBrazil is using Zoning Technology to Manage Agricultural Expansion Agroecological Zoning of Sugarcane for ethanol production 87% of sugarcane production http://www.cnps.embrapa.br/zoneamento_cana_de_acucar/ZonCana.pdf Source: UNICA.
  • 23. Strong Emphasis in Conservation Agriculture Brazils agriculture has been significantly impacted by the transformation of farming from the old intensive tillage systems to new no-till systems.million ha Cultivated area under no-till systems in Brazil Growing Seasons current Brazilian farmers have been the pioneers in no-till farming, maximizing the productivity benefits from Embrapa and other organizations´ R&D. Sources: Emater-RS, Epagri-SC, Emater-PR, Cati-SP, Fundação MS, Apdc (cerrado) / Bigma Consultoria (http://www.bigma.com.br/artigos.asp?id=96)
  • 24. Strong Emphasis in Conservation AgricultureRotating annual crops such as maize, soybean and rice with no tillage allows intensification of land use, increased productivity per hectare, and reduced need for clearing more land for agriculture. Integrating crops and livestock with zero tillage allows reduced use of energy and leaching herbicides, lower fertilizer use and lower greenhouse gas emissions. http://www.agrolink.com.br/noticias/itaipu-e-embrapa-buscam- ampliar-uso-do-biogas-e-do-plantio-direto_144538.html http://www.agorams.com.br/jornal/2012/01/manejo-de-solo-adequado-aumento-da- produtividade-e-ganhos-economicos/ Source: Landers 2007
  • 25. Before Conservation AgricultureIn the past: intensive tillage systems leading to severe soil compaction and erosion Source: Modified from Oliveira and Trecenti, 2009
  • 26. Conservation Agriculture in Brazil Massive conversion of intensive tillage systems to no-till systemsHarnessing ecosystem services on-farm and on large landscape level Agriculture is becoming a “producer” of clean water
  • 27. Conservation Agriculture in Brazil Key component of Brazil´s low carbon emission program for agriculturePublic policies are in place to support CA-based production systems Contributions of CA towards a low carbon agriculture: Facilitating carbon sequestration – Reducing green house gas emissions; Minimizing soil degradation, including erosion and chemical pollution; and Responding to constraints such as high energy, input costs and resource scarcity.
  • 28. New Frontiers in Conservation Agriculture in BrazilIntensification of land use with integrated crop-livestock-forest systems Supported by Brazil´s low carbon emission program for agriculture Source: MAPA, 2010 – Photos by Votorantin Metais
  • 29. New Frontiers in Conservation Agriculture in Brazil Intensification of land use with integrated crop-livestock-forest systems Target: 60+ million ha of degraded pastures – the new agricultural frontier - System´s View and Complexity - Combination of 90+ different technologies Source: Embrapa Cerrados
  • 30. Integrated Crop-Livestock SystemsCorn being harvested and pasture is ready to receive cattle
  • 31. Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems Source: Embrapa Cerrados
  • 32. Sharing Knowledge – Gaining Time Structuring Projects in Africa Pro-Savannah Project - Mozambique Brazil 13º S Lichinga Nacala corridor Nampula 17º SSimilar biomesSimilar challengesNew learning opportunitiesA common vision for the future
  • 33. Evolution of Agriculture in Brazil Challenges
  • 34. Inclusion of Small and Family Farmers Still a gap to technology use in agriculture Mais da metade dos estabelecimentos agropecuários do país utiliza baixo conteúdo tecnológico em sua produção, informa estudo do Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea). Quase 22% dos entrevistados responderam que usam só sete de 22 métodos de auxílio à produção. Esses métodos incluem utilização de fertilizantes, corretivos de solo, defensivos, tratores, orientação técnica, financiamento, cooperativismo, controle de pragas, unidades armazenadoras, entre outros exemplos. Do total de 5,2 milhões de estabelecimentos rurais no país, listados no último Censo Agropecuário do IBGE, apenas 983 mil usavam alta tecnologia, ou seja, mais de nove dos 22 métodos de produção. O estudo, que fez 22 perguntas a produtores e pecuaristas, dividiu as unidades de produção em 4,3 milhões da agricultura familiar e 809 mil da empresarial. Do total familiar, 19% usam alta tecnologia. Na agricultura empresarial, 18% dos estabelecimentos usam mais de nove métodos, o que oshttp://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9467 classifica como usuários de alta tecnologia.
  • 35. Challenges to Agricultural Development in the Tropics - Tropical areas are the most challenging to agriculture - Intense biotic (pests) and abiotic (drought, soil acidity, low nutrients, etc) stresses. All these challenges will be intensified with the global climatic changes. Source: based on Cline, W. R. 2007. Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country. Washington D.C.: Peterson Institute Available at: http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/geo5/GEO5_report_full_en.pdf
  • 36. Energy Use - GHG Emissions - Food Waste Source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an913e/an913e.pdf
  • 37. Agriculture and Green House Gas EmissionsAgriculture is an important source of green house gas emissions:Nitrogen Fertilizers (N20)Enteric fermentation (CH4)Animal waste (CH4 e N20)Rice cultivation (CH4)Burning of agricultural waste (…)Biomass burning (CH4 e N20)… http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/2011/04/global-carbon-footprint/
  • 38. Total Global Water Withdrawn In billions of cubic meters, 2007 Globally, agriculture accounts for nearly 70 percent of all water withdrawals.Source: FAO data from Global Harvest Initiative GAP Report (2011).
  • 39. Food Security… But Also Nutritional Security!http://awesome.good.is/transparency/web/0910/world-health/flat.html Megachange: The World in 2050 by The Economist on May 01, 2012
  • 40. Food Security… But Also Food Safety! Analysis of the international food-trade network shows great vulnerability to the fast spread of contaminants.http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0037810 Source: Ercsey-Ravasz M, Toroczkai Z, Lakner Z, Baranyi J (2012) Complexity of the International Agro-Food Trade Network and Its Impact on Food Safety. PLoS ONE 7(5): e37810. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037810
  • 41. Evolution of Agriculture in Brazil Conclusions
  • 42. Conclusions Governments cannot have a simplistic view of the challengesinvolved in achieving food and nutritional security while moving towards more sustainable agricultural systems……especially in tropical areas, where are the poorest countries and the most challenging environments to agriculture;
  • 43. ConclusionsCountries must devise ways of combining public policies and support to drive: Institutional and human development, Infrastructure investments, Science-based innovation strategies, and Entrepreneurship (farmers, PPP, etc).
  • 44. Many Challenges Ahead…Sustainability & Economic Growth must not be seen as substitutes but complements in development Economic prosperity as a way to improve the environment Economy Synergy Environment Environment as a new opportunity of economic prosperity Source: Modified from UNEP, 2010
  • 45. Many Challenges Ahead… Communication with Society Agriculture must not be seen as a problem, but as asolution and key component in the path towards a more sustainable future.