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Arame Tall 2013: Climate Services Lessons from Africa & South Asia
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Arame Tall 2013: Climate Services Lessons from Africa & South Asia

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Why do African and Asian farmers need climate services? Asking them all one question: how does climate change impact your livelihoods? Your Ability to maintain a decent level of living and provide for …

Why do African and Asian farmers need climate services? Asking them all one question: how does climate change impact your livelihoods? Your Ability to maintain a decent level of living and provide for yourself and your families? What I’ve heard from farmer testimonies and focus group discussions is that Farmers are already adapting . Faced with a more erratic climate, across Africa farmers are already devising innovative strategies and deploying tremendous efforts to cope such as walking longer miles to look for arable land and organizing community solidarity safety nets-akin to local insurance schemes, often also forfeiting meager household assets when shock is too great to cope with. However, there is a point where local capacities to cope fall short, and a little push is needed to get them back on their feet.
One of the ways in which I’ve found that we can effectively give this little push from the outside is through advance information on atmospheric and weather conditions and the state of the climate- to enable them to anticipate climate-related changes and hazards coming their way. Learn more:ccafs.cgiar.org

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  • 1. Climate Services: Empowering Farmers to Confront Climate Risks Lessons from Africa & South Asia Dr. Arame Tall Climate Services- Scientist, Champion a.tall@cgiar.org
  • 2. 2 • 3/21/11 The Big Picture •  +2° future •  9 billion people by 2050 ⇒ The Imperative of Adaptation What do we Adapt to?
  • 3. Projections of precipitation change at the end of the 21st century 3 • 3/21/11http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_figures_and_tables.shtml
  • 4. 4 • 3/21/11 Uncertainty Remains Large West Africa 30 20 Rainfall Change (%) 10 0 −10 −20 −30 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 2075 Year East Africa “A global perspective on African climate” in Climatic CC > More erraticity, exacerbation 30 Change [Giannini, Biasutti, of current climate variability 20 Held and Sobel] nfall Change (%) 10 0
  • 5. 5 • 3/21/11 How do we support Adaptation under Uncertainty?•  One solution: Prepare for the Unknown•  Improve Decision-Making under Uncertainty •  Equip farmers and policy makers with climate information, early warnings and forecast to guide, inform and support their decision- making under uncertainty •  Strengthen preparedness at timescales of the week, season to year
  • 6. 6 • 3/21/11 What do we mean byClimate Services for Farmers? Climate information services build resilience by empowering farmers to anticipate and manage climate- related hazards
  • 7. Why Farmers are Not Getting7• 3/21/11 Salient Climate Services We need to work together to overcome these tenacious challenges to Limited Dialogue with End Users Climate Service delivery to identify Needs, build Trust Inappropriate Communication channels to Get the Message out to farmers Poor Observation Limited capacity of network / end-users to act of received forecasts– Limited capacity of NHMS to Integration of CS into development Credit:  Arame  Tall,   address needs support programs CCAFS  
  • 8. Challenges to Scaling up 8 • 3/21/11 Climate Service for Farmers•  Salience: tailoring content, scale, format, lead-time to farm decision-making•  Legitimacy: giving farmers an effective voice in design and delivery•  Access: providing timely access to remote rural communities with marginal infrastructure•  Equity: ensuring that women, poor, socially marginalized benefit•  Integration: climate services as part of a larger package of support
  • 9. Successful CCAFS Experiences demonstrate that Delivering Climate Information Services for Farmers is Mission Possible Lessons from Good Practice in Africa and South Asia 2009-2012
  • 10. 1) Giving Famers a Voice 10 • 3/21/11In design of Climate Services•  Spaces for iterative dialogue, interaction and Co-production of climate service•  PAR > key to involve communities, capture innovation⇒  Co-production of Climate services•  Preliminary Results of Kaffrine end project assessment –  Increase in access, from handful in 2011 to 100% by 2012 –  Demonstrated Usefulness of received information, for all products across timescales –  Added value to traditional forecasts
  • 11. 2) Leveraging ICTs to 11 • 3/21/11 ‘reach the last mile’•  Place specificity of farmers’ climate information needs•  Salient communication channels identified to reach the most vulnerable: ü  SMS in local language ü  Forecast bulletin boards in strategic outposts across village ü  Community relays/boundary organizations (red cross volunteers, World vision staff) ü  At village mosque ü  At water boreholes (women) •  Focus on Equity: reaching women and other underserved groups
  • 12. 3) Innovative tools to Communicate 12• 3/21/11forecasting uncertainty -  Didactic GamesThe shorter the time range, the more precise the forecast ⇒   Bringing  forecasters  and  end-­‐users  to  work  together  to  put  climate  knowledge  in  the  hands  of  communities  at  risk  from  HMDs     Credit:  Red  Cross/ PetLab  
  • 13. Communicating Downscaled13 • 3/21/11 Seasonal forecasts to farmers > The PDF Credit:  J.  Hansen,  CCAFS   Credit:  Dr.  Ousmane  Ndiaye,  ANACIM   Ousmane  Ndiaye,  ANACIM   Farmers  discussing  what  1mm   of  rain  means…  
  • 14. 14 • 3/21/11….To Wote, Eastern Kenya: Research into UseCredit:  J.  Hansen,  IRI/CCAFS  KPC  Rao,  ICRISAT    
  • 15. 15 • 3/21/11 4) Seemless forecasting•  Suite of Seemless forecasting products •  Tailored to User needs –  Seasonal ü  Content: hazards, scales –  Dekadal ü  Timing: Alarm threshold –  72h ü  Message format & language –  48h –  3h- nowcasting ⇒  Key to support farmers in managing uncertainties inherent in climate forecasting ⇒  Confirmation of risk as season unfolds WEATHER CLIMATE HOURS DAYS WEEKS MONTHS YEARS DECADES …
  • 16. 5) Promoting a coordinated16 • 3/21/11 Framework for Climate Services Global Fig. 2: Outcome of Identify users pilot GFCS national Regional •  Each user has specific needs Workshops in Burkina, •  Map out sector-specific Niger and Mali (July- climate service needs National Sep. 2012) User Feedback Elaborate climate service •  For Constant improvement •  Pluri-disciplinary production and tailoring of services to of agro-met advisory service, farmer needs in collaboration with other technical services A Best practice model of the Cycle Diffuse largely of Climate Service Production 16
  • 17. 17 • 3/21/11 Everyone has a role to Play in Linking Information to Action Fig. 3: Different National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMS) Roles in the Chain of Climate Production  of  hydro-­‐met  forecasts Information Production and NARS (Partners) Communication Tailoring  of  received  climate  info  >   Production  of  Agro-­‐Met  Advisory   Communicators & Boundary Organizations: - Media – Extension Services - Other community relays (NGOs, CBOs, etc.) Widespread  communication  of  climate   information  and  advisory  services   National level end-users (rural development policy makers, seed and fertilizer industry, private sector) Final End-users (farmers, pastoralists, at risk communities) Credit:  Arame  Tall,  CCAFS  
  • 18. 18 • 3/21/11 CCAFS intent to Scale up Climate Services for Farmers1.  Identifying Good practice2.  Upscaling Climate Services to millions of farmers –  Incentivizing Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Climate Services at National level –  Leveraging strong partnerships between NHMS, Agricultural research and extension services to produce integrated agro-climate advisories –  Role of boundary organizations and media for wide communication3.  Minimum Standards for Assessing Livelihood Impact - making the case for Climate Services
  • 19. Reaching Farmers with 19 • 3/21/11 Climate Services at Scale > Mission Possible•  Examples surveyed by CCAFS prove that it is today Mission Possible to reach millions of farmers with salient and downscaled climate information and advisory services relevant to support their decision-making under an uncertain climate.•  It is time to Scale Up this approach for many other farmers to have access and benefit from available climate information and advisory services.•  The time is Right for Climate Services. For more information, contact: Arame Tall, a.tall@cgiar.org Photo: Farmer in Ouelessebougou village, happy beneficiary of Mali’s 30year old Agromet advisory program. Credit: A. Tall

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