Current status of the science of adaptation in African agriculture

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Chinwe Ifejika Speranza from the University of Bonn and United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Bonn, Germany. Presentation on the current status of the …

Chinwe Ifejika Speranza from the University of Bonn and United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Bonn, Germany. Presentation on the current status of the science of adaptation in African agriculture. This was presented in Bonn, Germany during the SBSTA 40 CCAFS official side event on advancing readiness to fast track Climate Smart Agriculture

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  • 1. UNU-EHSUNU-EHS Current Status of the Science of Adaptation in African Agriculture Prof. Dr. Chinwe IFEJIKA SPERANZA Department of Geography, University of Bonn / United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security UNFCCC Sideevent: Advancing readiness to fasttrack climate smart agriculture in Africa, Bonn climate Change Conference June 2014 Bonn, Germany Sunday June 8, 2014
  • 2. UNU-EHS 2 Climate Change - one of many dynamics 2 Wiesmann et al. 2011: 248
  • 3. UNU-EHS 3 Adaptation to Climate Change in African Agriculture Behavioural Economic Technological Institutions Farm-level Autonomous Policy-level Landscape level Most adaptations NCCRS
  • 4. UNU-EHS 4 Integrating Trees into Croplands Which institutional arrangements enable and foster these adaptations? Faidherbia Acacia albida Adansonia digitata Adansonia digitata Shea butter Source: WMO/UNEP 2001 Chinwe Ifejika SperanzaChinwe Ifejika Speranza Chinwe Ifejika Speranza Chinwe Ifejika SperanzaChinwe Ifejika Speranza
  • 5. UNU-EHS 5 Conservation Agriculture (CA)  CA => increase in soil organic matter & carbon sequestration, fuel-, labour-, and input saving, less drudgery, stable yields - Kenya (Majanen & Scherr 2011; Bayala et al. 2012)  Lower the costs of tillage & weed control with subsequent increase in net returns e.g. Malawi (Ngwira et al. 2012)  May increase labour input for weeding – women  Benefits depends on level of soil fertility depletion  Need for training on use of herbicides and pesticides Chinwe Ifejika Speranza Chinwe Ifejika Speranza Chinwe Ifejika Speranza
  • 6. UNU-EHS 6 Adaptation to Climate Change in African Agriculture Behavioural Economic Technological Institutions Farm-level Autonomous Policy-level Landscape level Most adaptations NCCRS
  • 7. UNU-EHS 7 Weather Forecasting and Early Warning Systems  Improving services & communication of seasonal forecasts to farmers - Kenya, Nigeria  Farmer uncertainty about their reliability (e.g. Kenya)  Senegal - Farmers better able to adapt to climate change & variability when they apply climate information to choice of seed and crop (Sultan et al. 2010)  Potential to improve the linkages between the Min. of Agriculture & the Meteorological Agencies e.g. Kenya (Shah et al., 2012)  Need to improve forecast communication
  • 8. UNU-EHS 8 Rice Breeding for Africa  More than 30 stress-tolerant rice varieties released in nine African countries  New rice varieties tolerant of salt, cold, and iron toxicity for Africa by the Africa Rice Breeding Task Force  In addition to the ARICA (Advanced RICes for Africa) brand; the NERICA varieties  Challenge: quantity of seed produced & disseminated to farmers - a major bottleneck (Mohapatra 2014) http://www.africarice.org/africaricesearch.html?q=adaptation
  • 9. UNU-EHS 9 Financing Adaptation in Agriculture  Rural finance and micro-credit in various countries, often used by women (e.g. Sudan, Osman-Elasha et al., 2008, Ifejika Speranza 2010).  Challenge: a steady stream of finance needed
  • 10. UNU-EHS 10 Index-Based Weather Insurance  Index-based weather insurance (Malawi; Hellmuth et al., 2009); weather index micro- insurance (Tigray, Ethiopia); Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) (Oxfam America 2009)
  • 11. UNU-EHS 11 Introducing or Improving Irrigation  Need to embed irrigation expansion within systems-level planning (van de Giesen et al., 2010; Burney and Naylor, 2012; Laube et al., 2012).  Rain-water harvesting in ponds; River-water abstraction; Drip irrigation technologies - foster diversification to high- value horticultural crops (Karlberg et al., 2007; Woltering et al., 2011; Biazin et al., 2012).  Improving water use efficiency for both rain-fed and irrigated production (Weiβ et al., 2009)  Side-effects: Risk of malaria & other waterborne (snails) diseases IPCC 2014
  • 12. UNU-EHS 12 Maladaptation Challenges  Biofuels - Promotion of Jatropha  Use of wetlands for cropping (Hamisi et al 2012)  Increased charcoal production (Hartmann and Sugulle, 2009)
  • 13. UNU-EHS 13 Integrating Adaptation & Mitigation  Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration  Integrating perspectives - Governments favour mitigation while local communities prioritise adaptation (Fisher et al., 2010; Somorin et al., 2012).  Jatropha - potentials and limitations (Hanff et al 2011)  2010, the Kenya Agricultural Carbon project (World Bank 2014)  The Ethiopia CDM afforestation project (UNFCCC CDM 2009) IPCC 2014
  • 14. UNU-EHS 14 Fisheries and Aquaculture  Aquaculture - rural southern Malawi - Integrating ponds into smallholder farming systems increases food production & income during times of drought (Dey et al. 2014)  Need for more research on adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture IPCC 2014
  • 15. UNU-EHS 15 Adaptation in Livestock Production Systems  National Livestock Marketing Information System - SMS & information boards - Kenya - Kariuki et al. (2009)  Provision of shade & water to reduce heat stress from increased temperature  Reduction of livestock numbers – a lower number of more productive animals leads to more efficient production & lower GHG emissions  Breeding - Changes in herd composition (Central Uganda National Animal Genetic Resource Centre and Databank, Hoffmann 2008)  Improved management of water resources (IFAD 2009; World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism 2010)
  • 16. UNU-EHS 16 Adaptation to Climate Change in African Agriculture Behavioural Economic Technological Institutions Farm-level Autonomous Policy-level Landscape level Most adaptations NCCRS
  • 17. UNU-EHS 17 Mainstreaming Climate Change UNFCCC National Focal Point National CC coordination committee/commission Agriculture Ministry Ministry B Ministry C Sub-national level Local level ? ??? ??? ??? Local actors Local administration / Field Offices Local NGOs UNFCCCInternational Level Development partners Intl. NGOs Other UN-Orgs M e d i a Nat Research Orgs. Research Orgs P r i v a t e s e c t o r Ifejika Speranza 2014 National level
  • 18. UNU-EHS 18 Conclusions and Outlook  Improving efficiency - access to inputs & markets for outputs  Improving policy and institutional arrangements  Monitoring and assessing adaptation  Funding and technology transfer and support  Strengthening institutional capacities and governance  Strengthening capacities of scientific institutions in Africa  Extending small case studies to larger areas  Science – Policy / Practice Linkages
  • 19. UNU-EHS 19 Thank you for your attention! ifejika.speranza@uni-bonn.de
  • 20. UNU-EHS 20 References I Bayala et al. (2012) ‘Cereal Yield Response to Conservation Agricultural Practices in Drylands of West Africa: a Quantitative Synthesis’, Journal of Arid Environments, 78:12-25 Biazin, B., G. Sterk, M. Temesgen, A. Abdulkedir, and L. Stroosnijder, 2012: Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa -A review. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 47-48, 139-151. Burney, J.A. and R.L. Naylor, 2012: Smallholder Irrigation as a Poverty Alleviation Tool in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development,40(1), 110-123. Dey et al. (2014): Development and dissemination of integrated aquaculture–agriculture technologies in Malawi. In: The Impact of Natural Resource Management Fisher, M., M. Chaudhury, and B. McCusker, 2010: Do forests help rural households adapt to climate variability? Evidence from Southern Malawi. World Development,38(9), 1241-1250 Hamisi, H.I., M. Tumbo, E. Kalumanga, and P. Yanda, 2012: Crisis in the wetlands: Combined stresses in a changing climate -Experience from Tanzania. Climate and Development, 4(1), 5-15. Hanff, E., M.-H. Dabat, and J. Blin, 2011: Are biofuels an efficient technology for generating sustainable development in oil-dependent African nations? A macroeconomic assessment of the opportunities and impacts in Burkina Faso. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(5), 2199-2209. Hartmann, I. and A.J. Sugulle, 2009: The impact of climate change on pastoral societies of Somaliland. Candlelight for Health, Education & Environment, pp. 62. Hellmuth, M.E., D.E. Osgood, U. Hess, A. Moorhead, and H. Bhojwani (eds.), 2009: Index insurance and climate risk: prospects for development and disaster management. In: Climate and Society No. 2. International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), Columbia University, NewYork, USA, pp. 112. Hoffmann (2008) Livestock Genetic Diversity and Climate Change Adaptation. Livestock and Global Change conference proceeding. IFAD (2009) Comprehensive Report on IFAD’s Response to Climate Change Through Support to Adaptation and Related Actions
  • 21. UNU-EHS 21 References II Ifejika Speranza C. 2010. Resilient Adaptation to Climate Change in African Agriculture. German Development Institute, DIE Studies 54 IPCC 2014: IPCC WGII AR5 / Niang and Ruppel et al. 2014. Chapter 22. Africa. http://ipcc- wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Chap22_FGDall.pdf Kariuki et al. (2009): From LINKS to NLMIS: Issues, Challenges and Lessons Learned Karlberg, L., J. Rockström, J.G. Annandale, and J.M. Steyn, 2007: Low-cost drip irrigation-A suitable technology for southern Africa?. An example with tomatoes using saline irrigation water. Agricultural Water Management, 89(1-2), 59-70. Laube, W., B. Schraven, and M. Awo, 2012: Smallholder adaptation to climate change: Dynamics and limits in Northern Ghana. Climatic Change, 111(3), 753-774. Majanen & Scherr (2011): Performance and Potential of Conservation Agriculture for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Mohapatra 2014. Rice Today April-June 2014 (http://www.africarice.org/publications/ricetoday/Climate-Smart-rice-for- Africa.pdf) Ngwira, A.R., J.B. Aune, and S. Mkwinda, 2012: On-farm evaluation of yield and economic benefit of short term maize legume intercropping systems under conservation agriculture in Malawi. Field Crops Research, 132, 149-157. Oxfam America 2009. Drought Micro-insurance in Ethiopia: An Innovative Model to Increase the Resilience of the Poorest Households. http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/application/pdf/oxfam_america.pdf Osman-Elasha, B., N.Goutbi, E. Spanger-Siegfried, B. Dougherty, A. Hanafi, S. Zakieldeen, E. Sanjak, H. Atti and H. Elhassan, 2008: Community development and coping with drought in rural Sudan.In: Climate Change and Adaptation. [N. Leary, J. Adejuwon, V. Barros, I. Burton, J. Kulkarniand R. Lasco (eds.)]. Earthscan, London, UK and Sterling, VA, USA, pp. 90-108. Pye-Smith (2013): THE QUIET REVOLUTION: How Niger’s farmers are re-greening the parklands of the Sahel. ICRAF Trees for Change no. 12. Shah et al., 2012. Options for Improving the Communication of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts to Smallholder Farmers – The Case of Kenya. http://www.die-gdi.de/uploads/media/BP_17.2012.pdf
  • 22. UNU-EHS 22 References III Somorin, O.A., H.C.P. Brown, I. Visseren-Hamakers, D.J. Sonwa, B. Arts, and J. Nkem, 2012: The congo basin forests in a changing climate: Policy discourses on adaptation and mitigation (REDD+). Global Environmental Change,22(1), 288-298. Sultan et al. (2010): ‘Estimating the Potential Economic Value of Seasonal Forecasts in West Africa: A Long Term Ex Ante Assessment in Senegal’, Weather, Climate and Society, 2:69-87 UNFCCC CDM 2009. Project design document form for afforestation and reforestation project activities (CDM-AR-PDD) - Version 04. Humbo Ethiopia Assisted Natural Regeneration Project. http://cdm.unfccc.int/filestorage/W/5/7/W57JTARN2IZCOHG09DYVMS1XF8Q4LK/PDD.pdf?t=a0R8bjZ3d2difDC36D odnaZ2CpVwkhapVYJ_ UNEP / GRID-Arendal (UN Environment Programme) (2002): Vital climate graphics; online: http://www.grida.no/climate/vital/index.htm (accessed 12 June 2009) van de Giesen, N., J. Liebe, and G. Jung, 2010: Adapting to climate change in the Volta Basin, West Africa. Current Science, 98(8), 1033-1037. Weiß, M., R. Schaldach, J. Alcamo, and M. Flörke, 2009: Quantifying the human appropriation of fresh water by African agriculture. Ecology and Society, 14(2), 25. Wiesmann U., et al. 2011. A human actor model as a conceptual orientation in interdisciplinary research for sustainable development. In: Wiesmann U, Hurni H, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Research for Sustainable Development: Foundations, Experiences, and Perspectives, University of Bern, Vol. 6. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 231–256. Woltering, L., A. Ibrahim, D. Pasternak, and J. Ndjeunga, 2011: The economics of low pressure drip irrigation and hand watering for vegetable production in the Sahel. Agricultural Water Management, 99(1), 67-73. World Bank 2014. Kenyans Earn First Ever Carbon Credits From Sustainable Farming. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/01/21/kenyans-earn-first-ever-carbon-credits-from- sustainable-farming World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (2010): Building climate change resilience for African livestock in sub- Saharan Africa. A program of International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, IUCN