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Understanding Memory By: Clare Hedlund
 

Understanding Memory By: Clare Hedlund

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EDCI 500 presentation on memory

EDCI 500 presentation on memory

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    Understanding Memory By: Clare Hedlund Understanding Memory By: Clare Hedlund Presentation Transcript

    • Understanding Memory Clare Hedlund EDCI 500 October 10, 2008
    • Overview
      • Cognitive Perspective
      • Information Processing System
        • Sensory
        • Working
        • Long-term
      • Strategies for learning and teaching
    • Cognitive Perspective
      • “ Knowledge is learned, and changes in knowledge make changes in behavior” (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 248)
      • Humans are active participants in mental processes, which can be studied scientifically
      • Different than Behavioral Perspective
        • Behaviors are learned
        • People are passively influenced
        • (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 248)
    • Information Processing System
      • Sensory Memory
        • Perception – information is assigned meaning and sent to working memory (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 251)
      • Working Memory
        • Information is either recycled in working memory to remain immediately available or combined with existing knowledge in long term memory and is learned
      • Long-term Memory
        • Knowledge is stored and retrieved for use
    • Working Memory – “Workbench”
      • 3 Parts
        • Central Executive – attention and processes
        • Phonological Loop – rehearse words and sounds
        • Visuospatial Sketchpad – manipulate images
      • Retaining Info in the Working Memory
        • Maintenance rehearsal – repeating info so that it remains available in working memory
        • Elaborative rehearsal – moves info to long-term memory by connecting new info with existing knowledge
        • (Woolfolk, 2007, pp.254-255)
    • Long-term Memory
      • Knowledge is permanently stored
      • More time to input but capacity is unlimited
      • Contents
        • Declarative Knowledge – “knowing that”
        • Procedural Knowledge – “knowing how to do something”
        • Conditional Knowledge – “knowing when and why”
        • (Woolfolk, 2007, pp. 257-258)
    • Storing, Retrieving and Forgetting
      • Storing and Retrieving
        • Elaboration – connecting new information with existing information
        • Organization – organized information is easier to learn and remember
        • Context – environment and context is learned with information and so can help recall information
      • Forgetting – information is lost through interference or time decay
      • (Woolfolk, 2007, pp. 263-265)
    • Teaching and Memory
      • To get students to learn
        • Get attention
        • Teach students to focus on important information
        • Make connections between new information and existing knowledge
        • Repeat and review
        • Organize material and present it clearly
        • Focus on meaning
        • (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 266)
    • More Strategies for Teaching and Learning
        • Lessons are more meaningful when using language familiar to students
        • Use visual aids to get the point across
        • Explain and model memory strategies
          • Mnemonic Devices
          • Chucking – grouping bits of info together to make larger bits—can remember more
        • Distributive practice – intermittently over a period of time
        • (Woolfolk, 2007, pp. 256,269-273)
    • References
      • Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational Psychology . Boston: Pearson Education.