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Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease
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Jan 2010 Student Generic Unit 4 To Help Prerelease

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Edexcel Produced for students following Geography GCE 2008 www.edexcel.com

Edexcel Produced for students following Geography GCE 2008 www.edexcel.com

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  • 1. Edexcel Unit 4 6GEO4 Revision The last phase before the exam! January 2010 10 top tips for success Kim Adams Principal Examiner Kim Adams Contents 1. Audit of research and exam skills 2. Tackling the pre release material 3.Enquiry Qs and synoptic element- topic maps for each option 4 Familiarity with the exam paper 5. What is the report style essay product 6 research and preparation for content and report product 7 Example of the whole process using Option 5 8 Characteristics of weak and good work 9 Common problems in exam- solutions? 10 Success and FAQs
  • 2. 1. How would you rate your own abilities? <ul><li>Research Audit </li></ul><ul><li>1 poor to 5 good- total /50 </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation? </li></ul><ul><li>Taking the initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving ? </li></ul><ul><li>Effective researching from a range of sources? </li></ul><ul><li>Being flexible? </li></ul><ul><li>Time management? </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting deadlines? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-discipline? </li></ul><ul><li>Working outside of class? </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping orderly file? </li></ul><ul><li>Exam skills audit </li></ul><ul><li>1 poor to 5 good- total /50 </li></ul><ul><li>Revision? </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Command + Key words in Question? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning the answer? </li></ul><ul><li>Time management? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technical language- geographical vocabulary? </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping to the point? </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a report style product? </li></ul><ul><li>Sourcing? </li></ul><ul><li>Showing evaluative skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an effective final conclusion? </li></ul>Kim Adams ...independent learning is highly valued by universities and employers.... Revision skills- what do you use? Textbooks Original Notes Summary notes Cue cards Vocabulary glossary Practice exam Qs Topic maps....
  • 3. 2. What are You doing now to prepare? Sample pre release
  • 4. Examples of how the pre release helps the real exam Q Kim Adams Have you looked at sample titles from the main textbooks and the sample assessment Materials on the main Edexcel website? Pre release steer Actual exam Q Tectonic Activity and Hazards The physical causes of tectonic hazards, and responses to them Discuss the relationship between the nature of tectonic hazards and human responses to them Explore the extent to which tectonic activity has a distinctive geography and is spatially concentrated in hotspots Research the role of the 3 major types of plate boundary in causing varying types of tectonic hazard with differing frequency and magnitude Tectonic hazards have a distinctive geography. Discuss Explore what is meant by tectonic landscapes by looking ata variety of zoned areas. Research the role of extrusive and intrusive activity in producing a variety of landforms,& contrasting past & present tectonic activity Explain why tectonic landscapes contain such a variety of landforms ( Life on the Margins: Food supply Problem The complex causes of food insecurity To what extent do food security issues vary spatially and temporally? Research the causes of food insecurity threatening life at the margins, with a particular focus on areas affected by desertification Explore drylands with contrasting economic status suffering desertification and their vulnerability to food insecurity Assess the role of desertification in threatening life at the margins Explore how and why some areas have increased food supplies to create a surplus and others are experiencing shortages and famine More food but still more hunger. Discuss
  • 5.   2 As soon as you get the pre-release research focus: <ul><li>Dissect it by relating it back to the specification. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss it with your peers and teacher . </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure you know what ‘Explore’ and ‘Research’ actually mean. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of any key concepts and models likely to help </li></ul><ul><li>Which terms in your glossary may help? </li></ul><ul><li>Practice linkage words, to make your report structured and logical. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall the parts of your file most related to the focus </li></ul><ul><li>Make final summary fact-files of your main case studies/examples: precise details are required in final exam for top grades </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the complexity in the focus- Geography rarely involves black and white decisions- where’s the element of gray? </li></ul><ul><li>Try to practice different introductions and conclusions - especially to time. Your plan should take 5 mins or so, introduction should be written in 10minutes, main conclusion in 10 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>If you haven’t tried writing a full report in 90 minutes with no notes, now is the time! </li></ul><ul><li>Remind yourself of the components of the generic mark scheme: the formula is D+R+A+Q+C = 70! </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 6. 1 st Exam pre release Dec 11 th 2010 Exam Feb 2010 <ul><li>OPTION 1: Tectonic Activity and Hazards • Explore the types and levels of challenge posed by varying forms of tectonic activity. • Research contrasting locations to draw out the range of tectonic activity and the different impacts produced on communities. OPTION 2: Cold Environments – Landscapes and Change • Explore the variety of geomorphological processes and landforms associated with different glacial environments. • Research a range of locations including both current and relict glacial environments. OPTION 3: Life on the Margins – the Food Supply Problem • Explore the problems of managing a range of contemporary food insecurity issues. • Research management strategies at a range of scales and locations. OPTION 4: The World of Cultural Diversity • Explore what is meant by a global culture, how it is defined and, if it exists, what its characteristics are. • Research contrasting locations, some of which show the effects of cultural globalisation and others which seem to be resisting the process. OPTION 5: Pollution and Human Health at Risk • Explore a range of human health risks and the varying degrees to which they have been controlled. • Research types of health risk strategies at a range of scales and locations. OPTION 6: Consuming the Rural Landscape – Leisure and Tourism • Explore the variety of challenges created by leisure and tourism in rural areas and how they have changed over time. • Research contrasting types of rural landscapes experiencing leisure and tourism in order to assess their varying threats and opportunities </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 7. 3 Enquiry Questions and Synoptic element- Topic mapping <ul><li>Within each Option there are 4 Enquiry Questions , and sub questions to break up the topic into manageable chunks. </li></ul><ul><li>Each report style essay will either cut across several Enquiry Questions, or will examine several sub questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The synoptic element of People-Places –Power is built into each Enquiry Question </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 8. Topic map Tectonic activity and hazards where is the focus of YOUR prerelease title? Kim Adams Tectonic Hazards = Causes Tectonic Hazards Human Impacts Tectonic Hazards physical impacts Response to tectonic hazards Range of Hazards + disasters Event profiles Plate margins Impacts from extrusive activity Causes Effectiveness of approaches and trends Range of impacts Strategies Volcanic landforms Types of approach + economic development Trends frequency + impact Links to economic develoment Reasons for living in tectonic zones Effects from intrusive activity Effects from earthquakes • Explore the types and levels of challenge posed by varying forms of tectonic activity. • Research contrasting locations to draw out the range of tectonic activity and the different impacts produced on communities.
  • 9. Topic map: Cold Environments landscapes and change where is the focus of YOUR prerelease title? Kim Adams Defining + locating Climatic processes + causes Distinctive landforms+ landscapes Challenges + opportunities Cold periglacial glacial environments systems Distribution changes over time British Isles Climatic causes Long term changes Meteorological processes British Isles Glacial processes + landforms Periglacial processes + landforms types Past /present Management strategies/ approaches • Explore the variety of geomorphological processes and landforms associated with different glacial environments. • Research a range of locations including both current and relict glacial environments.
  • 10. Topic map: Life on the Margins: the food supply problem where is the focus of YOUR prerelease title? Kim Adams Global + Local Feast or famine- Characteristics of food supply + security Complex causes of food supply inequalities Management of food supply + security Desertification + life at the margins of survival Current issues: Famine, food miles globalisation food tastes, under +over nutrition Human + Physical Scale + impact Techniques Dryland ecosystems characteristics Impacts of increasing food supplies Players: local to international Inappropriate farming + Environmental issues Food security + quality of life in rural + urban areas Vulnerable groups Drylands vulnerability Food supply relationships sustainability Strategies Spatial patterns • Explore the problems of managing a range of contemporary food insecurity issues. • Research management strategies at a range of scales and locations.
  • 11. Topic maps: The World of Cultural Diversity where is the focus of YOUR prerelease title? Kim Adams What is Culture +its value The geography of culture Impact of Globalisation on cultural diversity Cultural attitudes to the environment Definitions + origins Range + landscapes Threats Significance on cultural diversity Different players’ values Attitudes to environment, eg sustainability Urban/rural divide Definitions of environment Anthropocentric viewpoint Resolving conflicts: eg green movement Role of players Cultural imperialism (eg McDonaldisation ) Degrees of diversity + homogeneity Role of global media corporations Impacts of consumerismm Glocalisation • Explore what is meant by a global culture, how it is defined and, if it exists, what its characteristics are. • Research contrasting locations, some of which show the effects of cultural globalisation and others which seem to be resisting the process.
  • 12. Topic Map: Pollution and Human heath at risk where is the focus of YOUR prerelease title? Range and types of human health risk: Short term to chronic The role of Pollution: incidental +sustained types Management options and effectiveness Role of short term, emergency relief and longer term planning + sustainability? Complex Causes of health risks Different agencies: Strategies + policies for differing health risks Impacts: long + short term burdens Geographical patterns: spatial +over time epidemiological model Direct + indirect threats Relationship with economic development Role of socio-economic status Role of Physical features + geographical pathways Kim Adams • Explore a range of human health risks and the varying degrees to which they have been controlled. • Research types of health risk strategies at a range of scales and locations.
  • 13. Topic map: Consuming the rural landscape: leisure and tourism where is the focus of YOUR prerelease title? Kim Adams The growth of leisure tourism landscapes Impact on rural landscapes Significance + fragility of rural landscapes Management issues Growth + pleasure periphery Range of landscapes Attitudes of groups involved Activities + conflicts Physical + ecological value Models eg carrying capacity, resilience Quantitative + qualitative measures fragility Negative impacts Positive impacts Changes over time Threats /opportunities in different economic development areas Arguments for/against management Range of strategies Attitudes/strategies of different groups effectiveness • Explore the variety of challenges created by leisure and tourism in rural areas and how they have changed over time. • Research contrasting types of rural landscapes experiencing leisure and tourism in order to assess their varying threats and opportunities
  • 14. 4. What will the exam look like? <ul><li>Exam booklet </li></ul><ul><li>Writing instructions on front page – eg BLACK pen! </li></ul><ul><li>Report titles-NB You have NO choice! One per option only </li></ul><ul><li>A page specifically for Planning </li></ul><ul><li>C.15 more blank sides </li></ul><ul><li>ENSURE YOU ANSWER THE OPTION STUDIED IN THE EXAM!! </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 15. 5. The exam product: What is a report style essay? <ul><li>You need to merge traditional essay writing style with report style to produce a discursive argument organised into structured sections. </li></ul><ul><li>A report is a conventional method of presenting precise information. </li></ul><ul><li>Report style is highly structured and organised. </li></ul><ul><li>It is tightly focused on the subject of investigation </li></ul><ul><li>An effective report will also be compelling and stimulating to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Report titles will require an analysis and assessment of a situation. </li></ul>Introduction Plan Series of linked sections ordered by concepts or case studies + sub conclusions Conclusion Kim Adams Pollution provides substances, usually toxic chemicals, and conditions in the environment, especially in the air and in water supplies that create a risk to the health and well-being of people( online Medical Dictionary). Most pollution, whether incidental or sustained, is sub-lethal in effect, increasing morbidity rather than mortality, but may weaken the human system so it is vulnerable to another disease or even another pollutant .
  • 16. Writing frame model K Adams 2009 DRAQ is the shortened reference to the generic mark scheme. Main structure What needs to be included Hitting 70? PLANNING PAGE 1 SIDE MAX spider, spectrum diagram, grid, bullets…..) Section 1: Introduction Discussion of title-developing a focus- by case study or concepts Accurate definitions Framework by concept/case study D 10 Analysis Section 2 Concept/case study 1 2 ……. 3 etc ….. Research + sampling methods: range, topical, relevant Analysis, Application+ Understanding: linked to title (+supporting maps/diagrams if relevant) Values/perspectives R 15 + Sub conclusion/ evaluation +Sub conclusion/ evaluation A 20 +Sub conclusion/ evaluation Section 3 : Final Conclusion Ongoing evaluations + final summary. Shows complexity of Q C 15 Quality of written communication: Report style, sequencing, SPAG, Geographical Vocabulary referencing/sourcing Q 10
  • 17.   6. Research and preparation <ul><li>Planning before and during exam is essential . </li></ul><ul><li>It saves time- makes you a more efficient independent learner and achiever ! </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure you have a timeline , listing the days/ weeks up until the pre-release and final exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Add interim deadlines for research, class work such as presentations, and practice report essays. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the information you need to collect and set aside time to organise the material. </li></ul><ul><li>The key is to achieve a balance between ‘reading around’ a topic as well as a focussing on specific aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Last minute; revise vocabulary, key facts for mini examples and longer case studies, practice planning tiles in 5 minutes, actual introductions,ensure you know what the command words mean for A2...... </li></ul>Choice of option Research Pre release Revision Final exam Kim Adams There are 3 main factors to consider to give your report a sound framework, clear style and an attractive, readable appearance: I – Structure II - Content and discussion III - Language and presentation  
  • 18. Structure <ul><li>Report essays need logical form and shape i.e. structure </li></ul><ul><li>As a basic structure you should think: </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 19. Plans and introductions <ul><li>Are always marked, even if crossed out </li></ul><ul><li>Messy scribbles which help YOU are fine </li></ul><ul><li>Do not over-plan (take too long planning) to detriment of real report-essay. </li></ul><ul><li>A planning page is designated in the examination answer booklet </li></ul><ul><li>Pull apart the Question: identify the: </li></ul><ul><li>Command words e.g. discuss, analyse, explain….. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the key words e.g. all, mainly, increasingly </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the range of case studies/examples needed </li></ul><ul><li>Identify any restrictions i.e. case studies or themes that do not fit the question. </li></ul><ul><li>In your introduction : </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><li>justify </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 20. Example of Plans Kim Adams Plan type 1-linear type Bullet points in a list Paragraph 1 Para 2 Para 3 etc With egs/casestudies chosen as a list Plan type 2 Spider /mind map with numbers on afterwards to show order of discussion Add case studies <ul><li>Plan type 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum diagram: often the best if trying to sort out a statement, formulate an argument, eg: </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, agree<….…>no disagree </li></ul><ul><li>small scale<…….>large scale </li></ul><ul><li>Hang your egs/ casestudies off the continuum/spectrum line </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for ‘grey areas’ in geography and anomalies </li></ul>
  • 21. Style and Quality of Written Expression <ul><li>Essential to practice hand written Report Essays before final exam </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the general layout of your product : </li></ul><ul><li>use proper report style with sections and paragraphs . </li></ul><ul><li>Use diagrams and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Bullet points are acceptable if part of an argument or diagram. Remember to reference any diagrams in your text as Fig 1, 2 etc </li></ul><ul><li>Use A-Level vocabulary and style, e.g. linking words, for example ‘ in comparison’, ‘however’ </li></ul><ul><li>Is your argument easy to follow by the examiner? </li></ul><ul><li>Your sentences must be grammatically correct, well punctuated and words must be spelt accurately, especially geographical terminology and place names. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor writing regularly indicates muddled ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Use short sentences rather than rambling, long complex ones! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember you are writing to communicate not to perplex or impress. Avoid jargon. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the specific title. Every part of the essay-report should relate to it, and this will help to keep the report concise and coherent. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy is vitally important so always be precise. Know the material you are trying to convey   </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 22. Practising report style essays and the Exam <ul><li>The Exam Product: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A report has sections / numbered sections, headings, diagrams and possibly bullet points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure is a key element of the report, make it obvious to the examiner! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One key aim is ‘readability’ – e.g. paragraphs need to be more than one sentence and linked logically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid colloquialisms( e.g. sad, cool) and abbreviations (e.g. etc, don’t). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid “I did this or that” and write in the third person(e.g. “it can be seen that….”) </li></ul></ul>Kim Adams Ans on next slide! Use the following language within your report: To ILLUSTRATE: i.e. case studies ???? To CONTRAST between case studies or examples ???? To EXTEND the material presented ???? To CONCLUDE ???? To EVALUATE within the report ????
  • 23. Language.... Kim Adams To ILLUSTRATE: i.e. case studies For example, that is…another example of …. To CONTRAST between case studies or examples However…but…albeit….on the other hand….another aspect to consider…in contrast… To EXTEND the material presented Moreover…furthermore…in addition….in the long term…. To CONCLUDE Therefore…as a result…as has been shown….in the future…. To EVALUATE within the report To an extent…it could be argued that….the main reason/factor/process/challenge could therefore be said….other groups may….on the other hand….against this it could be argued….one view that could be taken……
  • 24. Case studies and examples <ul><li>Do not fall into the trap of collecting dozens of detailed case studies for the sake of it. </li></ul><ul><li>You will not be able to use them all in the final exam which is only 1 ½ hours! </li></ul><ul><li>Several extended examples and some really in depth case studies which cross over all the subsections is the best preparation for the final exam. </li></ul><ul><li>The key is to be flexible in your final choices and selection in the exam: to reject information as well as accept it!  </li></ul>Kim Adams .... 6...?. large Case studies sorted by location, scale, economic development, time, issue/problem.... .... 6...?. more smaller examples
  • 25. Use specialist Geographical vocabulary: name at least 4 technical terms from YOUR OWN option Kim Adams Ans on next slide! Tectonic activity + Hazards Cold environments Life on the margin World of Cultural Diversity Health + Pollution Consuming the rural landscape
  • 26. Specialist Geographical vocabulary: Kim Adams Tectonic activity + Hazards salience, vulnerability, techno-centric, intra-plate, Mercalli scale, aseismic, USGS…… Cold environments Moraine, trim line, budget, albedo relic landscape, permafrost Antarctic Survey……. Life on the margin Food security, famine, obesity, desertification, hyper arid, Sahel, WFP, UNEP…. World of Cultural Diversity Ethnoscape, diversity, UNESCO, globalisation, Mcdonaldisation……. Health + Pollution trans- boundary, diffuse, sustained, point, sink, precautionary principle, Tragedy of Commons, sustainability, DALYs, W.H.O…. Consuming the rural landscape wilderness continuum, core-buffer zoning, Biosphere reserve, resilience, carrying capacity, sustainability, National Park…..
  • 27. Facts, stats and topicality <ul><li>Facts - make factfiles for each of your case studies- dates, locations, types- ’ learning these is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Real life geography : do not repeat information, or use overly similar examples. Are the comparisons between case studies wise, e.g. can you really compare an infectious disease with a trauma in terms of effects, or responses to a volcano and an earthquake ? </li></ul><ul><li>If relevant to your question, try to show the global spectrum of economic development rather than just the outdated N-S. </li></ul><ul><li>Be topical if you can. well researched older case studies are fine so long as they are brought up to date- for example what is happening now in Denali? Antarctica? Kobe? Bam? Chernobyl? Bhopal? Darfur? AIDs/HIV ,’ Food 2030 strategy of UK Government Jan 2009……….latest tsunami, earthquake, volcano....Swine Flu........ </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 28. Evaluating and conclusions <ul><li>You get marks for evaluating throughout the essay, so after each main section have a link back to the title </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion - </li></ul><ul><li>How long? </li></ul><ul><li>What should you put in it? </li></ul>Kim Adams Ans on next slide!
  • 29. Evaluating and conclusions <ul><li>Conclusion - This section, probably ¾ or a side of writing, is a summary of all the major findings made at stages throughout the report. </li></ul><ul><li>No new evidence or examples should appear here. </li></ul><ul><li>The conclusion consider the evidence presented in the main body, draws out the implications and brings it to one overall conclusion or an ordered series of final conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be obvious reference back to the title and your SPECIFIC case studies. </li></ul><ul><li>You might want to make reference to the future if relevant </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 30. Methodology + Sourcing <ul><li>Marks are awarded for briefly showing how you selected data </li></ul><ul><li>Eg from reputable sources </li></ul><ul><li>Range of sources </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>How you sampled data eg an example from a MEDC NIC LEDC LDC or from a range of scales, impacts etc </li></ul><ul><li>Mention in your introduction if possible </li></ul>. Quote some key references eg BBC news website, USGS, Greenfacts, New Scientist, Geography Review, key text or podcast or DVD Best=…..in your report, ........as a footnote .......or( less effectively )at the end as a mini Bibliography. Avoid vague reference to Google or Wikipedia or The BBC website! Kim Adams
  • 31. In the exam.......be a detective and a Rottweiler- look for clues and tear up the title! <ul><li>Remember the mark scheme always! </li></ul>Kim Adams Mark scheme Marks Introducing, defining and focusing on the question 10 D Researching and Methodology 15 R Analysis, application and understanding 20 A Conclusions and evaluation 15 C Quality of written communication and sourcing 10 Q TOTAL 70
  • 32. 7 Example of a Pre release Research steer : Option 5 Explore the complex causes of health risk and how some of these may be generated by pollution. Research a range of case studies causing different types of health risks   <ul><li>  Unpicking the steer </li></ul><ul><li>1. Identify the overall causes of heath risk: infectious and degenerative/ chronic diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Range of causes: result of human lack of knowledge, poor choices in life styles or external causes, such as pollution, or environmental change. </li></ul><ul><li>2 . What are the links to pollution? sustained and incidental/point pollution, toxicity, then impact on societies health. </li></ul><ul><li>direct (such as asthma and air quality) </li></ul><ul><li>  indirect, ---global warming leading to a spread of malaria </li></ul><ul><li>short term -- diarrhoea/cholera from water pollution- more a localised meso/micro scale) </li></ul><ul><li>long term --- ozone depletion and melanoma- global macro scale) </li></ul><ul><li>  3. You need examples of health risk NOT linked to pollution too, such as TB,HIV/AIDS or obesity or ‘debt depression’ </li></ul><ul><li>Models --epidemiological model and Kuznet environmental curve may help focus research. </li></ul><ul><li>topical data on pollution? Other health issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Note all books, articles, DVDs, websites etc used. Check authenticity/reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Kim Adams
  • 33. To what extent are the causes of health risk linked to pollution ?   Kim Adams IN THE EXAM: BUG the Q! Box command word Underline key word Glance back at whole Q to make sense! YES Health risk is linked to pollution NO Health risk is NOT linked to pollution <ul><li>Directly: </li></ul><ul><li>---land pollution: toxic e- waste, China, </li></ul><ul><li>---sustained water pollution: cholera , Harbin and cancer villages China </li></ul><ul><li>---air pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>incidental: Chernobyl. </li></ul><ul><li>sustained : urban asthma London ,Beijing. </li></ul><ul><li>( Indirect- global warming if time) </li></ul>Infectious disease: TB hotspots Degenerative disease: Obesity :lifestyle,…fatcamps (HIV/AIDs if time) Main part Sections: Air pollution-point then sustained Chernobyl 86 Water pollution cholera darfur Spatial shifts and China ( air-Beijing, water, Land: ewaste, cancer villages) Infectious then degenerative risks Conclusion Pollution v imp , rise of BRIC….but degenerative worst overall threat globally Double burden Role MDGs Sources : Blacksmith Institute BBC WHO World Bank China SEPA New Scientist BMA AVERT Unit Guide World Watch Institute
  • 34. Introduction- how to get 10/10 <ul><li>1.1 The scale of the issues </li></ul><ul><li>Health risks are caused by a variety of internal and external factors, and can be classified into chronic, infectious and trauma types. However, the fact that both the World Health Organisation and the UNs Millennium Development Goals, view pollution control and prevention as critical in health risk management, highlights the potential relationship to be discussed in this report. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 the US NGO pressure group, The Blacksmith Institute, publicised the global health burden from pollution rather than just listing toxic hotspots in developing countries. This followed a 2007 Cornell University study attributing 40 % all deaths globally directly to pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution has changed from a fairly localised problem in communities to a much more globalised transboundary issue creating health risks,. This report will focus on a range of locations and scales, from the UK to China, hot spots like Chernobyl and China’s cancer villages. K Smith and M Ezzati, from Berkeley and Harvard Universities and Omram’s epidemiology model will also be used.(Fig 1). </li></ul><ul><li>A range of reputable sources will be quoted within the report from the WHO to the BBC. More biased data from pressure groups and governments will be used too ,for example Blacksmith Institute US NGO and China’s EPA, an agency uder Government control. </li></ul>nKim Adams Gripping start! Shows understanding and doesn’t just repeat title Clear ref to title- introduces players Develops a focus Indicates methodology ie sampling techniques Specifically refers to diagrams Obvious report style sections immediately
  • 35. <ul><li>1.2 Definitions of pollution and how it may create health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution provides substances, usually toxic chemicals, and conditions in the environment, especially in the air and in water supplies that create a risk to the health and well-being of people( online Medical Dictionary). Most pollution, whether incidental or sustained, is sub-lethal in effect, increasing morbidity rather than mortality, but may weaken the human system so it is vulnerable to another disease or even another pollutant . </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Other causes of health risk </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from pollution there are two other arguably more dominant causes of health risks, see Fig 2 health risk classification.Chronic diseases were once common only in more industrialised areas like USA, Japan and Europe, but are now a feature of transition economies like BRIC which are now suffering a ‘double burden’ of disease as well as pollution generated illnesses from their rapid industrialisation. Fig 2 </li></ul>Kim Adams Accurate definitions key terms Shows complexity of title simple tables useful Infectious Degenerative, chronic health risks Traumas <ul><li>often communicable </li></ul><ul><li>often acute ie rapid onset or intense symptoms. Endemic, pandemic,epidemic </li></ul><ul><li>Vectored or Non vectored </li></ul><ul><li>often resulting from longevity, not communicable </li></ul><ul><li>  Chronic- ( lasting over 3 months ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular , Respiratory, Obesity related Diabetes, Cancer, Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Degenerative eg Arthritis, Alzheimer’s </li></ul>eg from work related accidents or transport accidents
  • 36. INDIVIDUAL Household Sanitation + water quality CASESTUDY Darfur and Winchester MESO SCALE Community Urban Pollution rises with rapid urbanisation then falls with good management – case study Mumbai Increasing Wealth/ development Shifting Environmental Burdens Severity Of impact Local, immediate, risks to human health Fig 2 The Environmental Risk Transition Global, delayed, risks to life support systems because world affected GLOBAL Climate change Today’s biggest pollution risk case study Copenhagen 2009 Omram model: over time health burdens change: pestilence  receding infectious pandemics..>chronic diseases  emergent/remergent diseases Simple black and white diagram Effective communication CUSTOMISED FOR THIS TITLE!!!!
  • 37. Summary of rest of report... <ul><li>Section 2 pollution types and their associated health risks </li></ul><ul><li>  2.1 Air pollution and health risk: the case studies of Chernobyl and UK air quality </li></ul><ul><li>  2.2 Water pollution and health risk: the case of cholera 2.3 Spatial shifts in health risks from pollution </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Focus on China’s overall health risks including pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Non pollutant health risks elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Health risks from infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>  3.2 Health risks from chronic diseases </li></ul>Kim Adams Wide range relevant case studies/egs and concepts Accurate topical All research directly applied to title Cogent (ie reasoned, convincing)argument Diagrams used to support answer Mixture of prose, bullet points, mini diagrams... USING PEE MODEL! Point.Example, Evaluation
  • 38. Conclusion <ul><li>  It has been shown that pollution has long been a part of health risks to humans, with a shift in the last few decades from the formerly industrial nations of the west to current developing and transition economies such as Darfur and China respectively. Both diffuse and point sources are involved, shown in the Chernobyl and China air quality examples. The fact that watch dogs like the Blacksmith Institute and global scale players like the United Nations focus on pollution issues indicates the importance of this to human quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The clearest direct link between pollution and health risk was shown in the Chernobyl case study, although as the BMA has stated recently, that there is overwhelming evidence now linking air pollution with increases of asthma as well as lead and the latest pollution source :e-waste. </li></ul><ul><li>This report used China as a major example since it demonstrates all health risk challenges , is the largest current scale globally of pollution related health issues and also the ‘time bomb ‘of chronic diseases .Pollution is estimated by China’s own environmental agency and the World Bank to account for up to 5% of total GDP by 2008! </li></ul><ul><li>Health risks certainly do have complex causes, and both pollution and health are priorities in the current MDGs targeting hotspots of risk. However, despite all the evidence shown in this report, statistically still the most important challenges to human health are infectious and especially degenerative health risks, as indicated in the rates of TB and obesity in the UK, with a double health burden in transition economies like China. </li></ul>Kim Adams NB there has been ongoing evaluations throughout Clearly stated end conclusion Thorough recall of case studies and concepts used earlier Understands complexity of Q
  • 39. Summary of Mark scheme Kim Adams <ul><li>So when your examiner is thinking DRACQ and awarding up to 70 marks, have you maximised your chances for success? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you give your Definitions/ introduction and conclusion 10 marks each? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you identified the complexity in the focus- Geography rarely involves black and white decisions- where’s the element of gray?! </li></ul><ul><li>Have you shown both range and depth in your Research for 15 marks? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you really tried to fit the data to the title and get the highest Application/ analysis marks? </li></ul><ul><li>How close to 10 will you be on Quality of Written Communication? </li></ul>Mark scheme Marks Introducing, defining and focusing on the question 10 D Researching and Methodology 15 R Analysis, application and understanding 20 A Conclusions and evaluation 15 C Quality of written communication and sourcing 10 Q TOTAL 70
  • 40. How did this student fare with the mark scheme? Kim Adams A very cogent, competent response. Official Mark Scheme Comment on student’s performance D Introducing, defining and focusing on the question /10 Needs to define key terms, and set out the framework for analysis Clear definition of key terms. Sound framework and focus. Identifies a variety of scales. Discusses title with topical start 9 R Researching and methodology /15 Expect sound range of research different health risks, with a priority on pollution related risks Wide range of relevant mini egs and longer case studies , very topical 13 A Analysis application and understanding /20 Discussion needed as to whether the statement is true. Expect some arguments for and against. Argues the case strongly for with ongoing evaluation. Also considers case against, supported by facts 18 C Conclusion and evaluation /15 Needs to refer back to the question. Ongoing evaluation should feature Meaningful conclusion –returns to main case studies and justifies findings. Indicates complexity. Strong ongoing evaluation. 12 Q Quality of written communication /10 Expect sound use of terminology. Sound structure. Good use of language. Well structured report. Clearly headed. Sound use of terminology. Well written. Obvious evidencing 9 62/70
  • 41. 8 Characteristics of weak and strong exam work Kim Adams Characteristics of weak work Characteristics of strong work <ul><li>Unstructured report </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of focus on the question in the introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Random case studies, poorly related to question focus </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Another case study is…” </li></ul><ul><li>A simple presentation of knowledge, some of it incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>No referencing, sourcing or hint at research methods </li></ul>?
  • 42. Characteristics of strong exam work Kim Adams Characteristics of strong work <ul><li>Well organised, sectioned report </li></ul><ul><li>Direct reference to question, definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Justified case study choice </li></ul><ul><li>Links to concepts, theories and models </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory, supported by factual detail </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting examples </li></ul><ul><li>Links between case studies and examples drawing out overall themes </li></ul><ul><li>A genuine discussion </li></ul><ul><li>A genuine attempt to source, reference and mention research </li></ul>
  • 43. 9 Common Problems in exam-…Solutions! <ul><li>Problem </li></ul>Panic: Cant do this, No idea what Question means….. Deep breath, shut eyes,focus! Scribble some notes, data from a case study you know- think with a pen always Think positive, the examiner is NOT out to show your lack of knowledge! You can never be penalised in an exam- but you may not be gaining marks by repetition, unfinished work, poorly selected data—and of course not answering the Q set! BUG IT!!!!! Running out of time Get to the conclusion even if leave some blank space. Go into bullet points- as this is a report not a formal essay this is acceptable style anyway Thought of something extra and no room to fit it in Neatly use an * and refer to a specific page for the extension Time to spare Unlikely if you have done 10 weeks research work and at least some revision. Use it to check SPAG, add some geographical vocabulary, some footnotes, underline the main section headings…….
  • 44. 10 So, Student Success? <ul><li>S= use all your SKILLS as a geographer- synthesis! </li></ul><ul><li>U = Understand what is required </li></ul><ul><li>C= act on command words </li></ul><ul><li>C= select relevant case studies and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>E = Exam Question : choose the one you have prepared for even if others look suddenly more interesting </li></ul><ul><li>S=keep to strict time scale when researching and IN the exam itself </li></ul><ul><li>S= make sure you know the mark scheme and how the examiner will be marking your work . </li></ul>
  • 45. Unit 4 FAQs <ul><li>When is it examined ?– Exam in Jan or June </li></ul><ul><li>How long is the exam?- 1 hr 30 min </li></ul><ul><li>What type of Question is asked?- One long essay/report to showcase and synthesise research results </li></ul><ul><li>What is it marked out of ?- 70 worth 40% of A2 and 20% of total A level marks </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Pre release focus?- A steer to the actual exam title given 4 working weeks before exam to focus your revision. </li></ul><ul><li>Can I wait until the pre release and do my work then-NO! You will find the 4 Enquiry Qs studied over a long period are essential for the final question in direct and indirect ways </li></ul><ul><li>What are the enquiry questions? -There are 4 parts to any option chosen, all must be studied and the exam Q will often expect coverage of more than one enquiry question </li></ul><ul><li>How many Qs to choose from?-Only one in your chosen option </li></ul><ul><li>Can I take my notes in?- No </li></ul><ul><li>Do I have to do the Q on the option I have studied at college/school?- Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Time is very short to write a long report , will I need to do a plan in the exam? -Yes, there will be a separate page for a plan in your examination booklet. Plans are invaluable in selecting correct information, rejecting other information not directly relevant, in keeping your trend of argument on track and in structuring your final product </li></ul><ul><li>Should I quote where some of the information originates from?- Yes, you can mention how you selected data and then refer to authors/sources either in the main body, as simple footnotes or an end mini bibliography. Avoid references to just Wikipedia and Google and school/college intranet! </li></ul><ul><li>Should I use just the information given in class by my teacher?- No, you are required to show independent geographical research. Showcase any initiative you have taken, eg emails, fieldwork….. </li></ul><ul><li>Can I write a simple essay? NO you will not maximise your marks, a REPORT is required! </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>

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