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Dropouts for students

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  • Risk status, however, is not a fixed quality; it will vary across time, circumstances, and contexts. Therefore, we recommend using the term at-risk to describe the situation, not the student. We prefer the phrase students in at-risk situations. With the dropout prevention strategies examined here, we seek to change these situations—and to help all students graduate .
  • If students are held back, particularly in middle or high school, they are more likely to drop out and therefore not receive a high school diploma. These findings have been reported in states like Kentucky and Texas that emphasize test-based accountability. Predictable Casualities ,Education Week, Mary Hatwood Futrell and Iris C. Rotberg. October 2, 2002
  • Which children are most likely to drop out? The fact is most of the children will be from low-income families. These are the children who must fight the odds of an uneven playing field both because of their poverty and because of the inadequate resources devoted to their schools.   Poverty is the major variable predicting low educational achievement. Predictable Casualities ,Education Week, Mary Hatwood Futrell and Iris C. Rotberg. October 2, 2002
  • When looking at our 15 strategies to help students graduate, it is helpful to have a conceptual framework. Our framework suggests that strategies are both separate and interdependent. All strategies should be implemented within the context of systemic planning. The provision of a safe environment for learning is paramount for success. Safe environment is important both in the community and the school. School community partnerships is at the core of all the other strategies.Schools simply cannot do the job alone. The other strategies are in three groupings.
  • “ Systemic renewal is about continuous, critical inquiry into current practices, identifying innovations that might improve education, removing organizational barriers to that improvement, and providing a system structure that supports change.” Systemic renewal necessitates creating a flexible, responsive organization that enables teachers, school administrators, students, parents, and community members to collaborate in providing within each school the experiences students need to achieve academic success. Schools and district that engage in comprehensive school reform should be committed to developing a system-wide strategy that affects teaching, learning, accountability, governance, and professional development (Schwartzbeck, 2002)
  • The American Institutes for Research (AIR) developed a guide to provide accurate, objective information on whether the 24 most popular schoolwide approaches improve achievement in such measurable ways as higher test scores and attendance rates. Only three of the approaches—Direct Instruction, High Schools That Work, and Success for All—have sufficiently rigorous research to offer strong evidence of positive effects on student achievement
  • These are all examples of programs that can be enhanced through school-community collaboration.
  • Creating a safe school means that students can learn and teachers can teach in a warm and welcoming environment free of intimidation, violence and fear. Behavior expectations are clearly communicated, consistently enforced and fairly applied. Such an educational climate fosters a spirit of acceptance and care for every child.
  • There is also a difference in the perceptions of teachers and students about who are the victims of such behavior. . .
  • Literacy is a continuum that begins at birth and continues throughout life. Reading and writing develop concurrently and interrelatedly in young children. Children do not first learn to read and then learn to write; rather, reading and writing develop in concert.
  • Parents or other adults support and nurture children’s literacy development during read-aloud experiences when they build on the child’s comments about the text; pose challenging questions; suggest alternative interpretations of the text; encourage personal reactions; draw attention to letters, words, and illustrations; and engage in extended discussions about the text.
  • Most importantly, schools need to provide early intervention for children who experience problems learning to read and write. This additional instructional support is necessary and essential in helping struggling readers and writers “catch up with their peers early, before their difficulties become more intractable” (AACTE, 2002, p. 14). A number of programs such as reading recovery and book buddies have proven effective in accelerating the progress of struggling literacy learners
  • Not just service, but service that is linked to academic and personal learning.
  • Integrated into the Curriculum— The service activity is based on and related to classroom learning objectives. Active – students learn by doing and reflect on what they do Interesting and Exciting – students select, design, implement and evaluate their projects Connected to Community – students engage in activities through community-based learning projects.
  • The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) aggregates student test data and provides a measure of the effects on the academic progress of student populations of the system, the school, and the individual teachers. (Sanders, 1998)
  • There is a wealth of information available on effective teaching strategies for at-risk youth that allow these students to construct knowledge. Central to allowing students to construct knowledge is active, experiential learning – that is -- creating a situation where the child is actively interacting with the new information and forging new concepts and relationships .
  • Transcript

    • 1. Effective Strategies for Increasing Graduation Rates Presented by Dr. Jay Smink, Executive Director National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Clemson University Attending to AttendanceConnecticut Conference on School Attendance Marriott Hotel, Rocky Hill, CT April 8, 2005 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 1
    • 2. Helping Students Graduate National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 2
    • 3. Overview I. Understanding the Problem II. Strategies That Work National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 3
    • 4. Understanding The Problem National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 4
    • 5. Who Are Students At Risk?A student at risk is “someone who is unlikely tograduate on schedule with both the skills and theself-esteem necessary to exercise meaningfuloptions in the areas of work, leisure, culture, civicaffairs, and inter/intrapersonal relationships.” (Bailey & Stegelin, 2003) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 5
    • 6. Dropout Prevention: A National Issue 488,000 U.S. students dropped out of school between October 1999 and October 2000 Enough to fill 12,000 school buses(National Center for Education Statistics, 2002. Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000.) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 6
    • 7. Dropout Prevention: A National IssueHigh School Completion In 1970, 84% of 18 to 24-year-olds had completed high school. In 2000, the rate had increased by only 2.5% -- to 86.5% (National Center for Education Statistics, 2002. Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000.) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 7
    • 8. Dropout Prevention: A National Issue State Graduation Rates – 2000-01   (Using 9th grade enrollment as base)Worst Graduation Highest Graduation Rates Rates  New Jersey 86% South Carolina 51%  North Dakota 84% Florida 52%  Iowa 83% Georgia 57%  Utah 83% Mississippi 57%  Minnesota 82% Tennessee(The Education Pipeline in the United States , 2004) 57% National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 8
    • 9. Dropout Prevention: A National Issue Background Characteristics Race/Ethnicity Dropout Rate White, non-Hispanic 6.9% Black, non-Hispanic 13.1% Hispanic 27.8% Asian/Pacific Islander 3.8%(National Center for Education Statistics, 2002. Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000) Native American Dropout 57.0%(Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Civic Report 31 Public School Graduation Rates in theUnited States, 2000) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 9
    • 10. Dropout Prevention: A National Issue Background CharacteristicsFamily Income Level Dropout Rate  Low 10.0%  Middle 5.2%  High 1.6%(National Center for Education Statistics, 2002. Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000.) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 10
    • 11. Dropout Prevention: A National IssueStudents with Disabilities Nationwide, dropout rates among students with disabilities for all categories of disability combined is approximately double that of general education peers. Dropout rates vary substantially among the various categories of disability. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 11
    • 12. Dropout Prevention: A National IssueStudents with Disabilities at GreatestRiskGraduated with regular diploma 57%Emotional/behavioral students’ rate 50%Learning disabilities students’ rate 32%(Wagner, 1995, 1991) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 12
    • 13. Grade Retention and School Dropout One grade – increases risk by 40% Two grades – increases risk by 90%(Roderick, M. PDK Research Bulletin, No. 15,1995) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 13
    • 14. Reasons for Dropping OutNELS: 88 - Reasons for Dropping Out of School Had poor grades/was failing school 31.4% Did not like school 30.0% Could not get along with teachers 15.4% Was suspended/expelled from school 10.7% Could not get along with students 6.4%(Dropout Rates in the United States: 1994 . NCES, U.S. Department of Education) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 14
    • 15. Reasons Students Do Not Attend School  Classes are boring, irrelevant, and a waste of time  Lack of positive relationships with teachers  Lack of positive relationships with students  Frequent suspensions  Feeling unsafe at school  Poor grades  Need to work(Railsback, J., Increasing Student Attendance , 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 15
    • 16. Students’ Reasons for Staying in School  Supportive family  Involvement with committed adult  Persevering attitude  Respectful relationship with teachers  Satisfaction with learning experiences  Relevant curriculum  Fair discipline policies(Christenson & et al, 2000) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 16
    • 17. Factors for Staying in School for Students with Disabilities  Changes in attitude  Changes in attendance policies  Changes in discipline policies  More support from teachers(Kortering & Braziel, 1999) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 17
    • 18. Variables AssociatedWith DropoutsStatus Variables Age, Gender Socioeconomic background Ethnicity Native Language Mobility Family Structure(Lehr, C.A.,et.al, Essential Tools, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 18
    • 19. Variables AssociatedWith DropoutsAlterable Variables Grades, Retention Disruptive behavior Absenteeism School Policies, Climate Sense of belonging Attitude toward school Support in the home(Lehr, C.A.,et.al, Essential Tools, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 19
    • 20. Unemployment Rate by Educational Attainment  Doctoral degree...................... 1.6%  Master’s degree...................... 2.8%  Bachelor’s degree................... 3.1%  Associate’s degree.................. 4.0%  Some college ......................... 4.8%  High school degree................. 5.3%  Less than high school.............. 8.5%(Noland and Davis, U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 20
    • 21. Characteristics of Dropouts Absent more than 10 days Participated in no school activities Received more counseling Disliked school Failed 3-5 classes Retained one year Received 5-9 discipline referrals (Huffman, K.L., WVU Were identified in middle school Dissertation, 1999) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 21
    • 22. Categories of Factors ContributingTo Students Dropping Out Individual Factors Family Factors School Factors Community Factors National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 22
    • 23. Individual Factors Lack of future orientation Inadequate peer relationships Drug abuse Pregnancy Special learning needs Depression National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 23
    • 24. Family Factors Poverty Low expectations Abuse Mobility of family Parent level of education Language and literacy levels National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 24
    • 25. School Factors Lack of program for challenged students No significant, interested adult Lack of alternatives for learning Lack of active learning instruction No individual learning plans Behavior and discipline issues Retention policies National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 25
    • 26. Community Factors Lack of involvement with schools Lack of support for schools Non-caring environment Low expectations Violence Few recreational facilities National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 26
    • 27. While no one factor or even severalfactors put students at risk,combinations of factors can helpidentify potential dropouts. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 27
    • 28. Key Components of Intervention Strategies for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities Persistence to engage in school Monitoring student activities Relationship building with adults Affiliation with school Developing problem-solving skills(Thurlow & et al, 1995) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 28
    • 29. Key Components of Dropout Prevention Programs  Develop interpersonal skills  Provide individualized academic instruction  Involve family  Provide school structures(Lehr & et al, 2003) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 29
    • 30. The Bad NewsAbout Dropout Prevention Awareness is lacking by most people Apathy is common and the issue is seen as someone else’s problem Applied knowledge is not used by decision makers Acquisition of information about success is inadequate National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 30
    • 31. The Good NewsAbout Dropout Prevention  Identifiable  Independent  Interrelated  Irrefutable National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 31
    • 32. 15 Strategies That HelpPrevent Students From Dropping Out National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 32
    • 33. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s te m ic R en y E narl tions ew al rve l a e IntSystemic Renew S Co choo Basic Co mmu l- Core llab n ora ity Strategies tion Ins tru Pra ctio ctic nal Sy es tem s ic en R ew al National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 33
    • 34. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s te mi c Re al ne waSystemic Renew l Re Sy new ste al mi c National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 34
    • 35. Systemic RenewalWhat is Systemic Renewal? Continuous, critical inquiry into current practices Identifying educational improvements Removing organizational barriers Providing a system structure that supports change(Schwartzbeck,2002) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 35
    • 36. Systemic RenewalPrograms Providing Strong Evidence ofPositive Effects on Student Achievement  Direct Instruction  High Schools That Work  Success for All(Educational Research Service, 1999) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 36
    • 37. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s te m ic R en ew al l aSystemic Renew S Co choo Co mmu l- llab n ora ity tion Sy tem s ic en R ew al National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 37
    • 38. School-Community Collaboration Schools can no longer be islands in communities with no bridges to the mainland. Bridges must be built to connect schools, homes, and communities.(Center for Mental Health in Schools, 2001) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 38
    • 39. School-Community CollaborationCollaboration is Defined in Many Ways … Through Services  Coordination of services  Integrated services  Public-private partnerships  School-linked and school-based services National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 39
    • 40. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s te m ic R en ew al l aSystemic Renew S Co choo Co mmu l- llab n ora ity tion Sy tem s ic en R ew al National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 40
    • 41. Creating Safe Learning EnvironmentsA Safe Learning Environment Provides a warm and welcoming atmosphere that fosters a spirit of acceptance and caring for every child Is free of intimidation, violence, and fear Clearly communicates behavior expectations that are consistently enforced and fairly applied Builds positive, responsible character National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 41
    • 42. The Need for Creating Safe Learning Environments Students Likely to Be Victims According to Type Teachers Students From low-income families 35% 34% Racial/ethnic minorities 25% 35% Social outcasts/nerds 24% 65% Troublemakers/gangs 6% 48% Girls 5% 34% Younger students 4% 51% With disabilities 3% 31% (Met Life Survey: The American Teacher, 1993) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 42
    • 43. Public Schools With Specific Crimes: 1999-2000 Physical attack or fight without a weapon 64% Threats of physical attack without a weapon 52% Vandalism 51% Theft or larceny 46% Possession of a knife or sharp object 43% Sexual harassment 36% Possession/use of alcohol/illegal drugs 27%(National Center for Education Statistics. 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 43
    • 44. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s te m ic R en y E narl tions ew al rve l a e IntSystemic Renew S Co choo Co mmu l- llab n ora ity tion Sy tem s ic en R ew al National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 44
    • 45. Early Interventions Family Engagement Early Childhood Education Early Literacy Development National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 45
    • 46. Family EngagementWhen families are engaged in children’slearning, students are more likely to: Attend school regularly Display more positive attitudes about school Graduate from high school and enroll in post- secondary programs Refrain from destructive activities such as alcohol use and violence (Henderson & Mapp, 2003) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 46
    • 47. Early Childhood Education One dollar invested in high-quality early childhood education programs by policy makers results in a return of seven dollars in preventative costs associated with incarceration, truancy, school dropout, and teen pregnancy.(Perry Preschool Study, Barnett, 1995) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 47
    • 48. Early Childhood EducationImpact of Early Childhood Education …Perry Preschool Study –High-quality Head Startprograms  Decreased level of school dropouts  Lowered truancy  Reduced teen pregnancy  Lessened need to be in Special Education (Barnett, 1995) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 48
    • 49. Economic Development Begins in Early ChildhoodMore at Four —a community-based voluntary pre-kindergarten initiative to prepare at-risk four-year-oldsfor success in school “This is the first step to building a high-quality workforcethat attracts high-quality jobs throughout North Carolina,… We simply have to start earlier to build the kind ofworkforce that it takes to be successful in the neweconomy.” Governor Mike Easley, North  Carolina National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 49
    • 50. Early Literacy Development… is a learning process thatinvolves the student, the text, andthe setting. The road to readingbegins the day a child is born andcontinues through the end of thirdgrade. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 50
    • 51. Early Literacy DevelopmentResearch At-risk students who have a strong reading teacher for two consecutive years can be successful readers. (Wren, 2003)  Reading aloud to children is the single most important activity for building the knowledge required for success in reading. (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2002). National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 51
    • 52. Early Literacy DevelopmentBest Practices Book-rich environment Teacher and/or parent read-alouds Phonic awareness, letter knowledge, and concepts of print Written expression, spelling, and handwriting(Learning First Alliance, 2000). National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 52
    • 53. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s te m ic R en y E narl tions ew al rve l a e IntSystemic Renew S Co choo Basic Core Co mmu l- llab n Strategies ora ity tion Sy tem s ic en R ew al National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 53
    • 54. Basic Core Strategies Mentoring Service-Learning Alternative Schooling After-School Program Experiences National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 54
    • 55. MentoringMentoring has many formats …Traditional: One adult with one studentPeer: One older youth with a younger youthGroup/Team: One or more adults with several youthTelementoring: One adult with one youth using the Internet National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 55
    • 56. MentoringImpact of Mentoring Formats 66% improved reading and math grades (Waits, 2003) 80% improved study skills (Waits, 2003) 89% improved attitude toward life (AmeriCorp, 2000) 93% parents favorable comments (Youthfriends, 2001) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 56
    • 57. Service-Learning Service-learning programs involve students doing meaningful service—usually a project they select based on real community needs— that is linked to academic and personal learning.(Shumer & Duckenfield, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 57
    • 58. Service-LearningEssential Elements of Good Service-Learning Programs  Integrated into the Curriculum  Active Learning  Interesting and Exciting  Connected to Community  National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 58
    • 59. Alternative SchoolingTraditional schools can no longer meetthe diverse needs of every student. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 59
    • 60. Alternative SchoolingInnovative Approaches Self-contained classrooms Magnet schools Separate alternative schools School-within-a-school Residential programs National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 60
    • 61. Alternative SchoolingHow do alternative schools help keepstudents from dropping out? Provide a caring atmosphere Consider student needs greater than the school’s needs Empower students to guide their own learning Offer a chance to start over National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 61
    • 62. After-School Program Experiences… provide students with safe environments,enrichment activities, and additional learningopportunities. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 62
    • 63. After-School Program ExperiencesComponents of SuccessfulPrograms Academic Focus Enrichment and Accelerated Learning Supervised Recreation Community Service Collaboration and Partnerships Active Family Involvement National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 63
    • 64. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s tem ic R en y E narl tions ew a l rv e l a e IntSystemic Renew S Co choo Basic Co mmu l- Core llab n ora ity Strategies t io n Ins tru Pra ctio ctic nal Sy es tem s ic en R ew al National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 64
    • 65. Making the Most of Instruction Professional Development Active Learning Educational Technology Individualized Instruction Career and Technical Education National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 65
    • 66. Professional Development The single largest factor affecting the academic growth of students is the differences in the effectiveness of individual classroom teachers.(Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System, Sanders, 1998) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 66
    • 67. Professional DevelopmentEach dollar spent on improving teachers’qualifications nets greater gains in studentlearning than any other use of an educationdollar.(Darling-Hammond, 1998)  National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 67
    • 68. Active Learning. . . teaching and learning strategies that engagestudents by providing opportunities for students tolisten, speak, write, construct,and reflect as theysolve problems, work in teams,perform new skills, anddemonstrate procedures. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 68
    • 69. Active LearningTeaching Strategies Include Cooperative learning Multiple intelligences/learning styles theory Project-based learning National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 69
    • 70. Active LearningBenefits of Multiple Intelligences andLearning Styles Celebrates and values diversity Students take a more responsible role in the learning process Teachers help students improve weak areas by encouraging them to try ways that take them out of their comfort level (Foster & Shirley, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 70
    • 71. Educational TechnologyIntegrating technology into classroominstruction enhances teaching andpromotes greater student learning.(U .S. Department of Education, 2002) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 71
    • 72. Educational TechnologyResearch on Using Technology Is a positive influence on students at risk of failure (Day, 2002) Teaches “real work applications” to help students succeed outside the classroom Increases student motivation, raises the success rate of students performing complex tasks, and changes classroom roles and organization (Means, 1997) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 72
    • 73. Individualized Instruction Individualized instruction occurs when a teacher adjusts instruction for each student’s needs.(Switzer, Helping Students Graduate, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 73
    • 74. Individualized InstructionEncourages the learner to be the producerof knowledge with  Problem-based learning & reciprocal teaching  Peer tutoring  Cooperative learning  Journaling  Hands-on projects  Role play and simulation  Inquiry National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 74
    • 75. Career and Technical EducationCareer Technical Education (CTE) includes awide array of career-based instruction K-12 career education A comprehensive guidance program School- and work-based experiences National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 75
    • 76. Career and Technical EducationCTE Formats School-based programs Internships and apprenticeships Work-based programs Career Academies Tech Prep National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 76
    • 77. Career and Technical EducationImpact of CTE Enrollment in CTE does not increase the likelihood of students dropping out. (USDE, 2003) Career guidance increased students’ remaining in school from 50% to 85%. (Bauer, 1992) Higher percentages of CTE experiences lower the probability of dropping out. (Plank, 2001) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 77
    • 78. Career and Technical EducationImpact of CTE Youth participating in CTE activities were half as likely to drop out as youth who did not participate. Youth in work-based learning were 30% less likely to drop out than students in other curriculum areas. (Stone, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 78
    • 79. Dropout Prevention: Everyone’s Problem Sy s tem ic R en y E narl tions ew a l rv e l a e IntSystemic Renew S Co choo Basic Co mmu l- Core llab n ora ity Strategies t io n Ins tru Pra ctio ctic nal Sy es tem s ic en R ew al National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 79
    • 80. Contact Information National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Clemson University 209 Martin Street Clemson, SC 29631-1555Phone: 864-656-2599 Fax: 864-656-0136 E-mail: ndpc@clemson.edu www.dropoutprevention.org National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 80