ALWD to Bluebook


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A presentation on the differences between the ALWD citation manual and the Bluebook, intended to help transfer students from schools that use the ALWD manual.

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ALWD to Bluebook

  1. 1. Introduction to the Bluebook<br />Transitioning from the ALWD to the Bluebook<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Key differences between ALWD and Bluebook<br />Detailed look at using the Bluebook<br />Demonstrations of how to use the Bluebook to find the right citation rules for two common citation situations<br />More places to look for help<br />
  3. 3. Key Differences between ALWD and Bluebook<br />
  4. 4. Key Differences: Overview<br />Typeface<br />Abbreviations<br />Form<br />Court names<br />Spacing<br />Page spans<br />Particular resources<br />Legal dictionaries<br />Cases<br />Division/District information for state appellate courts<br />Docket information<br />Star Pagination<br />
  5. 5. Typeface<br /><ul><li>ALWD: Rule 1
  6. 6. BB: B1 (practitioner documents), R2 (academic writing)
  7. 7. Difference
  8. 8. ALWD italicizes or underlines things like case names and titles of articles with no distinction between practitioner documents and academic writing
  9. 9. BB has separate typeface rules for practitioner documents and academic writing.
  10. 10. BB uses italics or underlining for things like case names, titles of articles in practitioner documents.
  11. 11. For academic writing, there are separate typeface rules including the use of Small Caps. </li></li></ul><li>Summary of typeface rules<br />
  12. 12. Abbreviations<br />Form of abbreviations<br />Apostrophes and periods<br />Whether to abbreviate<br />Abbreviations of court names<br />How the citation manuals represent spacing in abbreviations<br />
  13. 13. Form of abbreviations<br />ALWD: Rule 2, Rule 12.2(e)(3) organizations as parties, case names, Appendix 3<br />BB: B4.1.1(v), R6.1, R10.1, R10.2.2, T6 <br />
  14. 14. Form of abbreviations, Differences<br />Apostrophes and periods<br />ALWD never uses apostrophes in its abbreviations and always ends abbreviations with periods <br />Ex. Department = Dept.<br />BB sometimes uses apostrophes in its abbreviations and those abbreviations do not end with a period <br />Ex. Department = Dep’t<br />Whether to abbreviate<br />ALWD allows for abbreviation of party names, but does not require it <br />In citations, BB requires the abbreviation of any word in a party’s name that is found in T6<br />
  15. 15. Abbreviation of court names<br />ALWD: Appendix 1<br />BB: T1<br />Difference: <br />ALWD eliminates “Ct.” from most court abbreviations <br />Ex. Indiana Court of Appeals = Ind. App.<br />BB keeps “Ct.”<br />Ex. Indiana Court of Appeals = Ind. Ct. App.<br />
  16. 16. Spacing: how represented in manuals<br />ALWD indicates where a space belongs with a green triangle (ex. Ind. App.)<br />BB defines where spaces belong according to R6.1<br />Difference? the effect of the rules is the same, it is just explained differently by the book itself<br />
  17. 17. Page Spans<br />ALWD: Rule 5.3(b)<br />BB: R3.2(a)<br />Difference<br />BB requires to you drop repetitive digits in a page span and retain two digits on the right-hand side of the span<br />Ex. 356-58<br />ALWD allows you to present the entire page span or shorten it according to a rule identical to BB’s R3.2(a). <br />Ex. 356-358 or 356-58<br />
  18. 18. Particular Resources<br />Legal Dictionaries<br />Cases<br />Division and District information for state appellate courts<br />Docket numbers for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis<br />Star pagination for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis<br />
  19. 19. Legal Dictionaries<br /><ul><li>ALWD: Rule 25
  20. 20. BB: B8.1, R15.8(a)
  21. 21. Difference
  22. 22. ALWD treats legal dictionaries like books
  23. 23. Ex. Black’s Law Dictionary 101 (Bryan A. Garner ed., 8th ed., West 2004).
  24. 24. BB has a special citation form for legal dictionaries
  25. 25. Ex. Black’s Law Dictionary 101 (8th ed. 2004).</li></li></ul><li>Cases: Division and District information for state appellate courts<br /><ul><li>ALWD: Rule 12.6(b)(2)
  26. 26. BB: B4.1.3(v), R10.4(b)
  27. 27. Difference
  28. 28. ALWD requires the inclusion of division/district information for state appellate courts
  29. 29. Ex. MBNA Am. Bank, N.A. v. Cardoso, 707 N.E.2d 189 (Ill. App. 1st Dist. 1998).
  30. 30. BB permits, but does not require, inclusion of division/district information. Only when of “particular relevance”
  31. 31. When is it of “particular relevance?” When your state’s court system is set up with several appellate courts and the precedential weight of the courts’ decisions are not strictly equal across the state.
  32. 32. Ex. MBNA Am. Bank, N.A. v. Cardoso, 707 N.E.2d 189 (Ill. App. Ct. 1998).</li></li></ul><li>Cases: Docket numbers for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis<br />ALWD: Rule 12.12(a)<br />BB: B4.1.4(i), R10.8.1(a), R18.3.1<br />Difference<br />ALWD does not require the docket number of cases cited from Westlaw or Lexis<br />Ex. Shelton v. City of Manhattan Beach, 2004 WL 2163741 at *1 (Cal. App. Sept. 28, 2004).<br />BB requires the docket number, in addition to the number assigned to the case by the electronic database<br />Ex. Shelton v. City of Manhattan Beach, No. B171606, 2004 WL 2163741, at *1 (Cal. Ct. App. Sept. 28, 2004).<br />
  33. 33. Cases: Star pagination for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis<br />ALWD: Rule 12.12(b)<br />BB: B4.1.4(i), R10.8.1(a), R18.3.1<br />Difference:<br />ALWD uses two asterisks when a citation includes multiple pages<br />Ex. Gibbs v. Frank, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357 at **18-19 (3d Cir. Oct. 14, 2004).<br />BB always indicates pagination using one asterisk<br />Ex. Gibbs v. Frank, No. 02-3924, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357 at *18-19 (3d Cir. Oct. 14, 2004).<br />
  34. 34. Key Differences: Review<br />Typeface<br />Abbreviations<br />Form<br />Court names<br />Spacing<br />Page spans<br />Particular resources<br />Legal dictionaries<br />Cases<br />Division/District information for state appellate courts<br />Docket information<br />Star Pagination<br />
  35. 35. Using the Bluebook<br />
  36. 36. The book itself<br />Front Cover<br />Back Cover<br />Table of Contents<br />Bluepages<br />Whitepages<br />Tables<br />Index<br />
  37. 37. Starting Points<br />Quick Reference on front and back cover<br />Front cover: academic writing<br />Back cover: practitioner documents<br />Index (refers to page numbers)<br />Table of contents (IX-XVII)<br />
  38. 38. Bluepages: practitioner documents<br />Rules here: bluepages <br />Fleshed out here: whitepages<br />Excepttypeface conventions always follow bluepages<br />This is not a distinction with ALWD<br />
  39. 39. White pages: academic writing<br />Rules 1-9 Citation basics<br />Rules to familiarize yourself with<br />Including rules for structure and use of citations (i.e. signals, parentheticals), typeface conventions for law reviews, quotations, capitalization<br />Rules 10-21 rules for Particular Resources (i.e. cases, statutes, etc.)<br />
  40. 40. Tables<br />T6 Case Names<br />T13 Periodical Names<br />T10 Geographical Areas<br /><ul><li>T1 abbreviations and citation conventions for U.S. jurisdictions</li></li></ul><li>T6: Case Names<br />Most important: tab it now!<br />R10.2.2 requires you to abbreviate case names by abbreviating any word listed in T6<br />
  41. 41. T13: Periodical Names<br /><ul><li>Gives the proper abbreviation for the names of law reviews, journals, and even some newspapers
  42. 42. Ex. New York Times = N.Y. Times
  43. 43. Where there is no pre-made abbreviation for the title, T13 also shows you how to abbreviate every word of a title
  44. 44. Ex.
  45. 45. School is abbreviated to Sch.
  46. 46. Law is abbreviated to L.
  47. 47. Thus, a journal called “School Law” would be abbreviated to “Sch. L.”
  48. 48. Where a geographical area is included in the title, that area is abbreviated according to T10 (see below)</li></li></ul><li>T10: Geographical Abbreviations<br />Includes tables for U.S. states, cities, and territories T10.1 as well as foreign countries T10.2, T10.3<br />Use these abbreviations for case names (R10.2.2), court and jurisdiction (R10.4), and periodical abbreviations (R16, T13)<br />Ex. Indiana Department of Corrections v. Smith = Ind. Dep’t of Corrs. v. Smith <br />Ex. case from the Indiana Appellate Court in 1996 = (Ind. Ct. App. 1996).<br />Ex. Indiana Law Journal = Ind. L.J.<br />
  49. 49. Includes federal system T1.1 as well as the states T1.3<br />Intended for use when writing for a national audience, trumped by local rules where applicable<br />T1: abbreviations and citation conventions for U.S. jurisdictions<br />
  50. 50. Putting it all together<br />Examples of how to use the Bluebook<br />
  51. 51. Using all of these sections to create your citation<br />Front Cover<br />Back Cover<br />Table of Contents<br />Bluepages<br />Whitepages<br />Tables<br />Index<br />
  52. 52. Citations in Legal Documents<br />Inside BACK cover, Bluepages & Whitepages (Rules)<br />
  53. 53. Bluepages B4, Whitepages R10<br />Cite to pages 733 to 734 in opinion<br />REGINALD D. WHITTINGTON, JR., Plaintiff-Appellant, v.<br />INDIANAPOLIS MOTOR SPEEDWAY FOUNDATION, INC., Defendant-Appellee.<br />No. 08-3352<br />UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SEVENTH CIRCUIT<br />601 F.3d 728; 2010 U.S. App. LEXIS 7524<br />December 11, 2009, Argued<br />April 13, 2010, Decided<br />4.1.1 Abbreviate case name, following T6 & T10<br />4.1.2 Abbreviate Reporter, following T1<br />4.1.2 Pincites <br />4.1.3, R6.2 Circuit number<br />Whittington v. Indianapolis Motor Speedway Found., Inc., 601 F.3d 728, 733-34 (7th Cir. 2010).<br />
  54. 54. Citations in Law Reviews<br />Inside FRONT cover & Whitepages (Rules)<br />
  55. 55. Whitepages R16<br />16 & 16.1 basic form: author, title, vol., journal abbrev., pages cited, date in parenthesis<br />16.1, 16.2 Student Author of Comment<br />16.3 Titles, Capitalization (R8)<br />16.1, Numbering<br />16.4, T13 Journal title (large/small caps)<br />Cite to pages 518 to 526 in article<br />Seton Hall Journal of Sport Law 19977 Seton Hall J. Sports L. 513COMMENT: A pit-stop in the Courts and applying the brakes to keep another from crashing: A comment on the conflicts between Indianapolis motor speedway and championship auto racing teamsNAME: Meri J. Van Blarcom<br />Meri J. Van Blarcom, Comment, A Pit-Stop in the Courts and Applying the Brakes to Keep Another from Crashing: A Comment on the Conflicts Between Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Championship Auto Racing Teams, 7 Seton Hall J. Sport L. 513, 518-26 (1997).<br />
  56. 56. For more help<br />CALI exercise<br />Lexis’ Interactive Citation Workstation<br /><br />Dickerson’s ALWD to BB conversion table (Note: not updated for 19th Edition) <br />