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ALWD to Bluebook

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A presentation on the differences between the ALWD citation manual and the Bluebook, intended to help transfer students from schools that use the ALWD manual.

A presentation on the differences between the ALWD citation manual and the Bluebook, intended to help transfer students from schools that use the ALWD manual.

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  • 1. Introduction to the Bluebook
    Transitioning from the ALWD to the Bluebook
  • 2. Overview
    Key differences between ALWD and Bluebook
    Detailed look at using the Bluebook
    Demonstrations of how to use the Bluebook to find the right citation rules for two common citation situations
    More places to look for help
  • 3. Key Differences between ALWD and Bluebook
  • 4. Key Differences: Overview
    Typeface
    Abbreviations
    Form
    Court names
    Spacing
    Page spans
    Particular resources
    Legal dictionaries
    Cases
    Division/District information for state appellate courts
    Docket information
    Star Pagination
  • 5. Typeface
    • ALWD: Rule 1
    • 6. BB: B1 (practitioner documents), R2 (academic writing)
    • 7. Difference
    • 8. ALWD italicizes or underlines things like case names and titles of articles with no distinction between practitioner documents and academic writing
    • 9. BB has separate typeface rules for practitioner documents and academic writing.
    • 10. BB uses italics or underlining for things like case names, titles of articles in practitioner documents.
    • 11. For academic writing, there are separate typeface rules including the use of Small Caps.
  • Summary of typeface rules
  • 12. Abbreviations
    Form of abbreviations
    Apostrophes and periods
    Whether to abbreviate
    Abbreviations of court names
    How the citation manuals represent spacing in abbreviations
  • 13. Form of abbreviations
    ALWD: Rule 2, Rule 12.2(e)(3) organizations as parties, case names, Appendix 3
    BB: B4.1.1(v), R6.1, R10.1, R10.2.2, T6
  • 14. Form of abbreviations, Differences
    Apostrophes and periods
    ALWD never uses apostrophes in its abbreviations and always ends abbreviations with periods
    Ex. Department = Dept.
    BB sometimes uses apostrophes in its abbreviations and those abbreviations do not end with a period
    Ex. Department = Dep’t
    Whether to abbreviate
    ALWD allows for abbreviation of party names, but does not require it
    In citations, BB requires the abbreviation of any word in a party’s name that is found in T6
  • 15. Abbreviation of court names
    ALWD: Appendix 1
    BB: T1
    Difference:
    ALWD eliminates “Ct.” from most court abbreviations
    Ex. Indiana Court of Appeals = Ind. App.
    BB keeps “Ct.”
    Ex. Indiana Court of Appeals = Ind. Ct. App.
  • 16. Spacing: how represented in manuals
    ALWD indicates where a space belongs with a green triangle (ex. Ind. App.)
    BB defines where spaces belong according to R6.1
    Difference? the effect of the rules is the same, it is just explained differently by the book itself
  • 17. Page Spans
    ALWD: Rule 5.3(b)
    BB: R3.2(a)
    Difference
    BB requires to you drop repetitive digits in a page span and retain two digits on the right-hand side of the span
    Ex. 356-58
    ALWD allows you to present the entire page span or shorten it according to a rule identical to BB’s R3.2(a).
    Ex. 356-358 or 356-58
  • 18. Particular Resources
    Legal Dictionaries
    Cases
    Division and District information for state appellate courts
    Docket numbers for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis
    Star pagination for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis
  • 19. Legal Dictionaries
    • ALWD: Rule 25
    • 20. BB: B8.1, R15.8(a)
    • 21. Difference
    • 22. ALWD treats legal dictionaries like books
    • 23. Ex. Black’s Law Dictionary 101 (Bryan A. Garner ed., 8th ed., West 2004).
    • 24. BB has a special citation form for legal dictionaries
    • 25. Ex. Black’s Law Dictionary 101 (8th ed. 2004).
  • Cases: Division and District information for state appellate courts
    • ALWD: Rule 12.6(b)(2)
    • 26. BB: B4.1.3(v), R10.4(b)
    • 27. Difference
    • 28. ALWD requires the inclusion of division/district information for state appellate courts
    • 29. Ex. MBNA Am. Bank, N.A. v. Cardoso, 707 N.E.2d 189 (Ill. App. 1st Dist. 1998).
    • 30. BB permits, but does not require, inclusion of division/district information. Only when of “particular relevance”
    • 31. When is it of “particular relevance?” When your state’s court system is set up with several appellate courts and the precedential weight of the courts’ decisions are not strictly equal across the state.
    • 32. Ex. MBNA Am. Bank, N.A. v. Cardoso, 707 N.E.2d 189 (Ill. App. Ct. 1998).
  • Cases: Docket numbers for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis
    ALWD: Rule 12.12(a)
    BB: B4.1.4(i), R10.8.1(a), R18.3.1
    Difference
    ALWD does not require the docket number of cases cited from Westlaw or Lexis
    Ex. Shelton v. City of Manhattan Beach, 2004 WL 2163741 at *1 (Cal. App. Sept. 28, 2004).
    BB requires the docket number, in addition to the number assigned to the case by the electronic database
    Ex. Shelton v. City of Manhattan Beach, No. B171606, 2004 WL 2163741, at *1 (Cal. Ct. App. Sept. 28, 2004).
  • 33. Cases: Star pagination for cases cited from Westlaw or LexisNexis
    ALWD: Rule 12.12(b)
    BB: B4.1.4(i), R10.8.1(a), R18.3.1
    Difference:
    ALWD uses two asterisks when a citation includes multiple pages
    Ex. Gibbs v. Frank, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357 at **18-19 (3d Cir. Oct. 14, 2004).
    BB always indicates pagination using one asterisk
    Ex. Gibbs v. Frank, No. 02-3924, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357 at *18-19 (3d Cir. Oct. 14, 2004).
  • 34. Key Differences: Review
    Typeface
    Abbreviations
    Form
    Court names
    Spacing
    Page spans
    Particular resources
    Legal dictionaries
    Cases
    Division/District information for state appellate courts
    Docket information
    Star Pagination
  • 35. Using the Bluebook
  • 36. The book itself
    Front Cover
    Back Cover
    Table of Contents
    Bluepages
    Whitepages
    Tables
    Index
  • 37. Starting Points
    Quick Reference on front and back cover
    Front cover: academic writing
    Back cover: practitioner documents
    Index (refers to page numbers)
    Table of contents (IX-XVII)
  • 38. Bluepages: practitioner documents
    Rules here: bluepages
    Fleshed out here: whitepages
    Excepttypeface conventions always follow bluepages
    This is not a distinction with ALWD
  • 39. White pages: academic writing
    Rules 1-9 Citation basics
    Rules to familiarize yourself with
    Including rules for structure and use of citations (i.e. signals, parentheticals), typeface conventions for law reviews, quotations, capitalization
    Rules 10-21 rules for Particular Resources (i.e. cases, statutes, etc.)
  • 40. Tables
    T6 Case Names
    T13 Periodical Names
    T10 Geographical Areas
    • T1 abbreviations and citation conventions for U.S. jurisdictions
  • T6: Case Names
    Most important: tab it now!
    R10.2.2 requires you to abbreviate case names by abbreviating any word listed in T6
  • 41. T13: Periodical Names
    • Gives the proper abbreviation for the names of law reviews, journals, and even some newspapers
    • 42. Ex. New York Times = N.Y. Times
    • 43. Where there is no pre-made abbreviation for the title, T13 also shows you how to abbreviate every word of a title
    • 44. Ex.
    • 45. School is abbreviated to Sch.
    • 46. Law is abbreviated to L.
    • 47. Thus, a journal called “School Law” would be abbreviated to “Sch. L.”
    • 48. Where a geographical area is included in the title, that area is abbreviated according to T10 (see below)
  • T10: Geographical Abbreviations
    Includes tables for U.S. states, cities, and territories T10.1 as well as foreign countries T10.2, T10.3
    Use these abbreviations for case names (R10.2.2), court and jurisdiction (R10.4), and periodical abbreviations (R16, T13)
    Ex. Indiana Department of Corrections v. Smith = Ind. Dep’t of Corrs. v. Smith
    Ex. case from the Indiana Appellate Court in 1996 = (Ind. Ct. App. 1996).
    Ex. Indiana Law Journal = Ind. L.J.
  • 49. Includes federal system T1.1 as well as the states T1.3
    Intended for use when writing for a national audience, trumped by local rules where applicable
    T1: abbreviations and citation conventions for U.S. jurisdictions
  • 50. Putting it all together
    Examples of how to use the Bluebook
  • 51. Using all of these sections to create your citation
    Front Cover
    Back Cover
    Table of Contents
    Bluepages
    Whitepages
    Tables
    Index
  • 52. Citations in Legal Documents
    Inside BACK cover, Bluepages & Whitepages (Rules)
  • 53. Bluepages B4, Whitepages R10
    Cite to pages 733 to 734 in opinion
    REGINALD D. WHITTINGTON, JR., Plaintiff-Appellant, v.
    INDIANAPOLIS MOTOR SPEEDWAY FOUNDATION, INC., Defendant-Appellee.
    No. 08-3352
    UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SEVENTH CIRCUIT
    601 F.3d 728; 2010 U.S. App. LEXIS 7524
    December 11, 2009, Argued
    April 13, 2010, Decided
    4.1.1 Abbreviate case name, following T6 & T10
    4.1.2 Abbreviate Reporter, following T1
    4.1.2 Pincites
    4.1.3, R6.2 Circuit number
    Whittington v. Indianapolis Motor Speedway Found., Inc., 601 F.3d 728, 733-34 (7th Cir. 2010).
  • 54. Citations in Law Reviews
    Inside FRONT cover & Whitepages (Rules)
  • 55. Whitepages R16
    16 & 16.1 basic form: author, title, vol., journal abbrev., pages cited, date in parenthesis
    16.1, 16.2 Student Author of Comment
    16.3 Titles, Capitalization (R8)
    16.1, Numbering
    16.4, T13 Journal title (large/small caps)
    Cite to pages 518 to 526 in article
    Seton Hall Journal of Sport Law 19977 Seton Hall J. Sports L. 513COMMENT: A pit-stop in the Courts and applying the brakes to keep another from crashing: A comment on the conflicts between Indianapolis motor speedway and championship auto racing teamsNAME: Meri J. Van Blarcom
    Meri J. Van Blarcom, Comment, A Pit-Stop in the Courts and Applying the Brakes to Keep Another from Crashing: A Comment on the Conflicts Between Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Championship Auto Racing Teams, 7 Seton Hall J. Sport L. 513, 518-26 (1997).
  • 56. For more help
    CALI exercise
    Lexis’ Interactive Citation Workstation
    www.legalbluebook.com
    Dickerson’s ALWD to BB conversion table (Note: not updated for 19th Edition)