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Unit 8 (23 25)Teacher

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    • 1. Test 3 Quarter 3 Ch. 23 – 25 The New Deal and World War II
    • 2. p. 766 Chapter 23 The New Deal
      • Sec. 1 Forging a New Deal
      • Sec. 2 The New Deal’s Critics
      • Sec. 3 Last Days of the New Deal
    • 3. p. 768 Sec. 1 Forging a New Deal
      • Restoring the Nation’s Hope
        • Eleanor Roosevelt visits the Second Bonus Army
        • Calm panic and create support for new programs
          • A “New Deal” for the American people
          • First inaugural address – “nothing to fear but fear itself”
          • Fireside chats – radio address to reassure nation
    • 4. The First Hundred Days
      • March – June, 1933
        • Create jobs
        • Provide relief
        • Stimulate the economy
    • 5. Bank Holiday
      • All banks close, had to prove viability before they could open again
        • New deposits allow banks to make loans
        • Steagall Banking Act of 1933 – creates FDIC
        • Security and Exchange Commission as well as other acts regulate the stock market
        • Temporarily took U.S. off gold standard
    • 6. Relief – Creating Jobs
      • Harry Hopkins – former settlement house worker runs programs
        • Sent funds to local relief agencies
        • Created public works projects
        • Civilian Conservation Corps – put young men to work maintaining forests, parks, etc.
    • 7. Regulating the Economy
      • National Industrial Recovery Act
        • Bolster prices
        • Set fair practice standards
        • Working conditions
        • Minimum wage
          • Higher wages leads to higher prices
    • 8. Assisting Homeowners and Farmers
      • Home Owners’ Loan Corporation helps refinance mortgages
      • Federal Housing Authority – housing standards and conditions
      • Agricultural Adjustment Administration – raise farm prices through subsidies
      • Tennessee Valley Authority – create jobs and electricity
    • 9. Key Players in the New Deal
      • The Brain Trust – college educated, university professors, progressive workers make up main advisors
    • 10. Groundbreaking Appointments
      • Frances Perkins – Sect. of Labor – first female cabinet member
      • Mary McLeod Bethune – African American – Director of Federal Council on Negro Affairs
        • Member of unofficial “black Cabinet”
    • 11. Eleanor Roosevelt
      • FDR’s legs
      • Worked especially for the poor and unrepresented, women, minorities
    • 12. The New Deal Falters
      • Most of the new programs brought no significant changes
      • Many worried federal gov’t was gaining too much power – creeping socialism
    • 13. A Second New Deal
      • Congressional Elections of 1934 show overwhelming support for FDR
        • More social welfare programs
        • More controls over business
        • More support for unions
        • More taxes for the rich
    • 14. New and Expanded Agencies
      • Works Progress Administration – many public projects, including work for artists and writers
      • Resettlement Administration – helps small farmers, tenant farmers, and sharecroppers get loans to buy own farm
      • Electrification for rural areas
      • National Labor Relations Board – hears workers grievances related to union activities
    • 15. Social Security
      • Old-age pensions
      • Survivor’s benefits
      • Unemployment insurance
      • Aid for dependent children and the disabled
    • 16. The 1936 Election
      • Support of New Deal wide and deep
      • Republican Alf Landon receives only 8 electoral votes
    • 17. p. 777 Sec. 2 The New Deal’s Critics
      • Not enough
      • Too much
    • 18. Limitations of the New Deal
      • Workers – only about 25% of workers covered by many labor laws
      • Women – men and boys receive preference in jobs and pay
      • African Americans
        • works projects segregated
        • domestic and farm workers not included in most laws, esp. Social Security
        • rise in lynchings not addressed by gov’t
    • 19. The New Deal Goes too Far
      • Republicans, wealthy , American Liberty League
        • Too socialistic
        • Too many taxes
        • Social Security numbers too militaristic
        • Limited individual freedom
    • 20. Other Critics
      • Progressives and Socialists – including Upton Sinclair – want more
        • Gov’t ownership of factories and farms
        • Major reforms in gov’t
        • Redistribution of wealth
    • 21. The Demagogues
      • Father Coughlin
        • The “radio priest”
        • At first supported New Deal
        • Became openly anti-Semitic
      • Huey Long
        • Louisiana governor and U.S. senator
        • Called for a redistribution of wealth –
          • $5000 to every family
    • 22. Modern Day Critics
      • New Deal didn’t really help lessen the depression
      • Limited free enterprise – jobs and farms
      • Too big government
      • Too many taxes
      • Deficit spending
    • 23. The Court Packing Fiasco
      • 1935 Supreme Court declares key New Deal programs unconstitutional
      • In order to ensure support, FDR proposed court-reform bill
        • Appoint one additional justice for each one over 70
      • No one happy with grab for power
        • 3 separate branches of gov’t
        • Political play not good gov’t
      • Older justices retired, FDR able to make more liberal appointments
    • 24. p. 785 Sec. 3 The Last Days of the New Deal
      • The Recession of 1937
        • Higher taxes mean less money to spend
        • National debt rising, some programs cut
        • Programs restored, but result in higher national debt
    • 25. Unions Triumph
      • CIO – Committee for Industrial Organization
        • Founded by UMW president John Lewis
        • Organized unskilled workers
    • 26. An Era of Strikes
      • Gov’t allowed unions to be organizes, companies did not have to bargain with them
        • Sit-down strikes, picket lines
        • Violence often erupted between police, company officials, and strikebreakers against the strikers
    • 27. The New Deal’s Effects on Culture
      • Literature
        • Pearl Buck – The Good Earth
        • John Steinbeck – The Grapes of Wrath
        • James Agee and Walker Evans – Let Us Now Praise Famous Men
    • 28. Radio and Movies
      • Radio
        • Comedies
          • Jack Benny, George Burns and Gracie Allen
        • Soap operas
    • 29. Movies
      • Double features and drive-in movies allow more people to enjoy
      • Federal agencies produce “shorts” to be shown to publicize they’re activities
    • 30. Entertainment mainly optimistic
    • 31. The WPA and the Arts
      • Arts are important
      • Artists need work, too
        • Histories and novels
        • Community symphonies
        • Free music lessons
        • Murals, sculpture, and other art for public buildings
        • Theatre programs
    • 32. Lasting New Deal Achievements
      • People now expect government to create a program to solve their problems
      • Many programs good and long-lasting
        • Bridges, dams, electrification programs
        • FDIC, SEC, Social Security
        • Restoration of hope, feelings of American greatness to be able to overcome all obstacles
    • 33. Ch. 24 World War II The Road to War
    • 34. p. 798 Ch. 24 The Road to War
      • Sec. 1 The Rise of Dictators
      • Sec. 2 Europe Goes to War
      • Sec. 3 Japan Builds an Empire
      • Sec. 4 From Isolationism to War
    • 35. p. 800 Sec. 1 The Rise of Dictators
      • World-wide depression and disillusionment from WWI leaves people looking toward their governments for answers
        • Totalitarianism dominates every aspect of life
          • Uses terror and fear to stay in power
    • 36. Stalin’s Soviet Union
      • Takes over when Lenin dies
      • Forms collective farms – effectively leading to state takeover
        • Many resist, sent to labor camps
        • Many escape
        • Millions starve
    • 37. Stalin’s Reign of Terror
      • Purges political enemies, attempting to purify communist party
        • Millions arrested, forced into labor camps, and or executed
    • 38. Fascism In Italy
      • Unites Socialist, anarchists, disillusioned war vets, and opponents to monarchy to gather political power
      • Uses Blackshirts to control those who oppose him
      • Promises to restore economy
      • Wants to rebuild Roman Empire
    • 39. Hitler’s Rise to Power
      • Upset with terms of Treaty of Versailles
      • Forms Nazi party
        • First arrested for attempting to overthrow gov’t
        • Hitler promises to restore economy, Nazis elected to Reichstaag
        • Named Chancellor takes over gov’t
    • 40. The Spanish Civil War
      • General Francisco Franco leads Nationalists in a rebellion against the elected gov’t, forms military dictatorship
        • Supported by Germans
        • Soviet Union supports Republicans
        • U.S., G.B., and France do not intervene
    • 41. p. 807 Europe Goes to War
      • Appeasement – Munich Conference - Neville Chamberlain attempts to keep peace by allowing Hitler’s early aggression in return for a promise to stop further aggression
        • Quickly broken
    • 42.
      • Hitler makes non-aggression pact with U.S.S.R.
      • Allows Hitler to invade Poland – Sept. 1, 1939
        • blitzkrieg
      • G.B. and France declare war against Germany
        • Hitler turns to the West
    • 43. p. 813 Japan Builds an Empire
      • Since mid-1800s, when U.S. forced Japan out of isolation, Japan slowly built control over east Asia
      • Japan’s first steps toward democracy after WWI stopped by depression
    • 44.
      • Nationalists call for a return to traditional ways
        • Cause riots, other acts of terrorism forcing military to take over
    • 45.
      • Japan begins to build empire with invasion of Manchuria
        • U.S. claims it goes against Kellogg-Briand
        • League of Nations calls for end to occupation
    • 46.
      • Military continues to build destroying those who go against it
      • 1937 full attack on China
        • Soviet Union and Great Britain aid China
    • 47. p. 817 Sec. 4 From Isolationism to War
      • The United States Chooses Neutrality
        • Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936 try to keep America out of being dragged into war as had happened in WWI
        • Neutrality Act of 1937 allows for “cash and carry”
          • Does not allow U.S. to assist those who are defending themselves from aggression
    • 48. American Involvement Grows
      • Invasion of Poland and attack on Western Europe leaves many Americans wanting to help Britain
        • Congress repeals arms embargo with Great Britain
        • Merchant ships allowed to transport arms to Britain
        • With fall of France, FDR calls for “all aid short of war”
    • 49. Opposition to Involvement
      • America First Committee wants to block further aid
      • Republican presidential candidate in 1940 also supports aid, but limited
    • 50. Lend-Lease
      • FDR reelection in 1940 encourages more involvement
        • Britain does not have money to fight war
        • We would lend equipment – and get it back after the war
          • Extended to U.S.S.R. after they are attacked by Germany
    • 51. Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
      • FDR limits trade with Japan as aggression continues
      • Negotiations continue over a year
    • 52.
        • During negotiations, Japan also plans attack on U.S.
          • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Dec.7, 1941 hopes to cripple U.S. fleet
          • FDR calls on Congress to declare war
          • Dec.11 Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.
    • 53. Ch. 25 World War II: Americans at War
      • Sec. 1 Mobilization
      • Sec. 2 Retaking Europe
      • Sec. 3 The Holocaust
      • Sec. 4 The War in the Pacific
      • Sec. 5 The Social Impact of the War
    • 54. p. 826 Sec. 1 Mobilization
      • Mobilizing the Armed Forces
        • Sept. 1940 – Selective Training and Service Act
        • FDR makes Americans aware of what they are fighting for – The Four Freedoms
    • 55.
          • GIs – the symbol of the American fighting man
          • Mexican-Americans, Native Americans (code talkers), Asian-Americans, and African Americans all serve with distinction, but in segregated forces
          • Women – serve in non-combat military roles
    • 56. Mobilizing the Economy
      • Industry needs to quickly change to war production to meet Allied demands
        • War Production Board – halted production of consumer goods, allocated raw materials
        • Office of War Mobilization – supervised all industry and production
        • Cost-plus system helps insure profits for manufacturers
    • 57. Financing the War
      • Higher taxes
      • Bond sales
      • Deficit spending – borrowing money from banks and private investors – postpone payments
    • 58. Daily Life on the Home Front
      • The effects of mobilization
        • End of the unemployment, end of depression
            • Growth of unions
            • Women serve here as well – Rosie the Riveter
        • Money to spend, but no goods to buy
          • Stop inflation
          • Rationing
        • American nationalism grows
          • Popular culture promotes war effort
          • Individuals called on to assist with victory gardens, scrap metal drives, and Civilian Defense efforts
    • 59. p. 832 Sec. 2 Retaking Europe
      • Americans join the struggle
        • Protect British trade routes from German submarines
          • Convoy system, new technology
            • Sonar, long-range air craft
    • 60.
      • The North Africa Campaign
        • Join with British to fight African, Italian, and German troops
          • British General Montgomery along with American Gen. Eisenhower and Patton defeat the “Desert Fox” Erwin Rommel
          • Roosevelt and Churchill meet in Casablanca plan retaking of Europe
    • 61.
      • Invasion of Italy
        • Seen as easiest and most likely to succeed
        • Across Mediterranean from Africa
        • U.S. troops led by Patton
        • 1943, Italians oust Mussolini, and surrender to Allies
        • Still must fight Germans in Italy
    • 62. War in the Soviet Union
      • Germans advance through Finland and Romania
      • Some nationals welcome Stalin’s enemy – but quickly turned to forced laborers
      • Stalin calls on the West to attack, relieve his troops
      • Battle of Stalingrad – 1942-1943
    • 63. The Allied Air War
      • Pinpoint targeting proves ineffective, replaced by carpet bombing
      • American involvement in war increases number of bombers available as well as escort fighter planes
      • Bombing took place day and night
    • 64. Invasion of Western Europe
      • Operation Overlord to be launched from Britain into France
      • American, British, Canadians make up largest portion of forces, led by Gen. Eisenhower
      • June 6, 1944 – D-Day
    • 65.
      • Liberating France – Aug. 1944
      • Battle of the Bulge – Dec. 1944 – Belgium
        • Final attack by German forces
    • 66. The War in Europe Ends
      • Soviets lost more troops than all others combined
      • Break out from Stalingrad and move west
      • April 1945 Soviets capture Berlin
      • May 8, 1945 V-E Day
      • Germany split into 4 zones as decided at Yalta Conference
    • 67. p. 841 Sec. 3 The Holocaust
      • Anti-Semitism exists in Europe for hundreds of years
      • 1933 Hitler begins to blame Jews for economic woes
      • 1935 Nuremberg Laws strip Jews of citizenship
      • Jews forced into ghettos then concentration camps
      • Wannsee Conference 1942 – final solution
      • November 1945 – Nuremberg War Crimes Trials
    • 68. p. 846 Sec. 4 The War in the Pacific
      • Japanese advance 1941-1942
        • Pearl Harbor, the Wake Islands and Guam all attacked together
        • British and Dutch colonies attacked in early 1942
        • May 1942 – Philippines surrenders – MacArthur promised to return
        • Bataan Death March
    • 69. The War at Sea
      • Battle of Coral Sea – May 1942
        • Fighter planes from air craft carriers stop Japanese advances
      • Midway – June 1942
        • Destroys large portion of Japanese fleet, their last offensive operation
      • Guadalcanal – Aug. 1942 – Feb. 1943
        • Marines force first Japanese retreat
    • 70. Retaking the Islands
      • Island hopping
        • allows American control to build air strips from which to make new attacks
      • The Philippines – Oct. 1944 – June 1945
        • MacArthur leads return of Allied forces
        • Japanese kamikazes unable to stop Allies
    • 71.
      • Iwo Jima – Nov. 1944 – Feb. 1945
        • One of bloodiest battles of war – 25,000 American casualties
      • Okinawa – April – June 1945
        • Last obstacle to invasion of Japan
        • Japanese willing to fight to the death
        • Lead to decision to use the atomic bomb
    • 72. The Manhattan Project
      • Produces the first successful test of an atomic bomb in July, 1945
      • Gives third option for defeat of Japan
        • Truman serves notice to Japan to surrender of face utter destruction
        • Aug. 6 Hiroshima bombed
        • Aug. 9 Nagasaki bombed
        • Aug. 14 Japan accepts terms of surrender
    • 73. The End of the War
        • Aug. 6 Hiroshima bombed
        • Aug. 9 Nagasaki bombed
        • Aug. 14 Japan accepts terms of surrender
    • 74. p. 855 Sec. 5 The Social Impact of the War
      • African Americans
        • Discrimination continues as jobs only given to whites
          • June 1941 issues executive order to end discrimination in defense plant hiring
          • Migrate north in search of factory jobs
          • Race riots occur in many cities, esp. Detroit
        • Army remains segregated
        • CORE – Congress of Racial Equality
        • Call for Double V Campaign
    • 75. Native Americans
      • Job opportunities in cities end traditional ties even more
      • Navaho instrumental in winning war in the Pacific, not given real credit for decades
    • 76. Japanese Americans
      • Faced official discrimination from attack on Pearl Harbor
        • Feb. 1942, FDR issues executive order to remove aliens from sensitive zones
          • Was supposed to include foreign born Italians and Germans but did not in effect
          • Did include American born Japanese
            • Lost property, businesses
            • In effect moved to concentration camps
            • Upheld by Supreme Court in 1944
    • 77. Japanese Americans in the Military
      • Not accepted until 1943
      • Thousands volunteer
      • Served in segregated units – including the 442 nd Regimental Combat unit – the most decorated in U.S. history
    • 78. Women
      • Needed to fill in for fighting men
      • Needed to work in heavy industry factories
      • Increased economic standing as well as social standing
    • 79.
      • African American women discriminated against for 2 reasons
      • Earned less money then men for same job
      • Had to worry about day care
      • Most advances and jobs given up when men return from war
    • 80. Mexican Americans
      • More job opportunities, serve in armed forces, but still discriminated against
      • Bracero Program – allows Mexicans to come to U.S. to work on farms
      • Zoot Suit Riots – U.S. sailors make habit of hunting down Latino men
        • June 1943 riot breaks out, sailors not charged