U9 spain & portugal in na

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U9 spain & portugal in na

  1. 1. Spanish and Portuguese: Conquest of the Americas
  2. 2. What was the Encomienda system? <ul><li>Basic economic model for all Spanish settlements in the new world </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists or Encomenderos were granted land by the King </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists were allowed the use of native laborers so long as they taught christianity to their workers </li></ul>
  3. 3. What drew Hernan Cortez and other Spaniards to the mainland? <ul><li>Gold </li></ul><ul><li>Cortez was a Conquistador, or conqueror </li></ul><ul><li>1519, arrived on the coast of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the conquest of the Aztec Indians </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why did the Aztec’s welcome Cortez, in the beginning? <ul><li>Believed he was a god, returning to claim his kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs greeted Cortez with gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Cortez captured Montezuma II, the Aztec emperor </li></ul><ul><li>August 1521, the Aztec capital fell to the Spanish </li></ul>
  5. 5. What did the Spanish do with their newly conquered Aztecs? <ul><li>Controlled most of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Took all of their gold & silver </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted to abolish the Aztec religion and convert natives to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox killed thousands of Aztecs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why was the Inca empire already in decline before the Spanish came? <ul><li>Smallpox killed almost ½ of the population in the 1520’s </li></ul><ul><li>The death of their emperor from smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War </li></ul>
  7. 7. How did the Spanish eventually conquer the Incas? <ul><li>Francisco Pizarro invaded 1532 </li></ul><ul><li>Captured the emperor & later executed him </li></ul><ul><li>1572, the Spanish defeated the last of the Inca rulers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Where did the Portuguese establish their empire? <ul><li>Brazil, claimed for Portugal by Pedro Cabral </li></ul><ul><li>1549, the Brazilian capital of Salvador was established </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal established mines and agriculture </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is Mercantilism? <ul><li>Dominant economic policy of Europe between 1500 & 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Idea that a country’s strength or power was dependent on its wealth in silver & gold </li></ul>
  10. 10. How did Mercantilism effect trade with colonies? <ul><li>Colonies were not allowed to trade with other European nations </li></ul><ul><li>Spain became very wealthy from the silver it alone gained from its colonies </li></ul>
  11. 11. How did Mercantilism eventually hurt Spain? <ul><li>Instead of making expanding manufacturing and agriculture, Spain relied on its wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Spain purchased what it needed from other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Spain would be left behind by industrialized nations </li></ul>

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