The decline and fall of the ottoman empire
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  • 1. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
  • 2. The Siege of Vienna (1529)
    • Suleiman the Magnificent led Ottoman army on Conquest of Central Europe
      • Attacks Vienna, an important city of the Habsburg’s of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire
        • Because of heavy rains, which bogged down large cannons, and the ferocity of the Viennese resistance, Suleiman abandoned the campaign.
        • "The failure of the first [siege of Vienna] brought to a standstill the tide of Ottoman conquest which had been flooding up the Danube Valley for a century past."
          • The failed Siege of Vienna marks the end of Ottoman conquest in central Euopre
  • 3. 16 th century Painting of Siege of Vienna
  • 4. The Naval Battle of Lepanto
    • Though Ottoman expansion does not completely end until 1683, the strength of the Ottoman army declines after Vienna
    • In 1571, a combined Spanish and Italian fleet defeats the Ottoman navy at Lepanto in the Mediterranean Sea
      • Ends of Ottoman dominance in the sea, they are not as invincible as the had been feared to be earlier
  • 5. Battle of Lepanto (1571) Which ships are European? Which are Ottoman?
  • 6. Other reasons for slow decline of the Ottoman Empire
    • Other than the loss of military dominance, several other major factors contributed to the gradual decline that lasted over 300 years
      • Failure of conquests; once the fuel of the empire
      • Conservative (opposed to change) religious and political views arise
      • Sultans after Suleiman tend to weak, corrupt, and/or ineffective and ignorant
      • Increase in the power of the Janissary Corps; assassinate sultans and revolt many times
      • Nationalist feelings arise in the millets and other territories; creates domestic unrest
        • Ex. Greek independence in 1830, Serbia gains self-rule
  • 7. Ottoman relations with Europe
    • European imperialist interest in Ottoman territories begins to undermine Ottoman power in the late 1600’s-early 1700’s
      • Ottoman weakness leads Europe to try to take their land for geopolitical reasons
        • Geopolitics – an interest in taking for its strategic location or resources
          • Russia, Britain, and France interested in locations for ports and shipping routes
            • C.1900, oil discovered in Persia (Iran, Iraq). After which industrial nations begin focus more intensely on the region
  • 8. The Crimean War Oct. 1853 – Feb. 1856
    • Russia v. Ottomans
      • Ottomans allied with Britain and France who wanted to stop Russia from taking Ottoman lands they wanted (The Holy Land!)
        • Alliance wins
        • Perhaps the first modern war
          • First extensive use of telegraph and railroads
          • Women worked as army nurses (Florence Nightingale)
          • First war to be covered by news correspondents
  • 9. Britain and France Continue to Imperialize Ottoman Lands
    • Britain and France supply money to Egypt to build Suez Canal (1869)
  • 10. Suez Crisis and European Control over old Ottoman Lands
    • Egypt, like many Middle Eastern nations at the time (post 1800), was trying to modernize
      • They needed money, so they turn to European bankers
      • Egypt in debt $450 million by 1882. Britain occupies Egypt to secure Suez Canal and occupies Europe, though Egypt was effectively under British control before this
      • Br. Also interested in Afghanistan
      • Russia wants lands in E. Euopre
  • 11. Ottoman debt leads to Downfall
    • Ottoman’s need money to secure empire, so they sell rights to certain resources to European corporations
      • Anglo-Persian Oil Company, 1908
      • Tobacco Boycott
        • Ottoman people don’t like that their leaders are trying to make money for themselves by selling the rights to their natural resources. This creates tension among the population and its leaders
  • 12. “ The Great War” WWI (1914-1918)
    • WWI breaks out in Europe 1914
      • Russia, Britain, and France vs. Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire
        • Why would the Ottomans choose to fight on the side of the Germans?
  • 13. Reasons for Joining the Central Powers
    • Germany had won early battles in war
    • Russia badly wanted Ottoman land
    • Ottomans owe money to Br and Fr
    • Br and Fr corporations have control over major Ottoman resources
    • Avoid imminent disintegration of the Empire
  • 14. Dissolution of Ottoman Empire
    • Germany loses and the Ottoman Empire is dissolved and partitioned among the Allied Powers
      • The Holy Land is occupied by Britain and France
  • 15.  
  • 16. The Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Divides the Holy Land
    • The Sykes-Picot agreement is a secret understanding concluded in May 1916, during World War I, between Great Britain and France, with the assent of Russia, for the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire.“